rss_2.0Literary Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Literary Studies Studies Feed Patterns in Cognition and Communication as a Radial Category<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Narrative is a complex and elusive category of cognition, culture, communication and language. An attempt has been made in this article with a large enough theoretical scope to consider the possibility of treating narrative as a radial category. To this end, the definition and characterisation of radiality is provided together with explanation of what it might mean to apply this term to the complex language-discourse unit of narrative. The prototype of this category involves features, functions, and ICMs. It has multiple representations with only family resemblance, involves more obvious exemplars and variable abstract knowledge structures. In particular, section one looks at the radiality question and what it might mean to think of the meaning of narrative in general. Section two focuses on centrality. Sections three to five deal with schematic representations of narrative and provide examples of extending the most subsuming schema of the Action Chain Model from cognitive linguistics and Labov’s Narrative Schema to various other types of conversational narrative, children’s dramatic plays, tactical narratives, story rounds, jokes, poems, current news articles on the Internet, images, and advertisements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00To Translate, or Not to Translate: A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis of Selected English and Polish Proverbs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Proverbs are often said to be part and parcel of the cultural, social, and cognitive heritage of a given linguistic community. This very specific nature of proverbs poses a challenge for any contrastive paremiological study which looks for “equivalents” in the target language. Especially difficult cases which escape systematic analysis are novel modifications of well-established traditional proverbs. To illustrate this, consider a proverb such as The <italic>early bird gets the worm</italic>. Based on this traditional saying, we have nowadays a number of modifications such as The <italic>early bird gets the worm, but the late one gets the pizza</italic> or <italic>The early bird gets the worm, but the second mouse gets the cheese</italic>. Also, a Polish original saying such as <italic>Kto rano wstaje, temu Pan Bóg daje</italic>, lit. “God provides to those who rise early”, now has a number of variants, including <italic>Kto rano wstaje, ten idzie po bułki</italic> (lit. “Those who rise early go to a shop to buy rolls”) or <italic>Kto rano wstaje, ten jest niewyspany</italic> (lit. “Those who rise early are sleepy”). One thing is certain: any attempt to develop a viable contrastive paremiological analysis can hardly ignore the complex and intricate relations between the cognitive, linguistic, and cultural aspects of proverbs compared. What is needed is a multifaceted account of such structures. A translation model which seems to be perfectly suited for this purpose is Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk’s theory of <italic>reconceptualization</italic> (2010). Using as a point of departure Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk’s assertion that that the translation of a proverb from a source language (SL) to a target language (TL) entails “a number of cycles of reconceptualization of the original SL message, expressed eventually in the TL” (2010: 107), we will offer a re-conceptualization-based account of the shift in meaning involving traditional proverbs and their jocular transformations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00A Cognitive Grammar Perspective on Temporal Conceptualization in SLA<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article shows how cognitive grammar and cognitive linguistics theory offer a fruitful paradigm within which the process of second language acquisition can be examined. The aim is to describe and examine the benefit of using notions developed within the CG and CL frameworks to the study of crosslinguistic influence, especially conceptual transfer, in multilinguals. In recent years, the growth of empirical research concerning the contribution of cognitive-inspired theories to the study of second language acquisition and multilingualism has grown extensively. This article illustrates the possible contribution of CL to SLA by focusing on one particular line of inquiry: that of construal. Specifically, it examines how the notions developed within cognitive grammar theory can be useful tools for the analysis and comparison of conceptualization patterns of events, thus giving rise to transfer effects stemming from the way a person construes and conceptualizes events. The starting hypothesis is that conceptual transfer effects in the use of the target grammar, in this case the transfer effects in the TIME domain, may originate from the conceptualization patterns that the multilingual has acquired as a speaker of another L1. Previous transfer research has obtained evidence to suggest that patterns of L1 conceptualizations may be transferred into learners’ L2 through patterns that are similar to their L1. The utilization of central tools within cognitive grammar in order to unmask conceptual differences represents an important contribution to the state of the art of crosslinguistic influence research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Word-Initial Prevocalic [H-] in Middle English<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present contribution discusses the phonological reality of initial fricative <italic>h-</italic> in words of Germanic