rss_2.0Life Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Life Sciences Sciences Feedępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology<P><STRONG>Advancements of Microbiology (Postępy Mikrobiologii)</STRONG> is a quarterly of the <STRONG><A href="">Polish Society of Microbiologists</A></STRONG>. The journal was founded in 1961, initially under the patronage of the Microbiology Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences, and from 1989 it became the organ of the PSM. It implements the Society's main goals, like promoting the development of microbiological sciences, popularizing the achievements of microbiology among members of the Society and broad circles of society. </P> <P>Advancements of Microbiology is subject-oriented journal for students of several biological faculties and often the place where the first works of young researchers are published. Advancements of Microbiology includes review articles from all areas of microbiology that are not printed in other journals. There are book reviews in the field of microbiology and related sciences, which are published in Poland in the new publishing department. The journal also provides information about scientific activity and about conferences, conventions, etc. organized by both PSM main board and the regional branches of PSM. </P> <P>Due to the great thematic diversity of the articles sent to the editorial office, in practice it is not possible to print monographic volumes, a few reprints or supplements are an exception. In addition to special volumes it is possible to print short thematic cycles, printed in several subsequent volumes. Most of the papers currently published in Advancements of Microbiology are review articles in the field of bacterial physiology, microbial genetics, environmental microbiology, applied microbiology and virology; the work in the field of epidemiology, classification and identification of bacteria and applications of molecular biology techniques in microbiological research are particularly extensive. </P> <P>The editors of Advancements of Microbiology strive to print works – ordered by eminent scientists – regarding currently fashionable problems of modern science. We especially encourage Authors to write articles in the field of their expertise, which guarantees the highest scientific level. The high scientific level of the journal was reflected in the progress of the JCR citation index and the presence of our journal on the Philadelphia list. This is especially important for young Authors, for whom Advancements of Microbiology often opens the way to a scientific career. It is obvious that the current activity of Advancements of Microbiology is based mainly on publishing reviews related to the latest scientific achievements in the field of microbiology, which, at the present time, is characterized by unusual dynamics of development and comprehensive application possibilities. The selection of current and relevant research topics and their presentation at a high scientific level in our journal is the basis for the existence of the quarterly, Advancements of Microbiology. </P> <P><STRONG>Open Access Policy</STRONG> </P> <P>This journal provides immediate open access to its content under the <A href="">Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license</A> on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Under the <A href="">CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license</A> users are free to share the work (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format), if the contribution is properly attributed and used for non-commercial purposes. The material published in the journal may not be altered or built upon. </P> <P><STRONG>ABOUT SOCIETY</STRONG> </P> <P>The origin of microbiology in Poland goes back to the XIX century. Professor Odo Feliks Kazimierz Bujwid (1857-1942) – was the first Polish bacteriologist, who graduated from the University of Warsaw and gained experience in Berlin working with Robert Koch, and in Paris at the Ludwik Pasteur Institute. </P> <P><A href=""><STRONG>Polish Society of Microbiologists</STRONG></A><STRONG> </STRONG>(PSM), formerly Polish Society of Microbiologists and Epidemiologists, was established in Warsaw on October 31, 1927 at the first Congress of Polish microbiologists. Professor Zygmunt Szymanowski was elected the first President of PSM. The same year, PSM became cofounder of International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS), formerly International Association of Microbiological Societies (IAMS). In 1974 PSM also became cofounder of Federation of European Microbiological Societies (FEMS) and from 2005 PSM is a member of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID). </P> <P>Within 90 years of activity, 28 Congresses of PSM were organized and 16 professors were elected as Presidents of PSM. At present, about 900 ordinary members and 19 honorary members, associated in 14 PSM branches all over Poland, belong to the Society. Besides, five companies active in the microbiological area support PSM as supporting members. </P> <P>Currently, the aim of PSM is the same since its very beginnings: to promote the development of microbiological sciences and to popularize the achievements of microbiology among the Society's members and the broad public. PSM organizes congresses, scientific meetings, courses and lectures as well as competitions of scientific papers. Two quarterly journals, the Polish Journal of Microbiology and the Advances in Microbiology are issued by PSM. The Society formulates opinions on the conditions and needs of Polish microbiology and applies in these cases to the state authorities; cooperates with related associations in the country and abroad. </P> <P><STRONG>Archiving</STRONG> </P> <P>Sciendo archives the contents of this journal in <A href="">Portico</A> - digital long-term preservation service of scholarly books, journals and collections. </P> <P><STRONG>Plagiarism Policy</STRONG> </P> <P>The editorial board is participating in a growing community of <A href="">Similarity Check System's</A> users in order to ensure that the content published is original and trustworthy. Similarity Check is a medium that allows for comprehensive manuscripts screening, aimed to eliminate plagiarism and provide a high standard and quality peer-review process.