rss_2.0Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medicinehttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/MDhttps://www.sciendo.comMedicine Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Medicine.jpg700700Giant uterine leiomyoma in a pregnant woman – case study and review of literaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.586<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The case of successful pregnancy outcome in a 39-year-old nulligravida with an enormous leiomyoma is presented. At 16th week of gestation patient began to complain of dyspnoea and abdominal pain. Due to rapid growth, high vascularization, worsening pain, respiratory symptoms and limited conditions for foetal development, surgery was taken. Repeat sonography was performed at the 20th week and normal fetal development consistent with a 2nd trimester pregnancy was observed. Singular fibroids 1–5 cm in diameter were visualized and no tumor growth was noted when compared with subsequent ultrasound studies. At the 39th week, the patient was referred to the hospital for preparations towards elective cesarean section due to a breech presentation. During the planned cesarean section, numerous subscapular fibroids were observed which were left without intervention. The patient delivered a live female neonate, in a good condition, weighting 3280 g. There were no complications during the surgery and the postpartum period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The assessment of beauty salon client awareness of risk factors relating to skin and nail fungal infections of the feetyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.559<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Fungal infections of the skin and nails are one of the most common skin diseases in the world. The ever-growing number of fungal infections is caused by genetic factors, lack of prevention and insufficient knowledge about risk factors relating to fungal infections.</p> <p>The aim of the project was to assess the awareness of beauty salon clients to fungal infections of the skin and nails of the feet, with a particular emphasis on the factors contributing to infection.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: The study was conducted among 125 clients of beauty salons.</p> <p>The data was collected via an anonymous questionnaire comprising 30 questions.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The majority of respondents (84% of women and 70% of men) considered the swimming pool as the main risk factor for fungal infection of the feet. The respondents listed specialists to whom they would turn after noticing suspicious skin changes on their feet. These were dermatologists (18% of responding women and 38% of responding men) as well as podologist (35% of responding women and 23% of responding men). However, the majority of respondents (45% of responding men and 33% of responding women) would use an over-the-counter antifungal medicine, easily obtained in a pharmacy, in case of suspected fungal nail infection (onychomycosis), without consulting a physician.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: Most respondents know the risk factors contributing to fungal infections. However, a high percentage of them have low awareness of the actions to be taken when onychomycosis is suspected.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Exposure to lead in the pre- and neonatal periods may result in brain inflammationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.622<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the proinflammatory agents in the human body is lead (Pb), which can enter the blood through the skin, respiratory tract and digestive tract, causing poisoning. Its most significant target is the central nervous system (CNS). Although studies on Pb neurotoxicity have been conducted for many years, the proinflammatory effect of Pb on the brain is rarely reported in contrast to other human tissues and organs. Lead neurotoxicity has been defined as a significant paediatric health problem as the foetal stage is a very susceptible period for Pb exposure at whole blood levels below 10 µg/dL (Pb neurotoxicity threshold in children). However, the mechanisms of the neurotoxic action of Pb in causing brain defects remain unclear. In this review we discuss the role of the blood-brain barrier in the neurotoxicity of Pb, and the role of cytokines as inflammatory mediators (specially interleukin-1 and interleukin-6, nuclear transcription factor κB, cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, transforming growth factor β. We also discuss the influence of pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb on inflammatory reactions in the brain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of PONV incidence in gynaecology patientshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.671<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is the most common side effect of anaesthesia, as reported by patients in the postoperative period. The overall incidence of PONV, according to various authors, is in the 8–92% range. The latest research on the pathophysiology of vomit reflexes has played an important role in changing the perception of PONV and introduction of PONV prevention, which significantly improves patient comfort by reducing the number of complications and shortening the length of the hospital stay.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of PONV in gynaecological patients.