rss_2.0Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medicine Feed enterovirus infections in infants <3 months of age and the importance of medical history<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2022.d-20-00007_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Enteroviral infections in infants &lt;3 months of age are frequent and under-diagnosed even though they can be life-threatening. Properly conducted subjective examination, which is repeatedly neglected, plays a key role in the diagnosis and treatment of these infections.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2022.d-20-00007_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Analyses included children &lt;3 months of age with confirmed enterovirus infection, hospitalised in the Department of Paediatrics from January 2019 to February 2020. Infections were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in the cerebrospinal fluid using Neuro9 FTD set and in the stool using PB-03/Neuro; antibodies were determined in one patient.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2022.d-20-00007_s_011"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>This study presents a detailed description of three cases with confirmed enterovirus infection and a positive epidemiological history. The cases involve viral sepsis, myocarditis with arrhythmia and circulatory failure, and meningitis with seizures. In addition, the details of 10 patients hospitalised in the Children’s Clinic with a confirmed enterovirus infection are presented. Based on these cases, a significant influence of family history-taking on the diagnosis and implementation of appropriate treatment was found.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2022.d-20-00007_s_012"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>In most of the analysed cases, family history of viral infection was positive. In patients with the most severe course of the enterovirus infection, accurate epidemiological history is extremely important, and the suspicion of viral infection and securing appropriate materials for testing may significantly speed up the diagnosis in the newborn and help to implement an appropriate treatment.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Immunoglobulins content in colostrum, transitional and mature milk of Bangladeshi mothers: Influence of parity and sociodemographic characteristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2032.d-20-00001_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The study investigated the concentration of IgA, IgM and IgG in colostrum, transitional and mature milk and the effect of parity, age, BMI and family income on secreted immunoglobulin contents of human milk.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2032.d-20-00001_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Sequential samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 38 women. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay was used to analyse the immunoglobulin concentrations.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2032.d-20-00001_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The study revealed that IgA was the dominant immunoglobulin and mean concentration in colostrum, transitional and mature milk was 5.92 ± 1.50 g/L, 3.85 ± 0.64 g/L and 3.72 ± 0.68 g/L, respectively. Both IgA and IgM levels of colostrum decreased significantly in both transitional (<italic>P</italic> = 0.000) and mature milk (<italic>P</italic> = 0.000), while the concentration of IgG rises significantly in them (colostrum <italic>vs</italic>. transitional milk, <italic>P</italic> = 0.000; and colostrum <italic>vs</italic>. mature milk <italic>P</italic> = 0.011). While maternal age, BMI and family income had no significant influence on the immunoglobulin levels at different stages of lactation, parity showed significant influence on IgG (<italic>P</italic> = 0.03) and IgM (<italic>P</italic> = 0.05) levels of transitional milk and IgA level of colostrum (<italic>P</italic> = 0.05).</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2032.d-20-00001_s_010"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The findings suggest that immunoglobulin composition in breast milk is strongly associated with stage of lactation and is likely to be more susceptible to parity than BMI and socioeconomic characteristics.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Dress syndrome in 7-year-old male child – case report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity reaction, which, due to the asymptomatic beginning and non-specific nature of symptoms, is hard to identify. This report presents the case of a 7-year-old boy, who was referred to the Department of Paediatric Surgery with fever up to 38°C, vomiting and diarrhoea, accompanied by erythematous, maculopapular rash. Based on laboratory and radiology tests and specific diagnostic criteria, DRESS syndrome was diagnosed. The presented case report emphasises the need to carry out differential diagnosis, including the potentially life-threatening DRESS syndrome, with common symptoms in children such as fever and rash.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial effect in trait inferencing about a child with craniofacial microsomia by medical students and child’s relatives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2025.d-20-00010_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The study uses the <italic>Overgeneralisation Effect Scale</italic> (<italic>OES</italic>) developed by K. Milska and A. Mański to estimate the overgeneralisation effect in trait inferencing about children with craniofacial anomalies, which involved university students (future health professionals) and relatives of children with craniofacial microsomia (<italic>CFM</italic>). The practical purpose of the study was to provide evidence supporting the benefits of using the <italic>OES</italic> to improve the outcomes of child rehabilitation.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2025.d-20-00010_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The <italic>OES</italic> (Polish: <italic>Skala Efektu Nadgeneralizacji</italic>) was administered to a group of 843 university students of medical/caring professions and 26 parents/guardians of children with craniofacial anomalies. The responses of 757 subjects were included in the analysis.