rss_2.0Music FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Music Feed aspects in film music<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>History has documented the human species’ struggles to understand beauty and communities’ efforts to grow through education. Figures of universal culture, such as Plato, Aristotle, G. W. F. von Leibniz, A. G. Baumgarten, I. Kant, G. W. F. Hegel, etc. tackled matters of aesthetics with great care. In the postmodernist period art, one of the four pillars of a peoples’ culture, together with language, history and religion, goes through a particular phase about which we cannot unequivocally say that is evolutionary. Under the onslaught of common people’s entertainment culture, contemporary art has a hard time maintaining its initial mission, that of elevating man’s soul and generating aesthetic projections of reality on a cognitive plane. The overwhelming significance that art and natural beauty carry in the intellectual life, beginning with the 18<sup>th</sup> century, is challenged by kitsch, this scourge, which came to prominence within society from the time when bourgeois civilization reached its peak, towards the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Following a short presentation of various kitsch forms, associations and typologies in music, history, architecture, sculpture, decorative art and interior design, choreography, media, etc., we discuss kitsch aspects in film music, emphasising unjustified, incongruous and unempathetic associations between music and the rest of the filmic units. At the same time, we also present possible solutions for avoiding association errors. The examples are structured in the following subchapters: stylistic incongruities between filmic units vs. characteristics of the epoch augmented by music; using mainly dissonant or atonal sonorities in movies; exploring different cultures: ethnic music between deformation and authenticity; national and international in Romanian movies; representative songs - the more or less commercial exogenous motivation of film music; regarding the quantity of musical events in movies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Improvised musical performance as conversational language in jazz<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Musical interpretation, in the form of the act of spontaneous composition, defined jazz throughout its stylistic evolution. Unlike other serious music, jazz has crystallised mainly due to the creative act of musical interpretation and less to the process of written musical construction. Within this cerebral musical genre, the act of performing took over as the fundamental role in the artistic communication between jazz musicians and audience but it especially took the form of an interrelation in the collective musical interpretation. The act of musical improvisation, in terms of jazz, is controlled by certain stylistic parameters, associated with form, phrasing and timbre, constantly relating to the harmonic, rhythmic and melodic planes. The standardisation of these parameters transformed jazz into a conversational musical language, which allows constant and organised communication between musicians through the phenomenon of <italic>interplay</italic> (the interaction of performers during the collective interpretive act). The principles of <italic>interplay</italic> are also integrated in the solo interpretation, especially in the case of pianists, who always improvise referring to the context and the relationship created between the accompaniment and the melodic plane. At the same time, just like verbal communication, mastering the jazz language involves reaching the level of free speech, with a spontaneous and contextual expression. This freedom of artistic expression involves the assimilation of the jazz language, creating a personal vocabulary and its use as a means of constructing authentic (spontaneously created) and eloquent musical discourses. Jazz language cannot be assimilated only through individual study, as is possible in the serious music of European tradition. The study and improvement of jazz musicians constantly depends on artistic socialisation and musical conversation. Jazz is a musical genre in continuous transformation, due to the fact that it is definitely more of an act of interpretation than of a compositional one. Jazz imposed musical interpretation as having the same contribution of creation with the compositional act, in terms of stylistic definition and crystallisation of an elaborated musical current or genre.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00New information in Romanian archives regarding the life and activity of musician Iosif Ivanovici<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Iosif Ivanovici was - surprisingly today - the most well-known Romanian composer from the late 19<sup>th</sup> century and the early 20<sup>th</sup> century on the international music scene. He was also an important exponent of Military music in our country. Information regarding the life and works of Iosif Ivanovici can be uncertain even today because of the difficulty in accessing documents from the military archives or the indifference with which this prolific musician was treated by the Romanian musicologists and performers in the last century. Another important factor that leads to the disregard