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: The study was conducted among 300 women, patients of the Surgical Gynaecology and Gynaecological Oncology Clinic for Adults and Girls at the Independent Public Clinical Hospital No. 2 of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, who underwent surgery due to a variety of gynaeco-logical conditions in the period from May to October 2015. The research tool was the author’s own questionnaire containing 22 closed-ended questions. The questionnaire included demographics as well as an assessment of the state of the women’s health in terms of complications (nausea, vomiting), and substance use (tobacco, alcohol). Patient medical records were also analysed.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The results demonstrated: 1) no relationship between the socio-demographic variables and the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative period; 2) no relationship between PONV and specific medical variables, such as alcohol use, body mass index (BMI), administration of opioids such as fentanyl and fentanyl plus morphine; 3) a relationship between the type of surgery, anaesthesia used, smoking, and the incidence of nausea and vomiting; 4) a high risk of nausea and vomiting in patients after administration of spinal morphine into the subarachnoid space; 5) metabolic diseases, diseases of the lower digestive tract, respiratory conditions, and motion sickness had a negative influence on the incidence of PONV.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: 1. The type and duration of surgery as well as the type of anaesthesia and opioids used affected the incidence of nausea and vomiting in the postoperative period. If possible, every effort should be made to shorten the duration of surgery, perform surgery laparoscopically and administer drugs, which do not affect the incidence of nausea and vomiting. 2. There is a need for organisational changes in hospitals regarding the introduction and compliance with ERAS, in particular, with regard to the withdrawal of food and drink before surgery. 3. The use of chewing gum strongly reduced the incidence of nausea and vomiting. Therefore, it would be important to introduce, as a standard practice, this non-pharmacological prevention method in the postoperative period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Iatrogenic nerve injuries following surgery for paediatric distal humeral epiphyseal fractures – a report of 2 caseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.672<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Two cases of paediatric radial and ulnar nerve injuries occurring at operative treatment of distal humeral epiphyseal fractures. In one case, the nerve laceration was associated with a defect, requiring reconstruction by nerve grafting. In a 2nd case, the nerve was compressed and partially damaged by implanting, followed by entrapment in the scar; release of the nerve from the scar resulted in recovery of its function. The importance of being familiar with the nerves’ course at the distal end of the humerus, as well as proper and prompt reaction to symptoms of nerve dysfunction occurring immediately after the operation was emphasised.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship between social competences and the sense of general mental health and intensity of stress among nurseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.673<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Social competences are indispensable in occupations reliant on interpersonal interactions, such as in medical professions, e.g. nursing, conditioning not only the effective construction of interpersonal relationships, but ever more often emphasizing a positive impact on strengthening coping skills in stressful situations. The object of our study was to assess the connection of social competences with the sense of general mental health and intensity of stress in the group of nurses.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: In the study took part 291 nurses (ages 23–63, mean job seniority 11 years, SD = 10.22). We used the Social Competence Questionnaire (KKS) according to Anna Matczak, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), as adapted by Zygfryd Juczyński and Nina Ogińska-Bulik, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in the adaptation of Zofia Makowska and Dorota Merecz to collect information for the study.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Stress intensity among respondents averaged 16.83 points (SD = 4.47). In the 4 analyzed indicators of the GHQ-28, the mean point score was: somatic symptoms M = 8.45, anxiety and insomnia M = 8.75, functional disorders M = 8.07, depression symptoms M = 2.46. 38.1% of the results of the level of general mental health were in the range 5–6, which is the average level of mental health perceived in the group of nurses.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The level of perceived stress among more than half of the surveyed group of nurses was average (52.6%). The level of social competences is not significantly correlated with the intensity of stress experienced. The level of general mental health of 38.1% of the nurses fell in the range of average. The level of social competences significantly correlates with the general mental health status of the nurse respondents (R = -0.254, p &lt; 0.001).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Multi-faceted function of vitamin K with particular consideration of vitamin K2 – literature reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.477<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Vitamin K, discovered in the 1930s, is a very important compound for the human body, performing many functions. The most well known of them are calcium homeostasis and coagulation. Nowadays it is apparent that many more beneficial multiorgan aspects of vitamin K exist.