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2025.d-20-00010_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Different trait profiles of a child with <italic>CFM</italic> were obtained. The carer appraisal of their child tended to be very positive across all items. The student appraisals were definitely less positive and more varied. A range of factors which may affect trait impression leading to overgeneralisation in trait inferencing about a child with <italic>CFM</italic> have been identified, including familiarity with the child, craniofacial anomaly suggestive of more severe disability, emotional expression and the relationship to the child.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2025.d-20-00010_s_009"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The behaviour of the carers and professionals towards children with <italic>CFM</italic> undergoing diagnostic assessment, treatment and rehabilitation is determined by how each of them perceives the child. The presence of anomaly increases the likelihood of overgeneralisation effect both in carers and professionals. The <italic>OES</italic> may be one of the instruments to detect/measure these differences to improve the outcomes of child rehabilitation</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Amniotic fluid lactate level as a diagnostic tool for prolonged labour<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Prolonged labour can lead to postpartum complications and adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. Measurable parameters can help in the active management of labour, timely diagnosis of dystocia and in the choice of the method of delivery. Progressive uterine contractions are necessary to complete labour successfully. Myometrial fatigue during prolonged labour causes a change from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism, resulting in an accumulation of intramuscular lactic acid and probably a subsequent increase in amniotic fluid lactate concentration. High amniotic fluid lactate level has been associated with ineffective uterine contractions leading to labour arrest. A considerable number of studies conducted so far indicate that the level of lactate in amniotic fluid may be a new non-invasive diagnostic tool for early prediction of prolonged labour and the need for immediate obstetric intervention. Low amniotic fluid lactate level may facilitate a decision to continue vaginal labour by oxytocin augmentation. A high level of amniotic fluid lactate is associated with surgical obstetric procedures. Measuring amniotic fluid lactate level might simplify the patient’s allocation to a group, which will benefit from the administration of oxytocin and to a group that will not benefit from further prolongation of labour. This study aimed to briefly review current knowledge on amniotic fluid lactate concentrations measured using standard biochemical methods during the first stage of labour following normal pregnancy, as a possible diagnostic tool for prolonged labour. For this purpose, PubMed, EMBASE, Medline (1990 to July 2020) trials register and reference lists of relevant articles were searched.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of the addition of a new airway clearance device to chest physiotherapy in children with cystic fibrosis pulmonary exacerbations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2013.d-20-00008_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Chest physiotherapy plays a crucial role in managing cystic fibrosis, especially during pulmonary exacerbations. This study evaluated the effects of adding a new airway clearance device to chest physiotherapy in subjects with cystic fibrosis hospitalised due to pulmonary exacerbations.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2013.d-20-00008_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>This prospective open-label study was carried out at the Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis Centre in Poland between October 2017 and August 2018. Cystic fibrosis patients aged 10 to 18 years who were admitted to the hospital and required intravenous antibiotic therapy due to pulmonary exacerbations were consecutively allocated (1:1) to either chest physiotherapy alone or chest physiotherapy with a new airway clearance device (Simeox; PhysioAssist). Patients performed spirometry and multiple-breath nitrogen washout for lung clearance index assessment upon admission and prior to discharge.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2013.d-20-00008_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Forty-eight cystic fibrosis patients were included (24 in each group). Spirometry parameters in both groups improved significantly after intravenous antibiotic therapy. A significant improvement in the maximum expiratory flow at 25% of forced vital capacity was observed only in the group with a new airway clearance device (p &lt; 0.01 vs. baseline). Trends towards a lower lung clearance index ratio were similar in both groups. No adverse events were observed in either group.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jmotherandchild.20202403.2013.d-20-00008_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Spirometry parameters increased significantly in cystic fibrosis patients treated for pulmonary exacerbations with intravenous antibiotic therapy and intensive chest physiotherapy. The new airway clearance device was safe and well tolerated when added to chest physiotherapy and may be another option for the treatment of pulmonary exacerbation in cystic fibrosis.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The haploinsufficiency syndrome associated with de novo nonsense variant (P.GLN1981*)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Mediator complex subunit 13-like is a part of the large Mediator complex. Recently, a large number of patients were diagnosed with mutations in this gene, which makes it one of the most frequent causes of syndromic intellectual disability. In this work, we report a patient with a novel <italic>de novo</italic> likely pathogenic variant c.5941C&gt;T, p.