and French origin in dialectally identified 106 texts from the <italic>Innsbruck Corpus of Middle English Prose</italic> (Markus 2008), with the focus on native words where initial <italic>h-</italic> is frequently mute, as confirmed by (a) <italic>h</italic>-less spellings like <italic>ouse</italic> for <italic>house</italic> or especially (b) the use of the article <italic>an</italic> before <italic>h</italic>-nouns. In the early texts a phrase like <italic>an house</italic> may testify to the survival of the historical determiner (OE <italic>ān</italic>) put before both initial vowels and consonants, but in later texts this position may indicate mute initial <italic>h-</italic> in the following noun (or in an adjective before a noun). The paper offers numerical data concerning such distributions in particular <italic>Corpus</italic> texts as well as analogous data referring to the adjectives MIN and THIN (later on <italic>my</italic> and <italic>thy</italic>), where the final nasal consonant was lost when used in the function of an attribute. Consequently, this development led to the rise of a set of possessive adjectives with a syntactic, not phonological, distribution The data from the <italic>Innsbruck Corpus</italic> seem to indicate that an early loss of initial prevocalic <italic>h-</italic> in Middle English words of Germanic origin took place in particular texts rather than in texts from the whole region. The evidence from the Corpus shows that the implementation of the contemporary distribution, i.e., <italic>a</italic> before consonants and <italic>an</italic> before vowels, had a partly regional character, its first traces coming from as early as the 13<sup>th</sup> century.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The method of educational programs localization under internationalization of academic environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of the internationalization of education the need for localization and translation of educational programs into foreign languages with the aim of attracting foreign students is increasing. Consequently, new methods and resources are required to optimize educational process. However, currently there are not enough localized programs translated into English and localized for the new contingent of university students although localized programs are urgently needed as they give foreign students the opportunity to choose the most suitable direction for study. The purpose of the proposed research is localization as a linguistic and cultural adaptation of digital content to the requirements of the foreign market and translation into English the educational program “Software Engineering” for students of telecommunications specialties taking into account both technical and didactic terminology. To speed up the translation the glossary is compiled using online and offline services. As a result, the program “Software Engineering”, designed for foreign students, is localized, translated and adapted. Thus, a more “friendly” environment for entering the educational process in the new intercultural conditions is created. This practice becomes an integral part of the lecturers’ activities. On the other hand, students themselves can be involved in content creation and research. The design of localization should be directed from simple to complex, taking into account a certain balance between depth and composition of research. In general, the presentation of localized programs at the international level has a number of advantages for universities, including economic ones, for example, increasing the income invested in equipping the educational process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards Investigation of Instructional “Hiccups” of ELT Fraternity in EFL classroom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to investigate and understand the causes of instructional “hiccups” of English language teachers at private schools in Pakistan. The questionnaire is the main tool for data collection among English language teachers who were teaching at the secondary level. Due to specific selection criteria, purposive sampling was employed among participants of the study. The findings reveal that English language teachers in private schools at the elementary level were facing teaching difficulties while teaching English textbook courses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The perceptions of intermediate EFL learners to the lexical instructional intervention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the perceptions of high school EFL learners to the lexical instructional approach intervention in the contexts of learning vocabulary and grammar. Besides, an attempt was made to explore what difficulties the participants encountered during the experimentation. The data collected through the questionnaire were analyzed using a one-sample t-test, and the results showed that the estimated sample perception mean score was significantly higher than the hypothesized population perception mean score. This implies that EFL learners had positive perceptions towards the lexical instructional approach in the contexts of learning vocabulary and grammar. The data collected through interviews were analyzed qualitatively and the findings showed that students enjoyed and were interested in learning vocabulary and grammar through the lexical instructional approach. Students realized the importance of lexical chunks in learning vocabulary and grammar. In this regard, the interview results corroborated the results obtained from the questionnaire. Students encountered difficulties like lack of lexical awareness, lack of clear and adequate instructions on some activities, the lack of deliberate attention from