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to review the properties of vitamin K and to show its potential therapeutic value.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: Medline databases (PubMed) and other scientific sources were searched.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Vitamin K shows a multifaceted effect on the proper functioning of the human body: preventing coronary vessel calcification, maintains normal blood pressure, has neuroprotective effects, reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, slows the process of osteoclastogenesis, and influences the production of bone reabsorption factors. In addition, vitamin K supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by interfering with tumour cells cycle and inducing their apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic activity of menaquinone is not limited to HCC only, but also to other cancers such as glioblastoma multi-forme, breast cancer or bladder cancer, which reveals the importance of vitamin K in oncology. Possibly, introduction of vitamin K to the therapy may improve malignancy treatment outcomes.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: Vitamin K derivatives participate in many metabolic pathways of the human body. Their multifaceted activity may be used both in prevention of many diseases and in their potential treatments. However, further multicentre studies are necessary to understand better possible therapeutic properties of vitamin K derivatives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of parental knowledge of daily skin care of children under three yearshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.561<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: The skin is an organ which plays many important functions. It is e.g. a highly specialized barrier and protects against mechanical trauma and UV radiation. Moreover it participates in the synthesis of vitamin D and also participates in the immune system. The skin of a newborn needs specific treatment due to its functional and anatomical differences. Skin of the baby achieves similarity to adult skin in 3 years old child. Signifficant difference included higher body surface vs. volume ratio which increases the permeability for potentially undesirable substances. Moreover the thinner stratum corneum of the epidermis and neutral pH provides insufficient protection against irritations and microorganisms. Therefore the skin of the newborn requires special care and cosmetics as well as application of skin care methods which should take into account morphological and anatomical dissimilarity.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: The study was conducted on 125 parents, living in the West Pomeranian region, on the basis of the diagnostic survey method, using the author’s questionnaire survey.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The parents have awareness about the composition nursing products and cosmetics. For the respondents, the internet and the doctor were the most important sources of information about child skin care.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among patients at the Laboratory of Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin in the years 1983–2012https://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.670<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Intestinal parasitoses are among the most common parasitic diseases in Poland.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess their prevalence in patients of the Laboratory of the Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology (LDBMP) of the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin (PMU) in the years 1983–2012.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: The analysis concerned the results of parasitological surveys conducted between 1983–2012 in 9760 patients. Parasitological diagnosis was performed by standard faecal examination method (direct swab) and/or perianal swab.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: During the study period, 486 cases of infection with intestinal parasites were recorded. The mean prevalence of intestinal parasites was 4.98%, and the percentage of infected patients ranged from 8.8% in 1993 to 0% in 2002. The most frequently detected parasitic species were: <italic>Entamoeba coli</italic> (1.52%), <italic>Giardia lamblia</italic> (0.95%), <italic>Blastocystis</italic> spp. (0.89%), <italic>Enterobius vermicularis</italic> (0.79%), and <italic>Taenia saginata</italic> (0.36%). In the period 2003–2012 the most prevalent parasites were <italic>Blastocystis</italic> spp., <italic>E. coli</italic>, and <italic>E. vermicularis</italic>. An increase in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections from 2009–2012 was associated with an increase in the prevalence of <italic>Blastocystis</italic> spp.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The prevalence of intestinal parasites among the patients of the LDBMP in the years 1983–2012 was lower in comparison with other Polish regions. The high prevalence of 2 protozoan species – potentially pathogenic <italic>Blastocystis</italic> spp. and non-pathogenic <italic>E. coli</italic> – among intestinal parasites detected in the years 2003–2012 may indicate improvement in the epidemio-logical situation regarding intestinal parasitoses in patients of the LDBMP in comparison to the 1980s and 1990s.