(Gln1981*) in the <italic>MED13L</italic> gene with severe intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. Uncommon findings like lack of speech, strabismus and self-destructive behaviour present in our patient allowed us to further define the phenotypic spectrum of mental retardation and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects syndrome.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C as biomarkers of acute kidney injury in horses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in horses is difficult at the subclinical stage, due to nonspecific clinical signs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected serum and urinary biomarkers in healthy horses, horses at risk of AKI, and those with clinical AKI.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Thirty healthy horses, 30 horses at risk of AKI and 11 horses with clinical AKI and azotaemia were included in the study. Serum and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C were measured using commercially available enzyme immunoassay tests.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The median and (in parentheses) first and third quartile concentrations of selected biomarkers in healthy horses, horses at risk of AKI and horses with AKI were respectively as follows: serum cystatin C – 0.25 (0.19–0.37), 0.23 (0.15–0.37) and 0.61 (0.37–1.13) mg/L; serum NGAL – 50.5 (38.8–58.8), 51.1 (40.4–66.9) and 98.1 (59.4–128.2) ng/mL; urinary NGAL – 20.7 (17.9–24.5), 32.3 (32.7–55.8) and 36.6 (26.8–89.9) ng/mL; and urinary cystatin C – 0.1 (0.07–0.13), 0.13 (0.1–0.2) and 0.34 (0.22–0.37) mg/L. There were significant differences in the concentration of all biomarkers between the healthy and AKI-affected horses.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Horses with AKI all had biomarker concentrations higher than the healthy horses. None of the biomarkers made azotaemia recognisable in all affected horses. The obtained results indicate the need to create a serum and urinary biomarker panel to detect AKI.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the usefulness of image reconstruction in the oblique and double-oblique sagittal planes for magnetic resonance imaging of the canine cranial cruciate ligament<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The aim of the study was to determine the quality and significance of the magnetic resonance image of the canine knee after reconstruction in the oblique and double-oblique sagittal plane. This reconstruction and 3D images are rarely used in common protocols due to the longer study time they require. The study aimed to demonstrate significance for such diagnostic images in specific sequences in order to stimulate consideration of their more frequent use in diagnosis of diseases of the cruciate ligament in dogs.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>All tests were carried out using an open magnetic resonance tomography scanner with magnetic field induction. The images obtained from the 30 canine patients examined were reconstructed and evaluated by independent appraisers. Statistical analysis was performed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The study showed that MRI of the stifle joint using 3D sequences provides higher quality images of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs. The results of the statistical analysis showed that multi-faceted reconstruction allows the secondary determination of the oblique imaging planes and obtains images of adequate quality.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>It can be concluded that multi-faceted reconstruction facilitates the secondary determination of oblique imaging planes. This reconstruction additionally makes images available of better quality compared to the 2D sequence.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Canine leishmaniasis prevalence in the Slovenian dog population<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Leishmaniasis is a life-threatening zoonosis of which dogs are the major reservoir and sandflies are the vectors. Until now, the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in the Slovenian dog population was unknown.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Epidemiological data, eye swabs and blood samples were taken from 465 dogs born in Slovenia and older than one year. Commercial ELISA kits and real-time PCR were used. For ELISA-positive samples, an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was performed. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise the samples. The one-sample nonparametric chi-square test was used to test whether the categories of a variable were equally distributed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>A 59.9% proportion of the recruited dogs had travelled to endemic regions and 62.1% of them had not been protected by insect repellents. Skin symptoms that might be CanL-related were described in 109 of the dogs’ histories (23.4%), inappetence and/or weight loss in 25 (5.4%), and anaemia, intermittent fever, and/or lymphadenopathy in 19 (4.1%). At the time of recruitment, all dogs were asymptomatic. All samples were PCR negative, nine (1.9%) were ELISA positive, but none were IFAT positive. Five of the nine ELISA-positive dogs were non-travellers.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>We conclude that the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis of 1.9 % in the autochthonous Slovenian dog population may pose a risk of endemic spread of the disease.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the morphometry of heads of normal sperm and sperm with the Dag defect in the semen of Duroc boars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The Dag defect is one of the primary morphological defects in sperm correlating with reduced fertility. This defect is found in the spermatozoa of many livestock species. The aim of the study was to assess the morphometry of the heads of normal sperm and sperm with the Dag defect in the semen of Duroc breeding boars.