rss_2.0Law FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Law Feed a Rigid Cover to an Elastic One Via a Blanket too Short. An Adaptive Polygraph Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Polygraph test or the Psychophysiological Detection of Deception is a short blanket that cannot cover everything without paying in errors; a clever polygraph examiner and a wise usage of polygraph must make a choice whether to cover the feet or the head with this short blanket and conduct the examination accordingly. But a wiser approach should look to turn the short blanket into an elastic cover that can deal differently with different people and different situations.</p> <p>Following two-three decades of blessed efforts to develop strict standardization in the field, the time has come to start steering the polygraph ship back to greater flexibility and creativity, this time relying on scientific thinking and knowledge. Thus, contrary to the existing trend in the field, I call to drive modern Polygraphy towards developing a scientifically based approach that follows the motto of “Different Things to Different People and Different Situations”. In other words, I call for developing an adaptive approach or <italic>Adaptive Polygraphy.</italic> The Relevant Issue Gravity (RIG) Theory (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_ep-2021-0005_ref_004">Ginton, 2009</xref>) is presented here as a major theoretical and practical carrier for evolving and shaping the <italic>Adaptive Polygraphy.</italic> The article analyzes the current situation and draws some lines to follow in developing an <italic>Adaptive Polygraphy</italic> approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Summary of Doctoral Dissertation the Influence of Sleep Deprivation on the Results of Polygraph Testing by Jan Widacki, Polskie Towarzystwo Kryminalistyczne, Warszawa 2021 Motlyach: , Izdatelstvo Osvita Ukrainy, Kyiv 2021, pp. 568 (in Russian) Ludwik Krzewiński, MD – the Creator of Polish Narcoanalysis Performance of Slovenian Hospitals: The Development of Sustainable Business Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the Covid-19 epidemic, the Slovenian Government ended the project of rehabilitating Slovenian hospitals that showed negative financial operations by the end of 2016. The special Government Act provided one-time financial compensation and simultaneously tasked the hospitals with preparing rehabilitation programs. A case study applied the rehabilitation programs of 12 Slovenian hospitals and interviews with the directors of individual hospitals to collect data. In-depth analysis revealed several shortcomings that were identified and addressed with measures outlined in the rehabilitation programs. Most of them extend to the areas of activity, financial operations, and health services. The study results suggest that the transformation of the current operating mode of Slovenian hospitals in the direction of creating a sustainable business model would require the definition of sustainable objectives, reorganization and coordination of various institutional factors, and the support of such reform through normative and other systemic measures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00“Beneficial Owners” Policy: Comparison of Its Efficacy in the West with Prospects for Curbing Corruption in China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Registers that collect data on beneficial owners, individuals who, either directly or indirectly, has the power to control companies or enjoy the benefits of ownership, are being implemented in many countries as part of the AML measures. Governments here want to know benefits from a company, to prevent money laundering or financing of terrorists. However, what is not common is the use of such a register to fight corruption. Slovakia has created a special model of the beneficial ownership registry, aimed at financial relations of the state with the private sector, so the information on who benefits from state funds is publicly available. In this context, we were interested in China and the regulation beneficial owners in this country, because, similar to Slovakia, the phenomenon of corruption is here a widespread problem, especially in the field of public procurement. Moreover, an anti-corruption campaign, aimed to clean the relations between the public and private sector, is still ongoing in China. The focus of this article is, therefore, a broad question about institutionalizing control of corruption: Could registration of beneficial owners be legally and technically transferred to the People’s Republic of China to help institutionalize the country’s anti-corruption campaign?</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Perceptions of Industry 4.0 in Visegrad Firms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The definition and understanding of the Industry 4.0 concept vary widely in the literature and among practitioners. The objective of our research was to analyse the perceptions of Industry 4.0 in the Visegrad companies and the explanations for the differences thereof; and second, to compare perceptions of Industry 4.0 between Visegrad firms and experts. Our article relies on a combined methodology: analysis of literature and of information gained from questionnaire-based semi-structured interviews, conducted with randomly selected company representatives, academic and industry experts, and representatives of government agencies. Our results show that most Visegrad firms identify Industry 4.0 only with a limited set of selected new technologies, while experts usually have a more complex understanding of it, identifying it with a new business model. It would be important to have a clearly defined concept in order to elaborate related nationwide strategies and related economic and other policy tools.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors Influencing the Level of Tax Literacy of Students of Bachelor Study Programmes in Economics at Faculties of Economics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is devoted to the issue of tax literacy, where the aim is to identify factors that affect the level of tax literacy of students of economics at the bachelor’s degree level in the Czech Republic. Through a questionnaire survey, students’ knowledge was tested and research hypotheses were verified using statistical and econometric methods. The survey showed that the level of tax literacy of the defined sample of respondents was satisfactory. Moreover, it was found that this knowledge is mainly influenced by the factor of taking courses with a focus on tax issues and the respondent’s own perception of the level of tax literacy. Specifically, respondents who had taken a tax course or considered themselves tax literate had, on average, five percentage points higher scores on the tax literacy test. On the other hand, the gender of the respondent can be considered a statistically insignificant factor.