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the quality of the 4th year surgical curriculum at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin for the academic year 2016/2017https://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.675<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: The objective of this study was assessment of the course, quality and accomplishment of 4th year surgical curriculum in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin (in Poland) for the academic year 2016/2017.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: A questionnaire-survey was carried out in a group of 97 Polish students in the 5th year of the Medical Faculty just before the seminar-block of surgery. Main topics of the questionnaire items concerned students’ opinion on the expected usefulness of the acquired surgical knowledge for future medical practice, acquired manual skills, classes conducted in the operative theatre and overall organization of classes.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Knowledge from general surgery was scored by students the highest as potentially most useful for future medical practice. Assisting in operations and learning manual skills (mostly inserting stitches on a pig trotter) was considered the most valuable portion of surgical curriculum. These skills were also believed to be the closest to the meaning of the term “skill/competency-oriented teaching” surgery. Theatre classes were considered valuable only for students assisting in operations, but for most of the passive observers it was a waste of time. Less than a half the students took history and examined patients with common urological and surgical disorders. Most (96%) responders considered an inadequate amount of time assigned for manual skills and ward-round teaching the greatest drawback of the 4th year surgical curriculum.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: Outcomes of this study showed the students’ expectations in surgery lessons in 4th year of university curriculum and what a grade of its performance was. Awareness of this may have an effect on modification of the curriculum and methods of undergraduate teaching surgery.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Osteogenic activity of lactoferrin and its application in contemporary dentistryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.521<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Lactoferrin (Lf) is a protein in the transfer-rin family with many biological functions. One novel activity of lactoferrin described recently is its regulatory function in bone morphogenesis. Lactoferrin has been shown to promote the growth, development, and differentiation of osteoblasts as well as to decrease osteoclast survival. Lactoferrin receptors (LfRs) mediate the multiple functions of lactoferrin. This review focuses on LfRs associated with bone and the intestines. The best known LfR is small intestine LfR (intelectin), which facilitates iron absorption and iron metabolism in humans. Many data from <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic> studies have indicated that lactoferrin promotes bone formation by increasing the proliferation of osteoblasts and the ability of cells to synthesize and mineralize the bone matrix. Lactoferrin additionally inhibits osteoclastogenesis, reducing the number of osteoclasts and thus bone resorption. Lactoferrin, with its numerous antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and also osteogenic properties has found a number of applications in contemporary dentistry, especially in dental surgery, in periodontology, and in pedodontics.</p> <p><bold>Summary</bold>: This review presents and <italic>in vivo in vitro</italic> studies demonstrating the osteogenic and anti-inflammatory activity of Lf and its practical application in oral surgery and dentistry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The incidence of insomnia among employed and unemployed individualshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.21164/pomjlifesci.676<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Insomnia is a complex disorder and requires knowledge of the subjective feelings of the patient. The incidence of insomnia varies depending on the classification and definition used in the study, and usually oscillates between 4–48%. Insomnia lowers quality of life (QoL), which translates into poorer functioning at social and professional levels.</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of insomnia among employed and unemployed individuals with regard to their sociodemographic and socioeconomic data, to analyze the relationship between insomnia, depressive symptoms and chronic diseases, and to assess how insomnia affects QoL.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: This survey-based study included 597 people. The following questionnaires were used: the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and a self-developed questionnaire.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Insomnia was found in 17.75% (n = 106; p ≤ 0.001) of respondents. There was a statistically significant relationship between insomnia and sex (p = 0.006). Insomnia was more common in women (20.83%; n = 75), people over 56 years of age (27.08%; n = 26; p ≤ 0.001), and those unemployed (26.37%; n = 53; p ≤ 0.001). A statistically significant relationship was demonstrated between depression and insomnia assessed by the AIS (p ≤ 0.001).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: 1. Insomnia was more common in unemployed individuals. 