of his work was the communist censorship of any expressions and investigations into the cultural works, which involved members of the Royal Family of Romania or were dedicated to them. An important part of Ivanovici’s compositions fall into this category. His representative composition, <italic>The Waves of the Danuve</italic> waltz, is even today popular all over the world, being part of soundtracks of tens of movies or being picked up and adapted by hundreds of musicians on the entire planet. This fact proves to us that Iosif Ivanovici is more famous and loved outside of Romania. Because of the access that we have today to multiple documentary sources, I have found hundreds of songs composed by the musician. With the help of these, we can understand not only his musical creativity, but also the subtle, joyful world of the era in which he lived, the era of the development of the modern Romanian state. During my research in various national archives, I have found clear data that proves the true value of the musician. These bring us welcome additions to our knowledge of the life and works of Iosif Ivanovici, <italic>The king of Romanian Waltz.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Piano Concerto and Jazz Music in the Second Half of the 20 Century. New Approaches to the Stylistic Fusion Concept<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the early years of the twentieth century, jazz and academic music each followed a distinct path, each exhibiting its own stylistic evolution. Most jazz musicians did not have any formal musical education and those in the academic milieu were, in their turn, neither jazz performers nor jazz composers. With the evolution of the jazz genre and its penetration in the field of the <italic>concerto</italic>, jazz becomes a credible music and starts enjoying a well-defined and generally accepted value rank in its own right, to the point where classic music performers and composers become open to experimenting fusion with jazz. Piano concertos were initially timid in approaching such fusion and consisted of taking over and stylising some jazz-specific components and integrating them into their own piano concerto language. In the second half of the twentieth century, piano concertos capitalising on this stylistic mix grow more and more natural and elaborate, turning into a field for expression of the most diverse jazz / academic music fusion. The fundamental driver that prompted the growth in value of the piano concertos that were approaching the jazz-classic music fusion proved to be the gradual familiarisation of classical music composers with the two stylistic directions through their experience as performers or through their academic music education. This article provides a brief overview of the pluralistic approach of the <italic>piano concerto</italic> genre at the intersection between jazz and academic music creation in the second half of the twentieth century and in the early twenty-first century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Sacred Music in Igor Stravinsky’s work.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Researching the music of the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, devoutness is not the first attribute that I have offered it. He has remained in collective memory rather as a music revolutionary, not at all a pious spirit, bent towards divinity. The modernism of his works, the tendencies that he was the first to impose but especially the scandal that chaperoned him ever since the 1913 premiere of the ballet <italic>The Rite of Spring</italic>, all these have imposed him as a “rebel” of music in the early 20<sup>th</sup> century. The composer nevertheless claimed that his music was not modern but traditional. The order and discipline which constituted the pillars of his compositions go hand in hand with his claim, the return to tradition and his love for the ancient leading audiences towards the discovery of his mystical, religious side. A far too little explored direction in that period laden with marked social and cultural events was the composition of religious music. Too few of Stravinsky’s opera were inspired from sources of this nature – this is exactly why the discovery of and finding their meanings is important. One of the representative opera of this compositional direction is represented by <italic>Symphony of Psalms</italic>, considered to be a masterpiece placed in Stravinsky’s neoclassical compositional period. The work wanted to be a return to Christian values through a musical language adapted to the times, the music being led in the spirit of the Gregorian chant, simply, to which a text in the Latin language was added. The lines of the psalms chosen in order to be capitalised on underline his predilection for the complexity of religious feelings, departing from humble imploration to glorification. Thus, although this work firstly reflects a personal religious experience, at the same time it suggests the unbounded expression of constancy in faith of a community, which seems to participate in a collective prayer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Elements of language in the kalophonic heirmoi of Macarie the Hieromonk and Visarion the Confessor<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The tradition of kalophonic eirmoi has at least two brand representatives