rss_2.0Literary Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Literary Studieshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/LThttps://www.sciendo.comLiterary Studies Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Literary_Studies.jpg700700Dorothy Wordsworth's Food-Mediated “History of the Personal” in https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food practices (preparation and consumption) have long been viewed as mere domestic routines, and thus, often dismissed for being too “frivolous [a] realm” to receive the same scholarly attention as “great topics” such as “politics, economics, justice and power” (Shapiro 2). Emerging during the 1970s, food studies owe their theoretical model to research in fields of enquiry such as anthropology, sociology, structuralism, or women's studies, which have highlighted the aesthetic value of food and its transformative implications for the intermediation of social relations with others. Accordingly, food occasions various socio-cognitive activities that help an individual achieve a sense of attachment and belonging to a community.</p> <p>Based on the premise that food is instrumental in social relations, as well as in expressing a wide range of values, experiences and emotions, the present analysis gives an insight into the epistemic potential of food to attribute new meanings to Dorothy Wordsworth's Grasmere memoir. Laura Shapiro's non-fictional account, <italic>What She Ate: Six Remarkable Women and the Food that Tells their Stories</italic><fn id="j_ewcp-2021-0002_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>Laura Shapiro's <italic>What She Ate</italic> consists of the biographies of six notable female figures from different centuries and continents and highlights the importance of food in making them “recognizable” throughout history (7). Shapiro's collection of these women's personal stories and struggles gives insight into the more subtle meanings of food and its capacity to restore the balance of power between genders. In each story, food shapes the character's mind and body through evocations of endurance, resilience, internalized oppression, political statement or trendsetting dietary habits.</p></fn> serves as a useful starting point for the present reading of Wordsworth's <italic>Grasmere Journal</italic> as food narrative that has family relations, daily experiences and emotions constantly mediated through food.<fn id="j_ewcp-2021-0002_fn_002" symbol="2"><p>In brief, <italic>The Journal</italic> represents an intimate record of Dorothy's life, household activities and personal observations of the (natural and social) world surrounding Dove Cottage, which she shared with her famous sibling, Romantic poet, William Wordsworth, between May 1800 and January 1803.</p></fn> In this sense, I propose a constructivist-relational approach to Dorothy's narrative as interconnected with food, with the primary aim to explore how her numerous food references in the <italic>Journal</italic> contribute to the construction of her personal narrative and identity. As posited here, <italic>The Grasmere Journal</italic> offers a glimpse of Dorothy and William Wordsworth's dietary, social and writing routines, but also projects an image of Dorothy in a position of power, a woman ahead of her time, with a progressive stance, which goes beyond the societal expectations with regard to women's domestic role during the Romantic period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Coghlan, Michelle J, ed. . Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2020. Pp. 285. ISBN 978-1-108-44610-5 (paperback).https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0010ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The Sensuality of Taste: Intercultural Dialogue and National Identity as Mediated by Food and Food Culture in Monica Ali's https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Apart from being a compelling discourse on immigrants, cultural clashes, the East-West conflict, arranged marriages, extramarital affairs and general existential anxiety, Monica Ali's novel <italic>Brick Lane</italic> is also a fascinating excursion into the sensual and meandering world of food and its emotional and cultural implications. Trapped in an arranged marriage devoid of the passion her woman's heart had hoped for, the protagonist Nazneen seeks a substitute type of sensuality first in food, and subsequently in her son Raqib and her lover Karim, all part of an intricate and complex process of cultural self-discovery and self-definition. The present essay focuses on how food plays a central role in Nazneen's life as a young immigrant in London, being her only remaining connection to her homeland and to herself. While constantly telling her hungry heart “do not beat with fear, do not beat with desire” (27), Nazneen eats herself up searching for personal agency and fulfillment in a life which offers her neither. Food appears within this complex equation as a balancing element, a safety net, and an escape mechanism, which allows the protagonist to sustain not only her physical body, but also her famished soul, and to (re)establish her thwarted connection to her national and cultural identity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Underground Film Translations in 1980s Romania: A Gateway to Freedomhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The context of the communist regime in the late 1980s Romania was definitely a most peculiar one. During this period of