some students during discussions, the lack of making some activities more interactive and engaging, and some classroom managerial problems. Finally, it was recommended that EFL teachers at high school should design their lexical approach-based activities systematically by considering their students’ interests, feelings, perceptions, levels, norms, cultures, and psychological setups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistic complexity of lecturers’ class register and its relationship to their personality traits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many research studies indicated a correlation between classroom behaviour and the language of the instructors and learners. The inter-language that the teachers prefer to use in the class differs from the natural, daily life conversations in linguistic terms. It is characterized by more simplistic, repetitive, carefully selected language, or “classroom register”. The paper discusses a „foreign language classroom register” as a specific linguistic subsystem which is operated both by the rules of linguistic simplification and by constraints imposed by the specific social (school) setting. The standard language used in a classroom communication with a high ratio of short basic and coordinate sentences, more universal constructions, such as base case nominal phrases and active present indicative verb phrases, the limited reduction in morphological complexity as a result of a preference for a simple sentence structure. The research study examines a linguistic complexity of the teacher talk with focus on reductions, modifications, and simplifications. It also studies the personal attitudes of lecturers toward school discourse and the relation between teachers´ personality and a language complexity of their language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Culinaronyms in formatting linguocultural competence in teaching Russian as a foreign language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Linguocultural approach is the new teaching direction in teaching Russian as a foreign language (RFL). Based on this approach, students are aimed to form a linguocultural competence. Studying scientific research show that there is a lot of linguistic units that are suitable to help students in forming their linguocultural competence. The purpose of the research is to apply the topic “Russian culinaronyms” (known as the name of Russian food) in the formation of the linguocultural competence of Vietnamese students who are learning Russian as a foreign language. The research was conducted by surveying and interviewing 26 Russian teachers in Vietnam by verifying the applicability of theory and practice of the topic “Russian culinaronyms”. The research results show that the teachers think that the application of this food topic in the formation of their linguocultural competence is appropriate with high survey results. Furthermore, it reveals the linguistic and cultural dimensions from Russian culinaronyms which can be used to form a linguocultural competence for Vietnamese students. The topic “Russian culinaronyms” can be applied in extracurricular sessions for language specialized students.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The temporary return to the homeland in Michael Ondaatje’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study concentrates on memory in Michael Ondaatje’s <italic>Running in the Family</italic> because it is the foundation for the whole novel. Ondaatje’s attempt creates a relationship with the past by performing all acts of the journey in physical and imaginary performances of listening and reproducing. His attempt depends on his own memory; however, his memory does not coincide with stories he has heard, and the historical documents tend to conflict with each other. In the interior of his travels, Ondaatje reveals the extent of his isolation and the impact of his displacement. As he narrates the stories, he faces difficulties in distinguishing between rumors and lies, in organizing fragments of knowledge, and in explaining challenges tied to his methods of cultural revival. These challenges are met in the non-linear and sometimes stunning text plans which he uses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Portfolios within the preschool environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The academic community has been discussing the options for using portfolios within the education process for a number of years. Studies looking at this phenomenon often focus on a constructivist concept of portfolios where the child is the main agent in creating the document (Sitz &amp; Bartholomew, 2008; Smith et al., 2003). The alternative to this is the positivist concept of the portfolio. The submitted research study is focused on the use of portfolios specifically within the preschool environment. The research’s main objective was to understand how children’s portfolios are used within the education process in preschools and present the children’s perspective on their own portfolios. Adopting a qualitatively-focused research design, the research methods used were content analysis of portfolios, and interviews with children on their document. The research findings show that within the preschool environment, portfolios are used in a number of ways. These ways are directly linked to the teacher’s belief on the importance of portfolios for preschool-age children. A child’s portfolio can be a concept, a tool, a method or also a means. The results also present the children’s original perspective on their own portfolios. This study is based on a part of my completed rigorosum thesis (Trávníčková, 2019).