</P> JOURNAL2022-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Expression profiles of 11 candidate genes involved in drought tolerance of pedunculate oak ( L.). Possibilities for genetic monitoring of the species.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pedunculate oak (<italic>Quercus robur</italic> L.) is one of the most significant broadleaved tree species in Europe. However, various abiotic and biotic agents have influenced pedunculate oak forests, among which drought stress has been frequently described as the main driver of this species forests decline. In this study we assessed relative expression profile of 11 candidate genes involved in many different metabolic pathways and potentially responsible for oak drought tolerance. The obtained results succeed in partially tackling drought tolerance mechanisms of targeted natural pedunculated oak population. This gene pool may represent a base for adaptation and therefore genetic diversity should be conserved. In this paper we described different expression responses of four pedunculate oak ecological groups, characterized by different physiological status (senescent vs vital) and flowering period (early (var. <italic>praecox</italic>) vs late (var. <italic>tardissima</italic>)). The most significant differences in relative gene expression levels are shown between the flowering period (<italic>tardissima</italic> (8 genes upregulated) vs <italic>praecox</italic> (3 genes upregulated)), more than a physiological status (sene-scent vs vital). Only three genes <italic>wrky</italic>53, <italic>rd</italic>22 and <italic>sag</italic>21 showed upregulated expression pattern in senescent physiological groups, indicating their possible role in the coping mechanisms of oak in stressed environment. Results showed interesting connections of relative gene expression values of identified drought-tolerance related genes with flowering period and provide further recommendations for adequate conservation and monitoring of this important oak gene pool in its southeast refugium.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Climate Change on Wind Potential in Lithuania Territory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wind energy is one of the most important ways to implement green energy in Lithuania. The development of wind energy infrastructure by state funding is directly related to wind energy resources. Changes in wind energy resources induced by ongoing climate change have not been well analyzed either in Lithuania or in Europe or worldwide. This article analyses data taken from long-term wind observations and IPCC projections. It was found that during the last decades (1980–2019), the wind speed in Lithuania decreased up to 0.69 m/s in the coastal region and up to 0.24 m/s in the central part of Lithuania. The decrease in wind speed caused a decrease in generated energy by 15.6 % and 17.8 % in the coastal and the central parts of Lithuania. Analysis of wind speed projections for the period 2010–2100, according to the RCP4.5 scenario, has shown that the average annual wind speed would decrease by 7.3 % in Lithuanian’s coastal region and 8.8 % the central region by the end of the century. The change in wind speed will cause up to a 25 % reduction in wind potential. As the average lifetime of wind turbines is about 25 years, the amount of electricity generated during this period will be up to 20 % lower than planned at the design stage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00 Evaluation of Large Electricity Consumer Policy Measures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>All European Union (EU) member states till 2020 had an obligatory target for energy efficiency. One of instruments for countries to achieve national energy efficiency goals is obligation for large companies (LC) and large electricity consumers (LEC) to implement certified energy management system or perform energy audit. In this study the Latvian case study of obligation for LC and LEC where examined. The analysis was carried out using a theory-based policy analysis method combined with evaluation criteria from the EU legislative assessment guidelines The Better Regulation Agenda – efficiency, effectiveness, relevance, coherence, added value, validity, complementarity, coordination, equality, sustainability and acceptability. To evaluate energy efficiency policy measures, it is also important to understand energy efficiency measures that will realistically meet the set company and national targets. AHP and TOPSIS analyzes were performed to evaluate these measures not only from energy efficiency but also from environmental, climate, engineering-technical, economic, and social aspects. The results allow us to assess the fate of existing policies and