in the Romanian Principalities. First of all, Macarie the Hieromonk, but also one of his disciples, Visarion the Confessor. Both lived or worked in the great lavra of the Neamț Monastery, one of the most important spiritual and cultural centers known to the pan-Orthodox world. The intrigue that gives rise to this material is the fact that these kalophonic eirmoi are not only exegeseis or adaptations in Romanian, but also enrichments, melodic processing that reveals individual or common stylistic features, elements of musical language, characteristics of Neamț Monastery tradition and more. The present study therefore intends to identify some of these stylistic elements and compositional techniques of the two composers who deeply marked the Romanian psaltic tradition, in the compositional genre of kalophony, using as study material some kalophonic eirmoi belonging to the plagal of the fourth mode.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Manuscript 105 from the “Dumitru Stăniloae” Ecumenical Library of the Metropolitan Church of Moldova and Bucovina in Iasi - an exemplary document of adapting chants to Romanian in Moldova<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ms 105 from the “Dumitru Stăniloae” Ecumenical Library is an extensive Chrysantean Anthologhion, consisting of 236 leaves, written in Romanian with Cyrillic characters by copyist Hariton Vasiliu from Horaita Monastery (Neamt County), between 1857-1879. The chant content is specific to the musical collection this codex belongs to, namely the service of Vespers, Matins, and the Divine Liturgy, freely organized in the manuscript; for this reason, the typical ritual order could not be observed. The musical sources of Ms. 105 are exclusively repertoire collections in the Romanian language, mainly the psaltic prints circulated during that period (about 50% of the total). Their composers are initiators of the implementation of the Chrysantine reform in the Romanian Principalities: Macarie the Hieromonk, Anton Pann, Nectarie Frimu, Dimitrie Suceveanu – they were all important personalities who, through their works, contributed significantly to the replacement of church chanting in Greek with chanting in the “mother tongue” (i.e. Romanian). The other set of chants in Ms. 105 (50% of the total) are, however, from local manuscript sources and are mainly composed by unknown musicians.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00A Parallel Model of Musical Research and Creation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Stages of both processes – research and creation – are depicted and proposed as tools for understanding the uniqueness of the musical triad: musicology, interpretation, composition. Although the borderlines between them are fuzzy and the interconnections powerful, we can find sufficient reasons to compare these different ways to obtain knowledge and to generate results in the field of music. The proposition of a single model for all three areas takes into account the following stages: information, analysis, design, processing (combining intuition with rational procedures), adaptation, finalization. Similarities between the processes of musical research and musical creation are expressed and emphasized with examples, maps and figures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00History of Music – A Further Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This essay emerged from an article in the press this year, regarding the ‘infamous’ decision of Oxford University to ‘give up teaching classical music in the name of political correctness’! My first thought was to take this journalistic excess seriously. However, knowing the prestige of this famous university, I wanted to know the real facts that caused this piece of news… and I soon found out the true data. Firstly: It is not – it cannot be! – about the elimination of classical music from the current academic and artistic activity. It is about the globalisation of musicologists’ interest and efforts toward the contemporary musical phenomenon. Secondly: The project called ‘Towards a Global History of Music’ was indeed initiated by the University of Oxford, but it was adopted and carried out by five other European universities, along with several internationally renowned musicologists outside the academic sphere. Thirdly: The project took place between 2013-2017, and in the years that followed, the main coordinator, Professor Reinhard Strohm, edited and published three volumes of studies on music from all over the world, in the past and nowadays, signed by researchers of the most diverse ages and backgrounds. Fourthly: They admit that the idea about a global musical history is not new - it goes back to more than two centuries ago, to the time of the Enlightenment of the 18<sup>th</sup> century. Fifth: What the historians, musicologists, ethnomusicologists, sociologists in question firmly and constructively assert is the correlation of the data provided by the observations and findings on the musical phenomenon of humanity. They thus insist on overcoming Eurocentric conceptions, in other words, approaching the musical phenomenon from anywhere in the world, without automatically relating it to models or units of measurement exclusively generated by European values or history. Moreover, a comparison between various musical phenomena in the world can