rss_2.0Industrial Chemistry FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Industrial Chemistry Chemistry Feed influence of water price and the number of residents on the economic efficiency of water recovery from grey water<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the results of an analysis of the economic viability of using an installation for the treatment of grey water. Economic indicators in the form of simple payback time (SPBT) and net present value (NPV) were used in the analysis. The use of a dual water supply system should theoretically enable the reduction of the costs of both water supply and sewage disposal, ensuring investment profitability. The article presents the impact of the number of residents as well as the impact of water and sewage on the profitability of using example water-recovery systems. It was found that both factors have a huge impact on the result of the economic analysis. For a small number of residents and at a low price of water supply and sewage disposal, it is not profitable to invest in a water-recovery system. This is due to the high price of purification devices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A suitability assessment using an instrumented impact test of the use of selected structural steel grades on the basis of their changes in response to exposure to fire<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, changes occurring in structural steel after exposure to fire are described and discussed. The steel structure before and after fire determines its susceptibility to brittle cracking. The individual phases of cracking are described and interpreted on the basis of a load-displacement graph, directly obtained from the Charpy impact test. The relationship between the intensity of individual fracture energies and the type and appearance of the sample fractures are demonstrated. The program of planned Charpy impact tests and expected hazards after the exposure to fire of selected steel grades are presented. Standard simplified load-displacement graphs are assigned to the steel transition curve. The course of various cracking mechanisms occurring in the case of brittle fractures and plastic fractures are discussed. The aim of this article is to evaluate the possibility of the assessment of structural steel after a fire based on results obtained during the Charpy impact test.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Small Historical Centres: an opportunity for the “smart” revitalization of Inner Areas in the Post (post) COVID Era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Pandemic is forcing everyone to become aware of the need for a change in the cultural and socio-economic paradigms of recent decades.</p> <p>During the twentieth century, on the one hand, entire populations concentrated in urban areas with ever higher population densities, at the same time giving rise to the phenomenon of “urban sprawl” or “suburbanization”.</p> <p>On the other hand, entire territories have been abandoned (the so-called “inner areas”).</p> <p>Now, we can define territorial rebalancing strategies based precisely on the reactivation of “inner areas”. Strategies that, in the Post (post) COVID era will have to be not only resilient, but anti-fragile. And the key is precisely in the future of the smaller historical centres.</p> <p>This article aims to review the strengths and weaknesses of small historic centres, outlining possible scenarios for their “smart” revitalization and for a true sustainable and inclusive development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the possibility of employing 3D printing technology in crisis situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Events related to climate change and the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the increasing incidence of new diseases, have all caused the prominence of regional security and crisis management around the world to rise. Three-dimensional printing, which has seen noteworthy developed in recent years, both in terms of print parameters, and the magnitude of the production potential, may prove helpful in this matter. Enormous opportunities have arisen which, if properly directed, can save human life and preserve health in crisis situations, when traditional supply chains could be disrupted or even prevented. The use of additive technologies, however, has its limitations and in order to be able to take full advantage of the opportunities they offer, a legitimate functional system should be created and embedded within proper structures to support crisis management. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printers and the possibility of their implementation as part of the current crisis-response systems. The article proposes a model for incorporating additive technologies into the crisis-management system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Rzeszów as an example of a ‘new town’ tailored for the modern era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The city life cycle is an issue that can be considered from many perspectives. Klaassen’s period cycle is the basic model of city life: urbanisation– suburbanisation–deurbanisation–reurbanisation. In each of these periods, cities develop by, building and transforming their structures. This article presents various approaches to shaping new urban spaces using the city of Rzeszów as an example. In the city’s history, three periods are distinguished during which structures referred to as the ‘new town’ were created in the 16<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries and continue to be created now. After analysing the site-forming processes, the most important features of new-town urban systems are compared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00A review of modern materials used in military camouflage within the radar frequency range<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents an overview of materials which can be employed used to camouflage objects on the modern battlefield in the radar frequency range.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Mixing effects in the river downstream from pollution discharge point<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper follows the propagation of pollution in a river with a rectangular cross-section of the river bed and a variable cross-sectional velocity. The calculations were made for steady flows and steady pollutant concentrations. To approximate the velocity distribution in the river bed a set of equations for current and vorticity functions was solved. The distribution of pollutant concentrations in the river was calculated from a bidirectional advection and turbulent diffusion equation. Analysis of the distribution of concentrations leads to the conclusion that the effects of transverse advection associated with a lateral inflow of pollutants disappear relatively quickly. Therefore, the distribution of concentrations in cross sections further downstream from the point of pollutant discharge can be determined quite accurately just from an advection-diffusion model, with no transverse advection effects included. Such a level of accuracy is usually sufficient to assess the impact of a pollution source on the aquatic environment. The transverse mixing of pollutants in the stream proceeds slowly and creates a large mixing zone in which the concentrations of