to draw conclusions on the improvements needed to meet energy efficiency and climate goals in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatial and temporal changes in the diet composition of the Eurasian eagle-owl () in Slovakia comparing three historical periods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The author evaluates his own data on the food of the Eurasian eagle-owl (<italic>Bubo bubo</italic>) in Slovakia using material he collected between 1975 and 2020. A total of 105,543 food items were identified in 254 samples taken at 136 localities. Mammals had the highest representation (Mammalia, 65 species, 58.4%), and the species composition of birds was diverse (Aves, minimally 140 species, 8.5%), but the common frog (<italic>Rana temporaria</italic>, 32.0%), from the lower vertebrates, is represented more abundantly. Invertebrates (Evertebrata, 0.1%) occurred in food residues only occasionally. The bulk of the samples were collected from eagle-owl nests. The samples were divided into three time periods (A–C), which differ in the manner of human land-use management: A up to the 1950s, with a smaller area of field plots and more extensive grazing in the uplands: B from the 1950s to the 1980s, during the Socialist period, with the concentration of agricultural production in large units: C the last 30 years, 1990 to 2020, with the gradual break-up of collective land management. The first period (A) is characterised by a strong dominance of frogs, particularly the European brown frog <italic>R. temporaria</italic> (44.6%), and a large share of small mammal species of the family Muridae (genera <italic>Apodemus</italic> and <italic>Mus</italic>). During the time of Socialism (B), eagle-owls adapted to hunting larger species of mammals and birds, and the share of frogs in their food fell by half (<italic>R. temporaria</italic>, 23.3%). With the decline in livestock production after 1990 (period C), the species diversity of birds increased: aquatic species and raptors in particular are on the rise. Successive overgrowth of pastures in the submontane zone is reducing the hunting territories of eagle-owls. The dominance of the common vole (<italic>Microtus arvalis</italic>) in their diet has gradually increased from period A (26.8%) to period C (37.3%). Data from eleven areas around Slovakia are evaluated separately for the three time periods. In period A, the highest proportion of frogs was in the Liptov region (<italic>R. temporaria</italic>, 68.2%), when eagle-owls nested deeper in the mountains. The proportion of frogs decreased towards lower areas, and in the Ponitrie (Nitra river basin) it was only 10.8%. At the same time, the share of <italic>M. arvalis</italic> and larger prey increased. A similar trend of increasing shares of larger prey towards lower locations also applied during the Socialist period (B). In the last 30 years (C), frogs in the higher river basins have given way to European water voles <italic>Arvicola amphibius</italic> and <italic>M. arvalis</italic>. In association with the progressive overgrowth of pastures, forest species such as the yellow-necked mouse (<italic>Apodemus flavicollis</italic>) and bank vole (<italic>Myodes glareolus</italic>) are increasingly prevalent, as are the white-breasted hedgehog (<italic>Erinaceus roumanicus</italic>) and various thrushes (<italic>Turdus</italic> sp.).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00New trend in transfusion medicine – Patient blood management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Transfusion is often part of hospital care, the indication being in constant change as an effect of latest multicentric studies’ result. Although transfusion-related complications decreased significantly, the intervention still involves risks, that are worth assuming if only the anemia of patient cannot be managed with other, safer methods. Management of patients declining transfusion or of those unsuitable for transfusion has brought instructive results in assessment of hemoglobin concentration conditioning the necessity of the intervention. Further development of these findings led to development of Patient Blood Management concept, aiming the optimization of blood product usage while improving morbidity and mortality of patient care. Patient Blood Management applies guides helping to avoid transfusions that are not definitely necessary for patients. Using restrictive transfusion principles, preoperative anemia management, tight hemostasis monitoring and treatment, is not only safer but also cost-effective. The objective of our paper is the brief report of some Patient Blood Management guidelines, and to promote and facilitate the application of the new approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Marfan syndrome associated with type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis in a 27 years old female patient - Case presentation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetically determined connective tissue disorder caused by a mutation in the FBN1 gene, located on chromosome 1, which regulates the production of the glycoprotein Fibrillin 1. This results in different connective tissue diseases, especially cardiovascular involvement. Objective: The aim of our presentation is the description of a case in which type 1 autoimmune diabetes and thyreoiditis coexists in a previously undiagnosed patient with MFS. Case presentation: A 27-years-old female patient presented to the emergency department with a 6 months long polyuria-polydipsia syndrome, with weight loss