help to explain and understand some realities, circumstances and, consequently, the elimination of some prejudices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00The relevance of context in musicological interpretation. Hermeneutical applications on certain Romanian writings and works<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We have been perceiving ever more acutely for the past two decades a major change in the vision and musicological style in the Romanian language: language analysis and historiographic research have slid onto a secondary plane, while the commentary of the work, of its interpretation and the characterisation of the style, determined by the social, political, biographical, artistic factors, by the means of expression of the time focus researchers’ interest increasingly. The history of contemporary musicology recognises the moment of change of the thinking paradigm in the 1980s writings belonging to Joseph Kerman: the article <italic>How we got into Analysis, and How to Get Out</italic> and the volume <italic>Contemplating Music</italic>. The author criticises the formalism and positivism which define musicology, identified with musical analysis, reveals its ideological nature, as the relation between analysis and organicity is the leading ideology. The American musicologist pleads for a more cultural form of musical criticism, supported by the exposure of the context and of the sources of the work objectified. According to Kerman, musicology had become more discoursively-critical and less positivist (so-called scientific), being more preoccupated with interpretation than with information on the writing details and historical data; it had reconquered its interdisciplinary valences and envelopped all musical genres. Analysing the effects of this direction on the Romanian musicological discourse, we do two case studies: 1. the recent collective work <italic>Noi istorii ale muzicii românești</italic> [New histories of Romanian types of music], coordinated by Valentina Sandu-Dediu and Nicolae Gheorghiță in the direction of emphasising and/or cancelling the effects of (nationalistic, socialist-realist) ideology on the value judgement of the anthologised musical and creative phenomena; 2. the musical comedy <italic>Amorul doctor</italic> [Dr. Love] by Pascal Bentoiu, regarded from the perspective of the relation between the artistic value and the cultural trajectory broken by the obscurity of Romanian society in the first half of the 1960 decade.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Schubert’s “Tenth”: an Interpretation Between Construction and Restitution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Franz Schubert’s creation the fragment takes on various forms of manifestation, ranging from the fragmentary reception of an already constituted piece to the fragmentary notation, in the form of a sketch, of a work that has not yet been completed. A special place belongs to the <italic>Tenth Symphony</italic> in D major, D 936A, by Schubert, left unfinished; we received it as a sketch, in a convolute, together with two other unfinished symphonies in the same key: D 615 and D 708A. The present study aims to expose three artistic interpretations of these sketches, materialized in completed musical works, with a distinct approach. The intention of the British composer and conductor Brian Newbould was to finish the symphony in the way that Schubert himself would have done, anchoring the musical ideas from the sketches in the composer’s style. Peter Gülke approached the sketches through the eyes of the researcher and the analyst, with the intention of obtaining their most accurate and authentic reproduction, emphasizing the materialization of some of Schubert’s possible intentions. Finally, Luciano Berio manages in <italic>Rendering</italic> to musically render the sketches <italic>per se</italic>, imagining a musical fresco where the concrete musical ideas, written by Schubert, are deliberately mixed with the provisional character of the manuscript.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Ștefan Angi – the encyclopaedic musicologist<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On 2 October 2021 we celebrate one year since the distinguished Hungarian aesthetician, philosopher, musicologist and professor Ștefan Angi from Cluj-Napoca passed away, an opportunity to meditate on this encyclopaedic researcher’s outstanding scientific work. If we go through the studies published in specialised journals (<italic>Lucrări de muzicologie</italic> [<italic>Musicology Papers</italic>], <italic>Muzica</italic> [<italic>Music</italic>] Journal) or books <italic>Muzică și estetică</italic> [Music and aesthetics] (1975), <italic>Muzicalitatea esteticului</italic> [The musicality of aesthetics] (2001), <italic>Modele al frumosului musical</italic> [Models of musical beauty] (2003), <italic>Prelegeri de estetică muzicală</italic> [Lectures on musical aesthetics] (2004 – two volumes and four tomes), <italic>De la valoare la semnificație</italic> [From value to meaning] (2005), <italic>Fotografii la minut din atelierele compozitorilor clujeni</italic> [<italic>Instant photographs from composers’ workshops in Cluj-Napoca</italic>] (2008), <italic>Site de in. Scrieri despre muzică</italic> [Flax sieves. Writings on music] (2013), <italic>Cornel Țăranu - Mărturisiri