time, translations from other languages were scarce and only the ones which were in accordance with the communist ideology were allowed. It was a time when people had neither many rights nor did they have many choices to make. In the latter part of the 1980s more and more foreign films were smuggled into the country and most of them were obviously American. Such films revealed a new and different world for those who watched them. Consequently, these films needed to be translated and the most well-known voice to have done it was Irina Margareta Nistor's. Her task was both interesting and demanding but also dangerous at the same time given the political context. This essay investigates the manner in which underground film “dubbing”<fn id="j_ewcp-2021-0008_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>The translation technique used, in reality a combination between the techniques of voice-over and simultaneous interpretation, was mistakenly named ‘dubbing.’</p></fn> was done and describes the particularities of the clandestine film “dubbing” by discussing how it was performed and by analysing the translations qualitatively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The Functionality of Food in Cormac McCarthy's Desert Imaginary, or Abundance and Scarcity in (1985) and (2006)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyzes the concept of food in Cormac McCarthy's dystopian, (post-)apocalyptic fiction, aiming to prove that in the American writer's universe the act of eating is deprived of its social and spiritual dimension, being restricted to its basic functionality similar to that of a meal-replacement product. The analysis draws a parallel between the concept of <italic>manna</italic> in the Exodus and the types of foodstuffs and their functionality in the novels <italic>Blood Meridian or the Evening Redness in the West</italic> and <italic>The Road</italic>, showing that food is one of the constituent ingredients of McCarthy's desert imaginary and is interpreted as a crucial weapon in the fight against death and dehumanization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Affective Refuge in the Work of Samuel Becketthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drawing upon Sara Ahmed's “cultural politics of emotion” and Claire Colebrook's conceptualization of “Cartesian affect,” this article puts forward the notion of affective refuge, a phenomenon which is investigated through an analysis of Samuel Beckett's <italic>Watt</italic>, <italic>Krapp's Last Tape</italic> and <italic>Ohio Impromptu</italic>. First, I highlight the opposing perspectives as well the potential common ground between Ahmed's and Claire Colebrook's theories in order to argue that the thought of affective refuge might actually be defined as the movement away from seeing affect as that which “make[s] us aware of [our] bodily dwelling” (Ahmed 26) and towards recognizing “the Cartesian moment of … never being proximate to one's own body,” as understood by Colebrook in her 2020 essay “Cartesian Affect” (442). I then go on to claim that, in <italic>Watt</italic>, affective refuge emerges as a reaction to fear, as the protagonist strives to process the surfaces of things and bodies around him via elaborate systems of perception, while in <italic>Krapp's Last Tape</italic> and <italic>Ohio Impromptu</italic>, the pain of remorse the characters experience regarding their own grieving practices comes to shatter the remainder of the affective refuge which had unfolded in their relationships to their departed loved ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00“Nice Greek Girls Are Supposed to Marry Greek Boys … and Feed Everyone”: Food, Gender, and Ethnicity in (2002)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>My Big Fat Greek Wedding</italic> (2002) captures the complex life of a Greek-American family and the struggles of the main protagonist, Toula Portokalos, to reconcile her own desires as a second-generation immigrant with those of her ethnic parents, especially in terms of gender roles and expectations. In the movie, Toula's journey towards self-discovery as a confident woman is peppered with food references, as food represents an essential “ingredient” that brings and holds the family together. Therefore, this essay sets out to examine how food practices and choices are both a reflection of ethnic identity and of conflicting generational beliefs about gender roles and expectations in the traditional family portrayed in <italic>My Big Fat Greek Wedding</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Cooking and Eating as Linguistic Experiences: Metamorphoses in the Japanese Familial Culinary Universe Reflected in the Movie パパのお弁当は世界 一 一 https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to describe the role of <italic>bentōs</italic> (Japanese lunch boxes) in contemporary Japanese society and its importance in different types of interpersonal relationships (the father-daughter relationship, friendship and love relationships). We will illustrate the value of this cultural element by analyzing the movie パパのお 弁当は世界一 <italic>Papa no Obentō wa Sekai Ichi</italic> 一 <italic>Dad's Lunch Box</italic> (2017) directed by Fukatsu Masakazu (who drew inspiration from a popular post on Tweeter in which a girl's high school graduation day is marked by the fact that she conveys her thanks to her father for having prepared her daily <italic>bentōs</italic> in the last three years (Shoji)), a movie that reflects various aspects of