of -10kg. The onset of diabetes manifested with severe ketoacidosis (blood glucose=674 mg/dl, pH=7,036, urinary ketone bodies=159 mg/dl). Pathological laboratory findings include C-peptide=212 ng/ml, anti glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) = 5,1UI/ml, ATPO=558 UI/ml. Clinical features of MFS could be recognised, like dolicocephalic face with enophthalmus, height: 184 cm, weight: 40 kg with a BMI of 11,81 kg/m2 respectively 50 kg and 14,77 kg/m2 before weight loss; long limbs, arachnodactyly, kyphoscoliosis, mitral systolic murmur. Imaging procedures showed atrial septal defect with a 6 mm bidirectional shunt, the ascending aorta, the trunk and the aortic isthmus were dilated, mitral valve prolapse, tricuspid valve insufficiency and dilatation of the right heart cavities, interatrial septal aneurysm and pulmonary hypertension. The ECG showed a right branch block. Ophthalmologic examination confirms the lens subluxation. Discussion: The etiology of diabetes and thyroiditis has proven to be autoimmune. With the introduction of base-bolus insulin therapy glycemic control was obtained and beta-blocker treatment was started for the cardiac involvement. Summary: This particular case is unique due to the fact that associates two serious lifelong diseases. MFS should be considered on the basis of morphological characteristics, which requires further investigation due to its serious long term complications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The 150th anniversary of the Hungarian Pharmacopoiea – the role of Transsylvanian-born professionals. The challenges of the third millennium<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Two editions of the epoch-making first Hungarian pharmacopoeia (1871, 1888) were published in the 19th century. In the 20th century, this was followed by five more editions of the National Pharmacopoeia.</p> <p>There were many prominent Transylvanian specialists among the co-workers of these publications (III. - VII., 1909-1986) Lajos Dávid, senior dr. Béla Issekutz, dr.Zsigmond Jakabházy, junior dr. Miklós Jancsó, László Kovács, Dénes Kőszegi, István Novák, Tibor Széki, Lajos Winkler representing almost all fields of pharmacology and pharmacy. Their role in the field of Hungarian medical and pharmacist training, education and organization of scientific research proved to be perpetual.</p> <p>On the 150th anniversary of the publication of the first Hungarian pharmacopoeia, with this study we pay tribute to the memory of these outstanding scientists and their endeavour to create lasting values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of psycho-sociodemographic features in referred male psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Suicide is defined by the World Health Organization as an act in which an individual ends his or her own life. Suicidal behavior is a major public health problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, the global suicide rate is 10,5/100.000 – 13,5/100.000 in case of men and 7,7/100 000 in case of women and is the 2nd most common cause of violent death. Suicide is a multifactorial phenomenon that can be approached from different perspectives. In Romania, this rate is similar to the global rate: in 2016, the estimated suicide rate was 10.4/100,000, well below the European average. Suicide rates vary by region, age group, gender, ethnicity, and registration of mortality statistics. The aim of the present study is to investigate the psycho-socio-demographic indicators of a cohort of patients with suicidal thoughts emergency referred to a particular psychiatric ward in one year. In our research, we performed a case-control, analytical, randomized, observational study at the Clinical Hospital of Neurology and Psychiatry Brasov among adult psychiatric patients admitted during 2014. The following data on patients were processed: demographic data (age, gender, place of residence), psychosocial data (social background, marital status, education), chronic somatic comorbidities, family history of psychiatric illness, pre-existing psychiatric illnesses, previous suicide attempts and their characteristics. The risk of suicide was assessed by the Modified Scale for Suicide Ideation - Miller et al. Questionnaire and distinguished 3 categories. In our sample of 77 cases we identified 14 patients with low suicide risk, 17 with moderate risk and 46 with high suicide risk. The focus of our study was on suicidal behavior. Suicide attempt, as a complex clinical problem with a waste complexity of ethiology, has high demands on psychiatric care. Being familiar with the different psycho-socio-demographic profiles by gender is proved to be a useful tool in both “screening” and in subsequent case management. These principles can facilitate decision-making, can increase adherence to treatment, and reduce the risk of repetitive attempts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Comments on the Hungarian pharmacopoeias in the 19th century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Before 150 years the first Hungarian pharmacopoeia was compiled in 1871 as a result of nearly one century of national efforts. The first four editions were published in two languages, Hungarian and Latin. The second edition (1888) became better than the first one showing significant progress mainly in terms of speciality language.</p> <p>Based on the first edition Prof. Kálmán Balogh, medical doctor, published an encyclopaedic commentary, which is an unparalleled source-work of the contemporary Hungarian pharmacological literature.