mozaicate. Studii și eseuri</italic> [<italic>Cornel Țăranu - Mosaic confessions. Studies and essays</italic>] (2014), <italic>Divertismente. Eseuri</italic> [Trifles. Essays] (2018), we observe that his lordship fundamentally contributed to various fields of music research: aesthetics, stylistics, rhetoric, musicology. Starting from the published confessions of those who knew him (Cristina Șuteu, <italic>Gânduri, Cuvinte, Fapte. Dialog cu Ștefan Angi</italic> [Thoughts, Words, Acts. Dialogue with Ștefan Angi], interview in <italic>Actualitatea Muzicală</italic> [Music news], 2016; Pavel Pușcaș, <italic>Ștefan Angi - Hominaticum Magistri –</italic> portrait in <italic>Muzica</italic> [Music] Journal, 2021), we will attempt to comment on some of the volumes of studies or according to the genre of the monograph, in order to emphasize particular features of the musicological writings of researcher Ștefan Angi.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovative Aspects of the Modern Concerto (extravagant compositional models of the 20 century)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The instrumental concerto remains one of the most appreciated genres – both by the general public and by virtuoso interpreters – all throughout its existence, including the 20<sup>th</sup> century. The century of acute modernity saw a re-evaluation of all the musical forms and genres, resulting in novel challenges, solved in unexpected ways by the great composers of the time. This paper aims to provide a summary of the evolution of the concerto in the music of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, highlighting certain elements of originality, extravagant compositions which go beyond the principles of musical creation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Nikolai Myaskovsky – 140 birth anniversary. Rediscovering the composer in the present times<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On the occasion of the 140<sup>th</sup> anniversary of composer Nikolai Myaskovsky’s birth, in the spring of 2021, in the city of Ekaterinburg there took place the <italic>Myaskovsky Dialogues</italic> festival dedicated entirely to the Russian composer, being one of the few musical events with a musical programme based on his works. Known as the “father” of the Soviet symphony, Nikolai Myaskovsky was one of the pillars of resistance in Russian music culture in the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, managing to maintain a stylistic balance between traditional genres, harmonic language with innovative tendencies, ideas promoted within the new political system and a neutral way of integrating communist ideals musically. Although his contemporaries perceived him with respect and consideration, N. Myaskovsky was discredited after the tensions and political events of 1948, entering a shadow zone during the Cold War, until the fall of the Iron Curtain. Therefore, it was only in the last three decades that he was rediscovered in the music world, due to the interest given to his works by well-known conductors such as E. Svetlanov, V. Gergiev, V. Petrenko, V. Jurowski. In this paper, our aim is to accomplish a historical perspective on N. Myaskovsky’s rediscovery and his approach in concert programs, records, reviews, chronicles, articles, musicological studies, papers and volumes from the 1970s to the present.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00 and “pinning down” the present in essays by Leoš Janáček and Milan Kundera<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>I ask myself the question: can those who compose music be called interpreters? Not of their own work but of the sonorities they imagine while writing. When composers take over (note on staves or record with technical means) sonorities from the environment, which they then use in their works, are they or not interpreters, in the sense of translating what they hear? Should we only mention Vivaldi and Haydn or, closer to us, Messiaen and Stockhausen, composers of all times have used, translated, interpreted the sounds of nature in their works. That is what the Czech Leoš Janáček does also, only that, by registering ambiental sonorities, he has a further goal, unlike the others: pinning down the present time. This idea is revolutionary in music, so it has drawn many researchers’ attention. A privilege of music, interpretation wears in literature the coat of exegesis. A great contemporary thinker, Milan Kundera is the author of the essay <italic>Testaments betrayed</italic>, in which he compares literature with music, having as references, among other writers, Hemingway and Kafka, which he joins with the great composers Stravinsky and Janáček. Fascinated by his fellow citizen’s musical-ontological concept, he dedicates the fifth part of the study to him, entitled <italic>Á la recherche du présent perdu</italic>. The study presents the way in which Janáček pins down the past in an own essay, <italic>Smetanova dcera</italic> (<italic>Smetana’s daughter</italic>), where he uses his renowned <italic>nápěvky mluvy</italic> (<italic>speech melodies</italic>). The result is amazing: through the daughter’s voice, one seems to hear the father, the great Bedřich Smetana’s voice in a fragment of life resurrected after time has passed. Kundera asks questions and formulates answers, interpreting, translating