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Sperm morphology was examined in ten ejaculates each from 12 Duroc boars. In total, 3,600 morphologically normal sperm and 838 sperm with the Dag defect were evaluated. The area, perimeter, length and width of the sperm head were measured and these basic morphometric parameters were used to calculate four additional shape indices characterising the sperm head, i.e. ellipticity, elongation, roughness and regularity.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Sperm with this defect had markedly smaller heads, 0.32 μm shorter and 0.19 μm narrower than the heads of sperm with normal morphological structure. The heads of sperm with the Dag defect also had a 1.1μm smaller perimeter and a 2.5 μm<sup>2</sup> smaller surface area than the heads of morphologically normal sperm.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The Dag defect is found in boar sperm irrespective of the age of the individual. It affects the morphology of the sperm head.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility patterns of dermatophytes isolated from companion animals with clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Dermatophytosis is a common skin disease in cats and dogs caused by <italic>Microsporum</italic> and <italic>Trichophyton</italic> fungi. Species identification and knowledge of their antifungal susceptibility are therapeutically and epidemiologically important. This study assessed the prevalence of feline and canine dermatophytosis in Iran, identified the aetiological agents molecularly and tested their antifungal susceptibility.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 308 companion animals (134 dogs and 174 cats) with skin lesions were examined from March 2015 to March 2018. Hair and skin samples were examined by microscopy with 20% KOH and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Fungal isolates were confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) r-DNA region. The antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes was tested by broth microdilution assay using standard drugs.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Dermatophytes were found in 130 (42.2%) samples, 62 of them feline and 68 canine. Based on sequencing of all strains, <italic>M. canis</italic> (78.5%, P&lt;0.05), <italic>M. gypseum</italic> (10.7%), and <italic>T. mentagrophytes</italic> (10.7%) were the dermatophytes isolated. The non-dermatophyte species <italic>Nannizziopsis vriesii</italic> was also isolated from two feline dermatomycosis cases. Dogs and cats younger than one year (61.5%) showed a statistically significantly higher prevalence of infection (P&lt;0.05). Caspofungin produced the lowest geometric mean MIC at 0.0018 μg/mL, followed by ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin, clotrimazole and fluconazole, in a 0.038–1.53 μg/mL range.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This is the first molecular study to identify the causes of pet dermatophytosis in north-western Iran. ITS-PCR was shown to be a useful and reliable method for the identification of closely related species of dermatophytes in clinical and epidemiological settings. The lowest MIC of caspofungin indicated that this drug was the most potent <italic>in vitro</italic>.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of chicken immune responses after inoculation with H5 avian influenza virus-like particles produced by insect cells or pupae<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Novel clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) outbreaks have occurred since early 2015 in Taiwan and impacted the island economically, like they have many countries. This research investigates the immunogenicity of two HPAIV-like particles to assess their promise as vaccine candidates.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The haemagglutinin (HA) gene derived from clade H5 HPAIV and matrix protein 1 (M1) gene were cloned into the pFastBac Dual baculovirus vector. The resulting recombinant viruses were expressed in <italic>Spodoptera frugiperda</italic> moth (Sf)21 cells and silkworm pupae to generate Sf21 virus-like particles (VLP) and silkworm pupa VLP. Two-week-old specific pathogen–free chickens were immunised and their humoral and cellular immune responses were analysed.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The silkworm pupa VLP had higher haemagglutination competence. Both VLP types elicited haemagglutination inhibition antibodies, anti-HA antibodies, splenic interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression, and CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> ratio elevation. However, chickens receiving silkworm pupa VLP exhibited a significantly higher anti-HA antibody titre in ELISA after vaccination. Although Sf21 VLP recipients expressed more IFN-γ and IL-4, the increase in IFN-γ did not significantly raise the CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> ratio and the increase in IL-4 did not promote anti-HA antibodies.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Both VLP systems possess desirable immunogenicity <italic>in vivo</italic>. However, in respect of immunogenic efficacy and the production cost, pupa VLP may be the superior vaccine candidate against clade H5 HPAIV infection.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of spp. isolated from giant panda oral cavities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0030_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of antimicrobial-resistant <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic> and <italic>E. faecium</italic> isolated from the oral cavities of captive giant pandas in China.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0030_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The virulence-associated determinant and antimicrobial resistance genes were detected and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed on 54 strains of each bacterium.