</p> <p>Geyza Karlovszky and Lajos Winkler issued a pocket edition (“Pocket Commentary”) based on the chemistry articles of the second edition of the pharmacopoeia, which became an important practical handbook of pharmacist education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Cystic Echinococcosis in Slaughtered Cattle and Sheep from North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cystic echinococcosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection, commonly seen in areas where livestock and dogs are kept together. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis in slaughtered cattle and sheep in North Macedonia and to evaluate the location and fertility/sterility rates of the cysts. A total of 302 slaughtered animals were examined with visual inspection, palpation, and incision of the internal organs in order to detect cysts. Microscopic examination was carried out to determine the presence of protoscoleces. The overall prevalence of echinococcosis in slaughtered cattle and sheep was 60%. The presence of cysts increased with age in cattle. In both cattle and sheep, the most common affected organs were the liver and lungs infected with more than one cyst. The findings showed higher fertility rate in sheep which confirmed their role as the most important intermediate host. This study shows that North Macedonia is an endemic region, and serious control strategies should be implemented, with special emphasis on safety disposal of infected organs and anthelmintic treatment of the dogs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of Enterotoxigenic Potential of Isolates from Cheese Samples with Two Different Methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The primary objective of our study was to detect the occurrence of enterotoxigenic <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> in diverse types of cheese (cow's milk cheese and mixed milk cheese) samples from R.N. Macedonia. Cheese samples were analyzed for enumeration and isolation of the <italic>S. aureus</italic> strains according to ISO 6888-1. We detected the toxigenic potential of the strains by the use of the Enzyme Link Fluorescent Assay VIDAS system, and we confirmed the presence of the SEs (<italic>sea, seb, sec, sed, see</italic>) genes by multiplex PCR. The results showed that out of 270 samples of cheese, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) were detected in 27 (10%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci in five samples (1.8%). Biochemically, all 27 CPS samples were confirmed to be <italic>Staphylococcus aureus.</italic> With VIDAS SET2 test we confirmed that 11 isolates are producers of one of the toxins limited by the test. With the conventional PCR we confirmed genes in only 7 isolates. Most common detected gene was <italic>seb</italic> n=3 (42.8%), followed by <italic>sea</italic> n=2 (28.6%), and <italic>sec</italic> n=2 (28.6%). Additionally, <italic>sed</italic> and <italic>see</italic> genes were not detected in any of the <italic>S. aureus</italic> isolates. Discrepancies between the two test methods for detection of enterotoxigenic potential are not uncommon. The presence of viable <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> cells that have enterotoxin potency demonstrates the importance of appropriate hygiene practices in the diary process and also the maintenance of the products in order to obtain a safe final product for the consumers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Gamma and Proton Radiation Exposure on Hematopoietic Cell Counts in the Ferret Model<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>Exposure to total-body radiation induces hematological changes, which can detriment one’s immune response to wounds and infection. Here, the decreases in blood cell counts after acute radiation doses of γ-ray or proton radiation exposure, at the doses and dose-rates expected during a solar particle event (SPE), are reported in the ferret model system. Following the exposure to γ-ray or proton radiation, the ferret peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts decreased whereas neutrophil count increased within 3 hours. At 48 hours after irradiation, the WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts decreased in a dose-dependent manner but were not significantly affected by the radiation type (γ-rays verses protons) or dose rate (0.5 Gy/minute verses 0.5 Gy/hour). The loss of these blood cells could accompany and contribute to the physiological symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Housing in the Animal Enclosure Module Spaceflight Hardware Increases Trabecular Bone Mass in Ground-Control Mice<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>During spaceflight, mice are housed in specially designed cages called the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM). Utilization of this flight hardware may affect the skeletal properties of housed animals, independent of microgravity considerations. To address this issue, we studied the effect of 13 days of AEM housing versus standard vivarium enclosure on female C57BL/6J mice (n=12/group). The effects of AEM housing were most pronounced in the trabecular compartment. AEM mice had 44% and 144% greater trabecular bone volume fraction and connectivity density, respectively, versus vivarium. A similar response was seen at the proximal humerus. We noted a decrease in proximal tibia osteoclast surface (-65%) and eroded surface (-73%) for AEM versus vivarium, while tibia trabecular