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Legality of Anti-Terrorist Screening of Job Seekers Under EU Law and National Law. A Theoretical and Practical Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the scientific paper is to identify employer’s options when engaging in anti-terrorist screening of future employees and to assess the compliance of such a procedure with the relevant European and national legislation. Through the use of qualitative scientific methods such as the analytical-descriptive method, comparison, critical analysis, induction, deduction, and synthesis of the acquired knowledge, the authors draw attention to a different approach to choosing appropriate legal bases for processing relevant information about employees, including different approach to labour law and the personal data protection law. The analysis of the principle of legality of personal data processing in the framework of anti-terrorist screening of job seekers takes into account a specific position of the job seeker as a weaker party to the prospective employment agreement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Frame Agreement For Cross-Border Cooperation Between Local Authorities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The cross-border cooperation of local authorities, taken up based on the administrative law of each of the states, is marked by both integrating factors that refer to the similarities of the applicable system of law and separating factors arising from the principle of territoriality of administrative law. The frame agreement is a smart solution (a smart tool) of cross-border cooperation, because it enables cooperating territorial self-government units to conduct a unique operation of ‘recompensing’ separating factors with integrating factors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Summary Report on the Fourth Wroclaw Conference on Competitiveness and Sustainability: “Global Challenges, Innovative Approaches, and Civic Action” Integration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article is devoted to smart integration taking place on the Polish–German borderland and, more precisely, the border between the Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the Saxony Länder, which, according to the author, is the result of an evolution of forms of transfrontier cooperation of territorial self-government units. It will analyse the conditions for the emergence of forms of cooperation in the transfrontier area and their evolution in European experiences to date and, after 1990, also with the involvement of Polish territorial self-governments.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Computerization of the Fiscal Administration as One of the Conditions of Smart Administration in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Public administration is constantly changing, with the objective of keeping up with the social, economic and technological developments of the modern world. It is opening up to modern technologies, introducing ever newer innovations and attempting to satisfy the needs of the citizens. It is no longer seen to such a large extent as an archaic structure that is blind to reforms and modernization; as a result of which, it can start to be perceived as a smart organization. New instruments are being introduced in many areas of administration, one of them being the fiscal administration. The changes related to the ability to communicate electronically with the tax authorities, submit electronic tax returns or pay stamp duty electronically are certainly aspects that have a positive impact on the whole image of administration, enabling it to be referred to as ‘smart’. The paper provides an overview on the fiscal administration system in Poland and e-services provided thereby.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Smart Practices in Public Administration to End Homelessness: the Example of Scandinavian Countries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Homelessness is a phenomenon for which the scale is growing at an alarming rate in Europe. It leads to the exclusion of people affected by it, to the denying of human dignity, and it constitutes a threat to human health and life. It is a multidimensional phenomenon in its substance and causes that lead to it. Therefore, it is necessary for the European states to take steps to prevent and reduce its scale. This requires thoughtful, sometimes innovative activities that bring with them a serious financial outlay for their implementation. It also concerns Poland, where the basic form of assistance to the homeless people is still a shelter, which is far from the level of assistance provided to the homeless people in the countries of Western Europe, especially in countries such as Finland, Denmark or Norway. The aim of the article is a theoretical overview of the notion of smart practices in public administration to end homelessness in selected Scandinavian countries and its state affair in Poland, using relevant scientific literature. The article provides the reader with information about the homelessness strategies implemented in Finland, Denmark and Norway, and refers them to the Polish conditions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Smart City: From Concept To Implementation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents four interpretations of the term smart city, which are not competitive with each other, but even so, municipal authorities knowingly choose the so-called strong preference, as well as shows the conditions for implementing Smart City Projects, which is treated as one of the mechanisms of implementing the idea of the smart city. We also draw attention in the article to the logic of preferences, which is rooted in every decision-making process of municipal authorities, which were forced to make constant choices in conditions of conflicting expectations of stakeholders.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Dimensions of Smart Administration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Smart public administration (hereinafter: smart administration) is understood primarily as the application of modern technologies that increase its effectiveness. However, not only modern techniques and innovative communication solutions define this concept. They should be considered in a broader sense because smart administration has many dimensions. The article presents just such an approach and discusses five dimensions of smart administration (technological, political, legal, subjective and structural).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00School and Education as a Part of Public Administration in the Perspective of a Smart Organisation – Selected Attributes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study is aimed at emphasising the selected aspects of smart education with regard to the school perceived as an intelligent knowledge-based organisation challenged by state-of-the-art civilisational and technological educational solutions. The study focuses on school and education with respect to the structure and function of public administration perceived as an intelligent organisation. School and educational services will determine and influence future generations of public administration staff. Their brainpower as well intellectual resources (knowledge, skills and experience) will serve the welfare of the society. Highly intelligent administration may win the respect for the organisation itself and for its services rendered to the society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Smart Administration– Really? Why Not? Introduction<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In an increasingly smarter world, where increasingly more areas of social life are encompassed by “smart solutions”, public administration cannot remain on the outside or in opposition to this process. The scholars of the Section of the Public Administration System at the Institute of Administrative Sciences of Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics at the University of Wrocław, have decided to devote a collective publication to the matter of smart administration. The articles comprising this volume present a rich array of topics related to the issue of smart administration, as each of the authors has chosen a different area of administrative activity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1