modern Japan: the changing roles of family members and the changing relationships between them. Moreover, we will focus on how <italic>bentō</italic> evolves into a means of communication in this movie, and how it contributes to reconfiguring the facets of Japanese masculinities in a society that is no more characterized by its traditional form. We will also depict the characteristics of <italic>bentōs</italic> and will take into consideration their historical background in order to situate them in the context of the evolution of food-preparing practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00From Culinary Practice to Printed Text: The Eighteenth-Century Language of London Cookbookshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present article will explore the role that cookbooks had in eighteenth-century London, being extremely popular and highly pirated, probably the most successful women's printed genre of the eighteenth century. These cookery books represented a reliable source of information not only about social distinction and food practices, but also about urban development and marketability. This is not only an analysis of the literature and culture of food as printed in the eighteenth-century by well-known London publishing houses, but also an insight into the vast scope of city dwellers. I will look at how the rhetoric of food reveals the mentality, customs, and culinary developments of eighteenth-century urban practices, ranging from the private area of the home to the public space of the print market. The catalog of didactic language on how to pluck poultry, burn charcoal, or prepare dishes in a clean and hygienic environment expresses the richness of food-related terminology, as well as the diversity of epithets praising the quality of the book or indicating the expected market. The article argues that the terminology used in these cookbooks, the paratexts and the systematic structure of the recipes reflect a specific country/city divide, since they provided instruction on how to adapt rural recipes to an urban kitchen, acknowledged the social division between servant and mistress, and shaped a new consumer behaviour.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Hahner, Leslie A. . East Lansing, MI: Michigan State UP, 2017. Pp. 282. ISBN: 978-1611 862539.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ewcp-2021-0009ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovation Transfer during the Warring States Period: Considering the Importance of Early China’s Relationship with the Steppeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2015-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper focuses on the contact between pre-imperial China and the peoples living on the steppes in her vicinity. For all the obscurity that had been shrouding the steppe inhabitants throughout centuries of historical scholarship, archaeological discoveries during the past century attest to their highly developed culture and economy and, what is more, make obvious that they had been entertaining close relations with the Chinese from as early as the second millennium BCE. Following a line of scholarship which has set out to redefine the role of the steppes in world history on the basis of this new data, this paper aims to demonstrate certain aspects of the important role they played in the history of China. Several very impactful innovations diffused to early China through interactions with the steppes, influencing Chinese history to a major degree. The paper specifically concentrates on a timeframe surrounding the Warring States Period (c. 500- 221 BCE), during which a couple of key innovations can be shown to have been adopted from the steppes. Furthermore, it illustrates the impact of these innovations on historical developments within China, thereby reinforcing the argument that the role of the steppes in Chinese history was one of tremendous importance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Nihon-Robotto-Ron: A Deconstruction of the Japanese ‘Robot Kingdom’ Phenomenonhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2015-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper attempts to deconstruct the image of Japan as the ‘Robot Kingdom’. The genesis of this image is analysed and integrated in the nihonron, an essentialist discourse on Japan, by taking into account the perspectives of different academic disciplines such as computer science and cultural studies. The different strands of the discourse are critically evaluated. In this way, the structure of the image of the ‘Robot Kingdom’ will become visible and can be analysed in the context of the nihonron.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Oral Corrective Feedback: Examining Teacher- Initiated Correction of CFL (Chinese as a Foreign Language) Learners’ Pronunciation Errorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2015-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper examines oral corrective feedback strategies in regard to pronunciation errors in a Chinese foreign language classroom. Traditional oral corrective feedback typologies (Lyster and Ranta 1997; Ellis and Sheen 2006; Sheen 2011) have been combined with Chinese pronunciation teaching methods and investigated in a case study conducted at the Department of East Asian Studies, University of Vienna. Two sessions of first year Chinese language laboratory classes were observed and recorded. The qualitative data analysis was carried out in two