mineralizing surface (MS/BS) was nearly three-fold greater. Surprisingly, there was also decreased osteoblast surface, as well as lower osteoid volume, surface, and thickness at this site. The effects of AEM housing on femur cortical bone were modest: there was greater periosteal MS/BS, with no effect at the endocortical surface, and lower femur stiffness. Taken together, we have demonstrated significant effects of AEM housing on ground control mice, particularly in the trabecular bone compartment. These findings suggest that an early increase in bone formation, perhaps due to altered behavior and loading in this unique housing environment, was followed by decreased bone formation and resorption as the animals adapted to their new environment. Characterization of spaceflight animal housing is critical to elucidating the true effects of microgravity on skeletal parameters and for the proper selection of ground-based controls.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Development in Altered Gravity Influences Height in<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>We investigated the effects of altered gravity on the life cycle of <italic>Dictyostelium discoideum</italic> after and during life-long exposure to one of three altered gravity (<italic>g)</italic> environments: (1) substrate inverted, parallel to and facing the surface of the Earth; (2) hyper-<italic>g</italic>; (3) reduced-<italic>g</italic>. To this end, we measured the height of the final stage of the life cycle, the mature spore-bearing sorocarp. Typically, the sorocarp stands erect and perpendicular to the substrate. In the case of each altered <italic>g</italic> environment, the control cultures were produced and treated identically to the experimental cultures except for the conditions of their exposure to altered <italic>g</italic>. Inverted cultures developing and growing in the same direction as the gravity vector had a mean height of 1.84 mm. Their counterpart control cultures had a mean height of 1.64 mm being therefore statistically significantly shorter. Cultures chronically exposed to a hyper (10) <italic>g</italic> environment produced sorocarps with a mean height of 1.13 mm. These were statistically significantly shorter than their 1 <italic>g</italic> controls whose mean height was 2.06 mm. Clinorotated (simulated reduced <italic>g</italic>) sorocarp heights (mean equal to 2.12 mm) were statistically significantly taller compared to their 1 <italic>g</italic> controls (mean equal to 1.79 mm). The significance level for all the statistical analyses is p &lt; 0.05. Therefore, measurements of the mature stage after life-long exposure to simulated altered gravity show that the final height of the sorocarp is ultimately determined, at least partially, by the gravity environment in which development occurs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Mammalian Reproduction and Development on the International Space Station (ISS): Proceedings of the Rodent Mark III Habitat Workshop<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>The <italic>Mark III Rodent Habitat Workshop</italic> was held at NASA Ames Research Center on March 21-22, 2013 to prepare top-level science requirements for developing a habitat to support studies of mammalian reproduction and development on the International Space Station (ISS). This timely workshop assembled a diverse team with expertise in reproductive and developmental biology, behavior, space biosciences, habitat development, physiology, mouse genetics, veterinary medicine, rodent husbandry, flight hardware development (rodent), and spaceflight operations. Participants received overview presentations from each discipline, discussed concerns, potential risks, and risk mitigations corresponding to distinctive reproductive and developmental phases, and reviewed specific examples of research within the major space bioscience disciplines requiring a Mark III habitat<sup><xref ref-type="fn" rid="j_gsr-2013-0009_fn_001">1</xref></sup> to achieve their objectives. In this review, we present the workshop materials and products, and summarize major recommendations for defining the requirements envelope for the NASA Rodent Habitat (RH) Mark III. Development of this habitat will permit the first long duration studies of mammalian reproduction and development in space, within and across generations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00A Computational Study of the Mechanics of Gravity-induced Torque on Cells<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>In this paper we use Nace’s previous work in order to model the effects of gravity in cells and similar objects. In the presence of the gravitational field of a primary body, the gravity vector can result in numerous effects, some of which are tension, shear, and finally torque. To model the torque effect we use a complete expression for the gravitational acceleration, as this is given on the surface of a planetary body as well as in orbit around it. In particular, on the surface of the Earth the acceleration is corrected for the effect of oblateness and rotation. In the gravitational acceleration the effect of oblateness can be modeled with the inclusion of a term that contains the <italic>J</italic><sub>2</sub> harmonic coefficient, as well as a term that depends on the square of angular velocity of the Earth. In orbit the acceleration of gravity at the point of the spacecraft is a function of the orbital elements and includes, only in our case, the <italic>J</italic><sub>2</sub> harmonic since no