2. Insomnia was more common in those with hyper-tension, irrespective of their employment status. Therefore, primary care physicians should use the AIS as part of screening among chronically ill patients. 3. Insomnia was accompanied by depressive symptoms in all groups analyzed in this study, irrespective of their employment status. 4. Insomnia is a serious public and mental health problem. The AIS should be used as part of workers’ periodic health examinations, since ignoring the problem of insomnia decreases QoL.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of topical treatment of foot rot in sheep using ozonated olive ointmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0050<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Foot rot in small ruminants is highly contagious, causes severe lameness, and impairs fertility and wool and meat production. It is usually treated with parenteral antibiotics, with attendant antibiotic resistance risk, and with bactericidal footbaths, potentially harmful to humans and the environment. An alternative treatment in sheep is proposed based on repeated topical ozonated ointment application. Its effectiveness and safety were evaluated by estimation of acute-phase response, biochemical indicators of organic damage, and antioxidant/oxidant balance (AOB).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The study was conducted on ten sheep with Egerton scale 2–3 lesions. Ozone application was repeated every day for seven days. Blood was drawn first (T0) after foot cleaning and before ozonation, then (T1) seven days after the first ozone application, and finally (T2) four days after the last application.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>High clinical effectiveness was observed, with total recovery by 28 days from the start of treatment. A significant increase in antiradical activity was noted on the basis of a 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay from 1.16 ± 0.04 μmolTe/mL at T0 to 1.23 ± 0.03 μmolTe/mL at T1, with a slight decrease in oxidative stress. Calculated on the basis of antiradical capacity, AOB was higher at T1 (130 ± 19%) and decreased to 110 ± 16% at T2. Calculated on the basis of reducing power, it was 169 ± 22% at T1 and 131 ± 17% at T2.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These results indicated that the AOB is efficient enough to prevent oxidative organ injury and the applied doses of ozone are safe for animals.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A preliminary study on semen collection, its evaluation, and testicular and sperm morphometries in the wild proboscis monkey ()https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0048<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The proboscis monkey (<italic>Nasalis larvatus</italic>) is an endangered species with a declining population. This article describes the first successful attempt at sperm collection and evaluation, and the testicular and sperm morphometries of the wild proboscis monkey in Sabah, Malaysia.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Eight semen collection procedures using electro-ejaculation and digital manipulation were conducted in three wild adult male proboscis monkeys. A total of 21 ejaculates were collected. The testicular biometry was measured with the aid of ultrasonography. Sample evaluation included semen volume and pH and sperm concentration, viability, and abnormality. The sperm morphometry was undertaken using phase contrast microscopy.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The mean (±SD) total testicular volume of these animals was 5.77 cm<sup>3</sup> (±1.58). Semen collection by electro-ejaculation resulted in an 84% success rate, while digital manipulation did not result in any ejaculation. Each animal showed different semen characteristics, where the volume was 5–540 μL, pH 8–9, and sperm concentration 0.041–83.00 ×106/mL. The percentage of abnormal sperm was high at 76.8% (±89.60), largely due to midpiece abnormality. Normal sperm had a spherical head and long tail with a head : midpiece : tail length ratio of 1 : 2: 8.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The social status of these animals may contribute to the generally low quality of the semen. The techniques and data from this study are useful for future conservation and application of assisted reproductive technology in this species.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00 study of the oestrogenic activity of milkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0049<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Milk has been suggested to be a possible source of oestrogenically active compounds. In order to assess the health risk for milk consumers and ensure the safety of this staple part of the human diet, it is important to study the effect of xenooestrogen mixtures present in milk. This investigation used the available <italic>in vivo</italic> model to learn to what extent such compounds may be endocrine disruptors.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The recommended immature golden hamster uterotrophic bioassay was chosen. A total of 132 animals were divided into nine groups of experimental animals and positive and negative control groups, each of 12 animals. The experimental females received <italic>ad libitum</italic> either one of five samples of raw cow’s milk from individual animals or one of four samples of pasteurised or ultra-high temperature treated cow’s milk as retail products. After 7 days, the animals were sacrificed and necropsied. Uterine weight increases were measured as the endpoint of oestrogenic activity in milk.