stages. First, traditional oral corrective feedback typologies were applied to the collected material in order to find out which types of corrective feedback were used (deductive analysis). The results revealed that corrective feedback on pronunciation errors are mostly given in an explicit manner. Therefore, as a second step, a differentiated typology of explicit correction was developed (inductive analysis). The main findings of this study are that pronunciation errors in a Chinese foreign language classroom are corrected explicitly and treated with methods of 1) explication, 2) comparison, and 3) reduction. The explicitness of these methods is further enhanced by 1) paralinguistic cues (stress, speech rate modification), 2) visualisations (gestures) and 3) additional verbalisation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainability in Hunting Licence Systems of Japan and South Koreahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2015-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper compares the different terrestrial hunting (licence) systems of Japan and South Korea. In order to test their sustainable resource use the silvicultural model and categories by Josef Hackl, Felix Heckl, Martin Forstner, Wolfgang Lexer, and Friedrich Reimoser have been adapted and modified to the circumstances of these two nations. Sustainability will be analysed according to three columns of ecological, economic, and socio-cultural sustainability. The multidisciplinary theoretical approach to sustainability discourses includes the theories of public goods, property rights, and co-management strategies, based on Garrett Hardin’s controversial essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Hardin’s resource exploitation dilemma has been refuted many times. The working hypothesis is therefore based on a bottom-up approach of decentralisation and subsidiarity mainly based on the assumptions of Elinor Ostrom and Fikret Berkes, in which the preservation of local and therefore context-bound knowledge plays a significant role in the sustainable management of impure public goods like game. The paper seeks to compare current laws on hunting, weapons, wildlife, and environmental protection as well as to take a look at existing local hunting customs and the historic reasons for their disappearance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00International Peace Cooperation Activities of Japan and the Republic of Korea between 2000 and 2010: A Comparative Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2015-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> International peace cooperation plays an important role in international relations. National interests and power balances lead to situations in which national security, human security and peace are often threatened, and international cooperation is required. The desire for peace and security is a motivating factor for states to engage in cooperation and to foster a more stable and secure environment, which in turn will also facilitate further social, political and economic development in individual countries as well as worldwide. Due to globalisation, the interconnectedness and interdependence of states in various contexts has significantly increased. This development has also led to a growing demand and need for cooperation between states to take collective action and to commonly solve regional as well as global challenges, such as peace and relevant security issues but also issues of economic, social and political importance. The aim of this paper is to present a comparative analysis and to give an overview of Japan and the Republic of Korea’s efforts and actions concerning peace cooperation in order to promote regional and global peace between 2000 and 2010-apart from the commonly known international peacekeeping operations. How do both states’ global peace supporting activities compare to each other, and is it possible to identify differences in their approaches towards international peace cooperation?</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Liberty in Harmony: An Integration of Confucian Harmony and Liberalism in Contemporary Chinahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2015-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> As the mainstream ideology, Confucian harmony deeply influences ways of thinking and social life in the East. Contemporary China has experienced quite a radical change since the Xīnhài Revolution in 1911. It also marked the re-examination of Confucianism, i.e. the development of New Confucianism. New Confucianism needs to encourage China to fit the modern and global context. Therefore, the revival of Confucian harmony must remake itself to fit the modern world. A certain degree of convergence between Confucian harmony and liberalism, the mainstream ideology in the West, is necessary. Personal improvement is a hotly disputed idea among Chinese Confucians and Western liberals because transformation of public ethics is closely related to transformations of the self. This paper argues the importance of integration between harmony and liberalism. What is important is to explore how each tradition can shed light on theoretical and practical issues regarding harmony between the individual and the community, rather than individual sovereignty over communal claims in ideological studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The Relation between Economic Development and International Trade: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and