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Traditional Segregation: Encoded Language as Powerful Tool. Insights from Ụmụakpo-Lejja chant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Language becomes a tool for power and segregation when it functions as a social divider among individuals. Language creates a division between the educated and uneducated, an indigene and non-indigene of a place; an initiate and uninitiated member of a sect. Focusing on the opposition between expressions and their meanings, this study examines Ụmụakpo-Lejja <italic>Okǝti Ọmaba</italic> chant, which is a heroic and masculine performance that takes place in the <italic>Okǝti</italic> (masking enclosure of the deity) of <italic>Umuakpo</italic> village square in Lejja town of Enugu State, Nigeria. The mystified language promotes discrimination among initiates, non-initiates, and women. <italic>Ọmaba</italic> is a popular fertility Deity among the Nsukka-Igbo extraction and <italic>Egara Ọmaba</italic> (<italic>Ọmaba</italic> chant) generally applies to the various chants performed to honour the deity during its periodical stay on earth. Using Schleiermacher’s Literary Hermeneutics Approach of the methodical practice of interpretation, the metaphorical language of the performance is interpreted to reveal the thoughts and the ideology behind the performance in totality. Among the Findings is that the textual language of Ụmụakpo-Lejja <italic>Okǝti Ọmaba</italic> chant is almost impossible without authorial and member’s interpretation and therefore, they are capable of initiating discriminatory perception of a non-initiate as a weakling or a woman.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The effects of guessing confidence on anticipatory behaviour in context understanding<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study investigates the anticipatory behaviour in a word guessing experiment with Slovak L2 speakers of English of varying proficiency levels. The L2 speakers are trying to correctly identify the word that the interlocutor is hinting at with two consecutive cues as soon as they are confident enough to provide the answer. This created a connection between anticipation and guessing confidence. The effect of guessing confidence on the anticipatory behaviour is measured through the change in response latency of how quickly the guessers produce their guesses after listening to the cues. The aim is to study how the response latencies of the listeners are affected by their previous correct or incorrect guesses. The findings suggest that the correctness of guesses has a measurable impact on response latency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Online interaction descriptors: A tool for the development of tasks for language competences and language use<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study focuses on a new scale of the framework introduced by the CEFR Companion Volume. Slovak and Maltese teachers were invited to participate in the training sessions in which they were exposed to lists of descriptors related to online interaction. The goal of familiarisation activities related to indicating reference levels was to prepare teachers for constructing tasks designed for practicing online communication in language classes, relevant to the proficiency levels of their students. The data on teachers’ judgements are clearly displayed and analysed in order to find out similarities and differences between teachers’ perceptions of language proficiency in two countries. Workshop sessions stimulated in-depth discussions the conclusions of which are reflected in the recommendations for language educators and teachers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Unpacking the Complexity of Gender Integration in the U.S. Military Using Discourse Analysis: The Case of Servicewomen’s Talk Around<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A quasi-idiomatic expression ‘women have to prove themselves’ reflects various performance pressures and heightened visibility of women functioning in gendered professional spaces as advocated by tokenism theory. It is an example of how discriminatory practice – according to which competent and qualified women entering the culturally masculine professions are explicitly and implicitly expected to work harder for any recognition – gets discoursed in language and becomes a “rhetorically powerful form of talk” (Kitzinger 2000: 124).</p><p>This paper explores the question: what is it that U.S. servicewomen functioning in the culturally hypermasculine space need to do to <italic>prove themselves</italic>?</p><p>To this end, qualitative semi-structured interviews with women veterans of the recent Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts are qualitatively scrutinized with the methods of discourse analysis and conversation analysis to 1) identify practices that U.S. servicewomen engage in to symbolically (re-)claim their place and status in the military, i.e., to prove they belong; 2) find out how the talk around proving emerged in the course of the conversation and how it was further interactionally sustained and/or dealt with in talk-in-interaction.</p><p>The findings of the micro-level analysis – interpreted through the lenses of tokenism and the category of the ‘honorary man’ – reveal women’s complex and nuanced struggle to fit and find acceptance in the military culture of hypermasculinity. They also re-engage with the ideas of tokenism by demonstrating that various acts of proving, reflecting women’s token status, may concurrently and paradoxically be a means to earn honorary man status.