Coriolis force is felt by the spacecraft. We derive analytical expressions and calculate the resulting torque effects for various geocentric latitudes, as well as circular and elliptical orbits of various eccentricities and inclinations. We find that elliptical polar orbits result in higher torques, and that higher eccentricities result in higher the torque effects. To any measurable extent, our results do not drastically impact any existing biophysical conclusions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Preliminary Species and Media Selection for the Veggie Space Hardware<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>Plants will be an important component of off-Earth life support systems for food production and atmosphere recycling. “Veggie” is a small vegetable production unit designed for space flight, with a passive water delivery system. Plants can be grown in Veggie using small bags with a wicking surface containing media and fertilizer, i.e., pillows. Pillows planted with seeds can be placed on the wicking surface of the Veggie reservoir and water will wick throughout the media. Multiple small salad and herb species were grown in Veggie analog conditions using both commercial peat-based media and arcillite. Biometric measurements and microbial loads were assessed. Some species grew better in a particular media, but no general trends were apparent. Lettuce plants grew best in the blends of the peat-based and arcillite media. Microbial counts were lower on plants grown in arcillite. Four media types (peat-based mix, arcillite, and blends of the two) were tested in the rooting pillows; tests included Chinese cabbage, Swiss chard, lettuce, snow pea, and radish. Most species grew best in blends of the commercial mix and arcillite. Edible biomass production varied from 3.5-8 grams dry mass/m<sup>2</sup>/day with lettuce having the lowest biomass and Chinese cabbage highest. Radish plants showed an increasing percentage of partitioning to edible roots with increasing arcillite in the media. Pillows appear to offer a simple, effective strategy for containing rooting media and avoiding free water while growing plants in the Veggie hardware.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Spaceflight on Mucin Production in the Mouse Uterus<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>The effects of microgravity on biological tissues are relatively unexplored, especially in regard to the mammalian female reproductive system. To begin to address this issue, the uterine tissue of female mice flown on NASA shuttle mission STS-118 was studied. Three sets of female mice, each consisting of 12 animals, were utilized in this study: flight animals, ground control animals, and baseline animals. The flight animals were housed in the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) of the Commercial Biomedical Testing Module-2 (CBMT-2), which was a part of the payload of the shuttle’s mid-deck locker. Ground control animals were housed in ground-based AEMs, which were kept in a room specifically designed to mimic the environmental conditions of the flight units with regard to temperature, humidity, and light/dark cycles on a 48 hour delay. Baseline animals were housed in standard rodent cages at ambient temperature and humidity and a 12/12 light/dark cycle. The uterine tissue was stained using an Alcian Blue Periodic Acid Schiff staining procedure and the apical mucin layer thickness was subsequently analyzed. Analysis of the mucin layer in the uterus revealed that the thickness of the mucin layer in the flight tissue was significantly thicker that the mucin layers of the ground control and baseline tissue.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Spaceflight Effects and Molecular Responses in the Mouse Eye: Preliminary Observations After Shuttle Mission STS-133<abstract><title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title><p>Spaceflight exploration presents environmental stressors including microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift and radiation exposure. Ocular changes leading to visual impairment in astronauts are of occupational health relevance. The effect of this complex environment on ocular morphology and function is poorly understood. Female 10-12 week-old BALB/cJ mice were assigned to a flight (FLT) group flown on shuttle mission STS-133, Animal Enclosure Module ground control group (AEM), or vivarium-housed (VIV) ground controls. Eyes were collected at 1, 5, and 7 days after landing and were fixed for histological sectioning. The contralateral eye was used for gene expression profiling by RT-qPCR. Sections were visualized by hematoxylin/eosin stain and processed for 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), caspase-3, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and β-amyloid double-staining. 8-OHdG and caspase-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the retina in FLT samples at return from flight (R+1) compared to ground controls, and decreased at day 7 (R+7). β-amyloid was seen in the nerve fibers at the post-laminar region of the optic nerve in the flight samples (R+7). Expression of oxidative and cellular stress response genes was upregulated in the retina of FLT samples upon landing, followed by lower levels by R+7. These results suggest that reversible molecular damage occurs in the retina of mice exposed to spaceflight and that protective cellular pathways are induced in the retina and optic nerve in response to these changes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1