Janáček’s concept. This work does not interpret, but brings to the knowledge of the interested musicians aspects which, although belonging to renowned Czech intellectuals, enrich and embellish the spirituality of the world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Performers and musical texts – a controversial relationship<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study departs from the debates caused by the idea of performers’ faithfulness to composers’ intentions in the context of Western-European type academic music. In the musicological research of the past three decades there appeared significant changes in approaching the relationship between performers and musical texts, which I set out to comment from a performer’s perspective. I wish to outline a few answers to questions posed by the desideratum of faithful interpretation in the performing act of composers’ intentions: <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>▪ are musical texts faithful mirrors of the works conceived by composers? To what extent can performers know composers’ intentions from reading musical texts?</p></list-item> <list-item><p>▪ what is the degree of freedom that performers can assume in interpreting musical texts noted by composers? To what extent are the two requirements of the performing act – respecting composers’ intentions and being creative – compatible?</p></list-item> <list-item><p>▪ what does performers’ creativity consist of and how is it manifested?</p></list-item></list></p> <p>Departing from the premise that the analysis of the relation between composition and research in performing a musical work can supply us with some answers to these questions, I set out to prove that: <list list-type="bullet"> <list-item><p>▪ performers can be creative without encroaching on composers’ copyright;</p></list-item> <list-item><p>▪ the analysis of musical texts opens a wide field for performers, in which their creativity can be manifested by knowing and observing the laws governing the makeup of the performed work.</p></list-item> </list></p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:006. Design – Synthesis Phenomenon: Art, Science and Technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the nineteenth century, the century of electricity and railways, radio and cinema, in the process of vertiginous technical progress, within the industrial civilization, appears a new phenomenon of creative, artistic and scientific activity – design. It gave birth to a “way of industrial thinking”, oriented towards creating useful and functional objects, but at the same time able to delight the eye with their beauty without recurring to ornament and decoration effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:005. Implicit Theories of Intelligence and School Performance. A Systematic Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper was to shed a light upon the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence and school performance through a systematic review approach, which mainly used empirical studies on the connections between these constructs. In the first section of this review, we synthesized the necessary theoretical marks for understanding the concepts mentioned above, we analysed definitions, as well as models of implicit theories of intelligence, referring to the relevance for the educational field. Then, there is also an analysis on empirical studies in the international literature that addresses the central concepts of the paper in an educational context and a systematic review of the relationships between implicit theories of intelligence and school performance. The last section contains the final conclusions, the limits of this systematic review and future research directions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:002. Persistence and the Becoming of the Pictorial Portrait<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The seductive power of the Pictorial Portrait determined that, in the context of certain cultural eras, the portraits were made according to attitudes and expressions that would cover the aspects of philosophical, theological, aesthetic, or political ideals. Once it regains its place in the modern art of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, the Pictorial Portrait becomes an opportunity to explore unlimited expressive and conceptual dimensions. Artists realize that when there is an exceptional talent and it is educated on all intellectual and spiritual levels of the human being, the perspective on art acquires unprecedented dimensions in the history of the arts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:006. Challenges of Covid-19 Pandemics, on-line Teaching within Vocational Higher Education for Hearing-Impaired Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given the occurrence of the Covid-19 pandemics, the art teaching process within the higher education system had to incorporate the on-line experienc, with the help of dedicated software platforms. This paper proposes a solution for making remote teaching more effective for hearing-impaired students, so that they may have access to the oral explanations of the teaching staff, given the circumstances of the lack of linguistic IT support for the Romanian language in the dedicated software for PCs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1