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0030_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>All isolates showed 100% multidrug resistance. <italic>E. faecalis</italic> isolates showed a higher percentage of strains resistant to gentamicin (48.1%), vancomycin (55.6%), linezolid (100%), and streptomycin (33.3%) than <italic>E. faecium</italic> isolates. The resistance genes of <italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. were present to highly varying extents according to antibiotic type, their presence breaking down for <italic>E. faecalis</italic> and <italic>E. faecium</italic> respectively as <italic>aac(6')/aph(2″)</italic> 5.56% and 5.56%; <italic>aph(3')-</italic>Ⅲ 0% and 14.81%; <italic>ant(<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_jvetres-2021-0030_ref_006">6</xref>)-I</italic> 0% and 3.7%; <italic>ant(4')-Ia</italic> 0% and 64.81%; <italic>tetL</italic> 20.37% and 100%; <italic>vanA</italic> 92.59% and 46.3%; <italic>vanB</italic> 0% and 0%; <italic>cfr</italic> 0% and 90.74%; <italic>optrA</italic> 96.3% and 3.7%; <italic>blaZ</italic> 0% and 1.85%; <italic>blaTEM</italic> 0% and 0%; <italic>tetA</italic> 20.37% and 0%; <italic>tetC</italic> 24.07% and 100%; <italic>tetM</italic> 0% and 0%; <italic>ermA</italic> 12.96% and 100%; <italic>ermB</italic> 5.56% and 3.7%; and <italic>ermC</italic> 0% and 1.85%.Virulence-associated determinants were detected in this research, which typically include <italic>efaA</italic>, <italic>gelE</italic>, <italic>asa1</italic>, <italic>ace</italic>, <italic>cylA</italic>, <italic>esp</italic> and <italic>hyl</italic>; however, the latter three were not detected. High proportions of the isolates carried the <italic>efaA</italic>, <italic>gelE</italic>, <italic>asa1</italic>, and <italic>ace</italic> genes. Respectively for <italic>E. faecalis</italic> and <italic>E. faecium</italic> their detection was <italic>efaA</italic> 98.1% and 85.2%; <italic>gelE</italic> 98.1% and 87%; <italic>asa1</italic> 92.6% and 87%; and <italic>ace</italic> 87% and 85.2%.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0030_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>This is the first study on the potential disease risk and antimicrobial-resistant characteristics of <italic>E. faecalis</italic> and <italic>E. faecium</italic> isolates in giant panda oral cavities. The results of this study show that the antimicrobial resistance rate of <italic>Enterococcus</italic> spp. isolated from the oral cavity of captive pandas is very high, and thus needs to be monitored.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental contamination of free-range hen with dioxin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a contaminated environment into the food chain is a serious consumer safety problem. As part of the Polish National Surveillance Program of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in food of animal origin, a concentration of PCDD/Fs of 4.61 ± 0.75 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat was determined in a sample of free-range eggs, which exceeded the permitted limit of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g. The aim of the study was to investigate the source of the egg contamination and the risk for the eggs’ consumers.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title> <p>Eggs, muscles, feed and soil from the place where backyard waste burning had been carried out in the past and ash from a household stove tipped onto the paddock were analysed using the isotope dilution technique with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The concentration in ash was low at 0.20 pg WHO-TEQ/g and the congener profile did not indicate the source of contamination. The dioxin content in soil from the backyard waste-burning site was 2.53 pg WHO-TEQ/g dry matter (d.m.) and the soil’s profile of PCDD/F congeners matched the profile of the contaminated eggs.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>By reason of the congener profile similarity, the investigation concluded, that the cause of the contamination was the backyard waste-burning site soil which the animals had access to. Frequent consumption of contaminated eggs from the analysed farm could pose a health risk due to chronic exposure, especially for vulnerable consumers.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the prevalence of in Southern Xinjiang, China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_005"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>It is very important to monitor the infection of <italic>Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae</italic> as a potential threat to the sheep industry. Southern Xinjiang is a major sheep breeding base in China, however, there is no relevant information concerning the infection of the region’s ovine stock with this bacteria at present. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_006"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 824 nasal swabs and the lungs of six sheep that died of pneumonia were collected in four regions between 2018 and 2020. Primers specific for <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> and universal ones for the genus were used for PCR. Sequencing was undertaken of 159 universal primer-positive samples (153 nasal swabs and 6 lungs) and of 84 specific primer-positive samples (80 nasal swabs, 20 per region; and 4 lungs, 1 per region). The lungs were also sampled for the isolation of <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic>. A phylogenetic tree based on partial sequences of the <italic>Mycoplasma</italic> 16S rRNA gene was built.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_007"><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The overall nasal swab positive rate for <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> was 40.78%; the rate of animals older than 12 months was significantly different to those of younger sheep (&lt; 3 months, 53.39%; 3 – 12 months, 46.01%; &gt;12 months, 31.76%). Four strains of <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> were isolated from six lungs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated their origin outside southern Xinjiang. Two other species were also detected: <italic>M. arginine</italic> and <italic>M. conjunctivae</italic>.