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Agree, Move and the Scope of the Phase Impenetrability Condition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper addresses a certain contradiction in the application of the Phase Impenetrability Condition (PIC) to domains involving the long-distance Genitive of Negation (GoN) and wh-movement in Polish. It appears that in syntactic domains of the tensed sentence including an infinitive complement, there is a tension between a long-distance dependency (holding between NEG in the main clause and the embedded object in genitive) and a cyclic operation of wh-movement. The operation of wh-movement, a classic example of Chomsky’s Move, observes cyclicity and the PIC, judging by the standard tests based on reconstruction (Chomsky 1995; Heycock 1995; Fox 1999; Safir 1999; Legate 2003; Witkoś 2003; Lebeaux 2009), while the Agree-based case marking requires the PIC to be inoperative in exactly the same context and in the same domain. Both operations place contradictory requirements on the PIC, which implies that this condition does not apply to them in the same manner: it always holds of Move but does not always hold of Agree.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Tradition and the Individual Canadian Talent<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the twenty-first century, Canadian writers have been doing something they did infrequently in the past: acknowledging and referencing the work of past Canadian writers. Although declining pedagogical and academic interest in Canadian literature has made this development hard to see, writers themselves have been quietly building upon and contributing to something that looks very much like a literary tradition. Canadian writers of course continue to read and be influenced by writers outside Canada, just as they always have: but in their own words, they are now telling us that they are reading, learning from, and responding to other Canadian writers – that there is a Canadian literary tradition that crosses generational and regional borders, and that Canadian writers (and publishers, and readers) are aware of parts of that tradition, the parts that matter to them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00A Folkloristic Analysis of Polish Immigrant Narratives in Western Canada<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The large wave of Polish immigration to Canada during the years immediately following World War II also brought the production of written narratives that reflect upon the process of migration and settlement in the new place. Although these migrants included persons from all across Poland, of different age groups, backgrounds, and occupations, the migration narratives share certain distinctive formulas and patterns, particularly in terms of their plot lines and narrative structure. Each story highlights the journey and its difficulties, the arrival and culture shock, the struggle to adapt, and finally acceptance of life in the new world. This article focuses on the migration experiences of Józef Bauer (arriving in Canada in 1946), Helena Beznowska (arriving 1948), Marian Pawiński (arriving 1949), and Erika Wolf-May (arriving 1953). Explored from a folkloristic perspective, these four narratives fulfill the four functions of folklore: entertainment, education, validation and reinforcement of beliefs and conduct, and maintaining the stability, solidarity, cohesiveness, and continuity of a group within the larger mass culture. Moreover, as folkloric expressions of culture, the narratives not only reflect our very human culture, but also reinforce our shared humanity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00‘Alimentary Assemblages’ at Intersections: Food, (Queer) Bodies, and Intersectionality in Marusya Bociurkiw’s (2007)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Clearly devoted to the analysis of various issues of belonging, the work of Marusya Bociurkiw, a Ukrainian-Canadian queer writer, director, academic, and activist, examines culture, memory, history, and subjectivity in a fascinatingly unique way. Such a thematic composition is, however, not the only aspect that visibly marks and unities Bociurkiw’s multi-generic oeuvre; what clearly stands out as yet another distinguishing characteristic that Bociurkiw’s works have in common is the idea that seems to stand behind their creation – an impelling notion that “[t]o have one’s belonging lodged in a metaphor is voluptuous intrigue” (Brand 2001: 18). Consequently, what Bociurkiw’s works vividly portray is the writing-self “in search of its most resonant metaphor” (Brand 2001: 19). In one of her works, <italic>Comfort Food for Breakups: The Memoir of a Hungry Girl</italic> (2007), this metaphor is food as the art of food-making and the act of eating become here a crucial background against which the issues of belonging are played out. The aim of this article is thus to show how Bociurkiw finds her way of discussing various aspects of subjectivity by means of writing about food, whether about preparing it, tasting it, or recollecting its preparation and tastes. Ultimately, however, the article is to prove that food in Bociurkiw’s memoir not only reflects identity but is presented as a vital site of intersectionality. Thus, embedded in intersectionality discourse, and particularly instructed by Vivian May’s <italic>Pursuing Intersectionality, Unsettling Dominant Imaginaries</italic> (2015), the analysis of <italic>Comfort Food for Breakups</italic> is carried out from an interdisciplinary perspective because it is simultaneously grounded in food studies theory, i.e., the ideas developed by Elspeth Probyn in <italic>Carnal Appetites: FoodSexIdentities</italic> (2000), confirming, in this way, that vital connections can and should be made between the two, ostensibly unrelated, fields of study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1