Southeast Asian Economieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2015-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The impressive economic development of East Asian and Southeast Asian countries, like China, Japan, South Korea, or Singapore, is often described as the ‘Asian economic miracle’. The transition from a less developed economy to an industrialised country and successful integration into the global economy within a relatively short period of time are characteristics of the economic development process. Academic research is dominated by a general agreement on the causal relationship between economic development and international trade. The research goal of this paper is to analyse the impact of the level of economic development on the degree of international trade in the economies of China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Thailand. The applied research model does not follow the traditional research mainstream but rather introduces relative shares of GDP-related industrial output and of manufactures exports by adopting national as well as international perspectives instead. Descriptive trend analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis are conducted in order to test the hypotheses. The results do not support conventional academic wisdom. A statistically reasonable causality between the level of economic development, in terms of relative industrial output, and the degree of international trade, in terms of relative industrial exports, could not be confirmed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Queer Desire in Japanese TV Serieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2019-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article provides an analysis of representations of sexual minorities in Japanese TV series. It outlines how homosexual and queer desire is depicted and how stereotypes and tropes are used in the construction of queer characters in this media format. The article also illuminates the ways in which TV series differentiate between depictions of same-sex romance and opposite-sex romance. The corpus of analysed TV series spans a period of twenty-five years. Thus, the analysis also sheds light on changes in the representation of sexual minorities over time. Examples from recent TV series point to a more positive and sometimes didactic approach towards the topic of homosexuality in Japanese mainstream media.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Songs of Japanese Prisoners of War in the Soviet Union after World War IIhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2019-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Second World War ended with Japan’s capitulation after the disastrous nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Subsequently, approximately 700,000 Japanese soldiers were selected as captives to undertake physical labour in Soviet prison camps. After returning to Japan, some of them wrote about their lives in the Soviet Union, drew pictures about their experiences, or wrote about their favourite songs that they had sung during their imprisonment.</p><p>My study of various reports of Japanese prisoners of war (POWs) after the Second World War surprisingly revealed that not only traumatic conditions during forced labour were published, but also social interactions in the form of joint artistic activities such as making music, producing theatre plays, and staging sports competitions. The prisoners have often retrospectively described these as strikingly positive events during their years of internment in the Soviet Union. This article analyses a total of thirty-four songs sung and composed by Japanese POWs during captivity on a lyrical level (text analysis). In doing so, I adopt a new approach to interpreting the social conditions during the imprisonment of Japanese soldiers in the Soviet Union.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Discourses of “Herbivore Masculinity” in Japanese Love Advice Bookshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/vjeas-2019-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the last decade, discourses of non-conforming masculinities have become increasingly prominent in Japanese mass media. In particular, the so-called “herbivore men” have been made infamous by Japanese newspapers and were accused of being responsible for sinking birth rates and economic stagnation in Japan (Schad-Seifert 2016). In this article, I explore the discourse on the “herbivore men” in Japanese love advice books which are meant to guide and inform the (female) reader’s assessment of potential romantic partners. Utilising Siegfried Jäger’s methodological approach (2015), this discursive analysis focuses on the line of discourse that implicitly criticises the “herbivore men” and rejects their turn away from hegemonic images of masculinity. The analysis yields that the “herbivore man” is constructed as an ‘unnatural’ form of masculinity in these publications, which allegedly causes women to become sexually active and career-driven “carnivores.” Japanese women’s empowerment from hegemonic gender ideals is thereby misrepresented as a symptom of psychological distress due to changing masculinities. By perpetuating ideas of biological determinism linked to the backlash against the “gender-free” movement in the early 2000s, this line of discourse propagates problematic relations of gender and power in Japanese society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1