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_008"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Our survey indicated that a high level of <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> asymptomatic colonisation in sheep, especially in lambs, affects southern Xinjiang and also confirmed the existence of <italic>M. conjunctivae</italic> and <italic>M. arginine</italic>. Our results showed that the health of sheep in southern Xinjiang is facing a great threat, and relevant prevention and control measures should be strengthened.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The preventive role of () in immune and oxidative insults in a stress-induced rat model<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0033_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>There is a balance between oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity and immune response. Their roles in physiological and behavioural mechanisms are important for the maintenance of the organism’s internal equilibrium. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of the exogenous alga <italic>Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira platensis)</italic> in a stress-induced rat model, and to describe its possible mechanism of action.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0033_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Thirty-six adult male Sprague Dawley rats were separated into four groups: control (C), stress (S), <italic>S. platensis</italic> (Sp), and <italic>S. platensis</italic> + stress (SpS). The rats in groups Sp and SpS were fed with 1,500 mg/kg b.w./day <italic>Spirulina platensis</italic> for 28 days. All rats were exposed to prolonged light phase conditions (18 h light : 6 h dark) for 14 days. The SpS and S groups were exposed to stress by being kept isolated and in a crowded environment. Blood samples were obtained by puncturing the heart on the 28th day. The effect of stress on serum corticosterone, oxidative stress markers (TOS, TAC, PON1, OSI) and immunological parameters (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-ɣ) were tested. Also, the brain, heart, intestines (duodenum, ileum, and colon), kidney, liver, spleen, and stomach of the rats were weighed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0033_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Serum corticosterone levels were higher in the S group than in the C group, and significantly lower in the SpS group than in the S group. Mean total antioxidant capacity were lower in the S group than in the C group, and <italic>Spirulina</italic> reversed this change. Although not significantly different, IL-2 was lower in the S group than in the C group. However, in the SpS group, IL-2 increased due to <italic>Spirulina platensis</italic> mitigating effects of stress.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0033_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Male rats fed a diet with <italic>Spirulina platensis</italic> could experience significantly milder physiological changes during stress, although stress patterns may be different. Exogenous antioxidant supplements merit further investigation in animals and humans where the endogenous defence mechanism against stress may not be sufficient.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Embryo transfer as an option to improve fertility in repeat breeder dairy cows<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Repeat breeding is a serious reproductive disorder in dairy cattle. The causes of repeat breeding are multifactorial and there are two main mechanisms: failure of fertilisation or early embryo death, mainly due to poor quality of oocytes and an inadequate uterine environment. Many methods have been used to increase the pregnancy rate for repeat breeder cows, such as intrauterine infusion of antibacterial agents or antibiotics, hormonal treatments for oestrus synchronisation and induction of ovulation, and progesterone supplementation or induction of accessory corpus luteum; however, the results were inconsistent between studies. Embryo transfer (ET) has the capability to minimalise the effects of poor oocyte quality and unfavourable uterine environments on early embryo development during the first seven days after ovulation in repeat breeder cows, and several studies showed that ET significantly improved the pregnancy rate in this group of animals. Thus, ET can be considered an option to increase the conception rate in repeat breeder dairy cows.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of oxidative stress parameters in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome before and after surgery<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Canine brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is a conformation-related respiratory disorder of dog breeds having congenitally flattened facial and skull anatomy. The aim of the study was to determine oxidative stress parameters, the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase in BOAS patients before and after surgical treatment and in healthy brachycephalic dogs.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Nine healthy brachycephalic dogs that had not undergone surgery and 39 BOAS patients were included in the study. The BOAS patients were classified as grade 1 (5/34), grade 2 (16/34), and grade 3 (13/34) based on the decrease in the radius of the airway in the larynx. In BOAS patients, oxidative stress parameters were determined before and two weeks after surgery, while in control dogs, blood samples were collected only on inclusion to the study.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>All BOAS patients showed various degrees of improvement in clinical signs after surgery. Significantly lower (P &lt; 0.05) SOD activity was found in grade 2 and 3 BOAS patients than in grade 1 patients. Two weeks after surgery, a significant (P &lt; 0.05) increase in SOD activity in grade 2 and 3 patients was observed.</p> </sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Antioxidant enzyme SOD may play an important role in BOAS and can be used as a biomarker of antioxidant status assessment in BOAS patients.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1