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The milk samples from individual cows and the retail milk samples did not show oestrogenic activity. However, in three groups, decreased uterine weights were observed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Considering that milk supplies are beneficial to health, contamination in this food should be avoided. There is a need for further animal experiments and epidemiological studies are warranted to evaluate any causative role of milk in human endocrinological disorders.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The presence of in ticks collected from ungulates in continental Eastern Europehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0044<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Rhipicephalus bursa</italic> is a common tick parasite of small-to-medium size ungulates, principally in warm, temperate, and subtropical areas. Although common in livestock and showing a wide geographic distribution, its epidemiological role in tick-borne bacterial disease is barely known. This study addressed the knowledge gap and aimed to screen for the presence of <italic>Anaplasmataceae</italic> and spotted fever group (SFG) <italic>Rickettsia</italic> species in <italic>R. bursa</italic> ticks collected from domestic animals in Romania, Eastern Europe.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 64 pools of <italic>R. bursa</italic> ticks collected from small ungulates were tested by PCR for <italic>Anaplasmataceae</italic> DNA presence using group-specific primers. Specific testing was performed for <italic>Anaplasma marginale/A. centrale/A. ovis</italic>, <italic>A. platys</italic>, <italic>A. phagocytophilum</italic>, <italic>Ehrlichia canis</italic>, and SFG <italic>Rickettsia</italic>. The positive samples were purified and sequenced, and sequences analysis was used to identify the species and to confirm the PCR results.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The only pathogen identified in this study was <italic>E. canis</italic>. The obtained sequences confirmed the PCR results. The presence of <italic>E. canis</italic> in <italic>R. bursa</italic> in Romania and in ticks from sheep was shown for the first time in this study.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Based on these findings, it may be presumed that the <italic>E. canis</italic> DNA originated from ticks; however, the vectorial role of <italic>R. bursa</italic> (and other arthropod species) in the transmission of <italic>E. canis</italic> should be proved experimentally.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards the autopoiesis of imaginationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/gth-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Already in the romantic it has been assumed, that there is an existential interrelation between nature, human being and mind. According to this idea, there is a narrow interrelation of creation between literature, science, dream and reality, which should be expressed in a progressive universal poetry. Gestalt theory and the concept of autopoiesis, developed by Maturana and Varela, could be regarded as a scientific enhancement of this approach and are united in that sense. By analyses of dreams, it becomes evident, that neurobiological and mental processes are determined by the same principles of self-constitution and gestalt production. They are attending in equal measures to homeostatic conditions. The interaction of living systems with their environment as well as their evolution base on recursive reorganisation. Following this principle, imagination, speech and self-reflection are developed. The observer comes to existence by his own distinctions. Phenomenal appearance and real existence, poetry and scientific findings are results of the autopoietic organisation of living, of which we form a part.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Helmut Seel. 28. Februar 1933 – 14. April 2021https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/gth-2021-0011ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Éric Trémault: Structure and sensation, Vrin, Paris, 2020, 196 pphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/gth-2021-0012ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Words in Motion: Slurs in Indirect Reporthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/gth-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Slurs are pejorative epithets that express negative attitudes toward a class of individuals sharing the same race, country of origin, sexual orientation, religion, and the like. The aim of this paper is to show what happens in communication when slurs are reported. It focuses on the derogatory content of such expressions and on the persistence of their performative effects in reported speech. In this respect, the question concerning the attribution of responsibility for the derogatory content conveyed by the slurs is relevant. Indeed, reporting a slur involves quoting not only the content but also the speaker’s personal commitment and (negative) attitude. Different theories on the status of the derogatory component of slurs make different predictions about their offensiveness in reported speech and about the speaker’s “responsibility” for the attitude and feelings conveyed by that word, be she the original speaker or the reporter. The results of a questionnaire show empirically that no single theory can provide a conclusive statement on this matter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1