pollutants (low but still significant for water quality) can be detected in cross-sections that are remote from the pollutant discharge point. Transverse advection may be ignored while calculating concentrations in remote cross sections at straight watercourse sections and in steady state conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00HMM-based phoneme speech recognition system for the control and command of industrial robots<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the integration of human-robot interaction with speech recognition has gained a lot of pace in the manufacturing industries. Conventional methods to control the robots include semi-autonomous, fully-autonomous, and wired methods. Operating through a teaching pendant or a joystick is easy to implement but is not effective when the robot is deployed to perform complex repetitive tasks. Speech and touch are natural ways of communicating for humans and speech recognition, being the best option, is a heavily researched technology. In this study, we aim at developing a stable and robust speech recognition system to allow humans to communicate with machines (robotic-arm) in a seamless manner. This paper investigates the potential of the linear predictive coding technique to develop a stable and robust HMM-based phoneme speech recognition system for applications in robotics. Our system is divided into three segments: a microphone array, a voice module, and a robotic arm with three degrees of freedom (DOF). To validate our approach, we performed experiments with simple and complex sentences for various robotic activities such as manipulating a cube and pick and place tasks. Moreover, we also analyzed the test results to rectify problems including accuracy and recognition score.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Simulation of boronizing kinetics of ASTM A36 steel with the alternative kinetic model and the integral method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, two different mathematical models have been proposed for estimating the diffusivities of boron in the Fe<sub>2</sub>B layer on ASTM A36 steel in the range of 1173 to 1273 K with exposure times of 2 to 8 h. The boride incubation period required for the formation of such a layer was constant regardless of the boriding conditions. In both approaches, the boron diffusivity in the iron phase was considered in an unsaturated matrix. The first approach was derived from the mass balance equation at the (Fe<sub>2</sub>B/substrate) interface while the second approach employed the integral diffusion model. The calculated values of boron activation energies for ASTM A36 steel were found to be very comparable for the two approaches (161.65 and 160.96 and kJ mol<sup>-1</sup>). Afterwards, these values of activation energy were confronted with the results from the literature. Experimental validation of these two approaches has been done by comparing the experimental value of Fe<sub>2</sub>B layer thickness measured at 1123 K for 2.5 h with the simulated values. Finally, the predicted values of Fe<sub>2</sub>B layer thickness were in line with the experimental measurement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmentally assisted cracking in the low pressure superheated hydrogen steam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Low pressure superheated H<sub>2</sub>-steam appears to be an interesting alternative to pressurized water environments, since it is capable of performing accelerated environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) experiments for nickel base and stainless steel alloys. Constant Extension Rate Tensile (CERT) tests were performed with displacement rates of 2×10<sup>-6</sup> or 2×10<sup>-8</sup> ms<sup>-1</sup> at 350, 400, 440 and 480 °C on flat tapered specimens of Type 316L austenitic stainless steel. The tapered shape allows the determination of crack initiation over a range of stresses and strains simultaneously on one specimen and therefore the threshold stress value was obtained. The environment was 6 times more oxidizing than the dissociation pressure of NiO. The acquired mechanical properties are summarized and threshold stresses for EAC crack initiation are evaluated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation on the microstructure, microhardness, and tribological behavior of AA1100-hBN surface composite<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aluminum alloy AA1100 has less wear resistance and mechanical properties than that of other aluminum alloys. This research work is on the fabrication of surface composites of AA1100 alloy by friction stir processing (FSP). The surface composites are fabricated by reinforcing hBN (hexagonal Boron Nitride) in AA1100 alloy to improve the mechanical and tribological properties. The influence of process parameters, rotational speed (rpm), and transverse speed (mm/min) on the microstructural evolution and properties of the fabricated surface composites is investigated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Terephthalohydrazide and isophthalo- hydrazide as new corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid: Experimental and theoretical approaches<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most organic corrosion inhibitors have polar groups through which the molecule can be adsorbed strongly or specifically on the metal surface. In this investigation, terephthalo- hydrazide and isophthalohydrazide were synthesized as corrosion inhibitors, and their corrosion-inhibiting properties on mild steel were evaluated in a corrosive environment by weight loss measurements. The results of corrosion experiments revealed that terephthalohydrazide and isophthalohydrazide as inhibitors controlled or reduced corrosion through adsorption mechanism and showed inhibitive efficiencies of 96.4 % and 97.2 %, respectively, at the optimum concentration of 0.5 mM. The surface morphology of the metal was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The terephthalohydrazide or isophthalohydrazide molecules were adsorbed on the mild steel surface, and the process of adsorption follows chemical adsorption. Quantum chemical calculations of the tested corrosion inhibitors were consistent with the experimental observations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Impediments in cluster development: the case of Târnave valley<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many years after the fall of communism, the Romanian wine industry has been still struggling to overcome lot of challenges such as erratic weather, unfair competition, lack of investments or the need for a clear vision of the future path of growth. The industry has reached eventually a level of maturity although there is still much to be done in terms of, among others, network-oriented management skills and the acknowledgement of the importance of the role of location for upgrading competitive advantages. Cluster development initiatives have become lately an important direction of economic policy, building on earlier macroeconomic stabilization efforts, opening up markets and reducing business costs. Companies that operate within a cluster, as opposed to those that are not integrated in such agglomerations, benefit from externalities thanks to their location, have better access to specialized suppliers, technological improvements and skilled labor, as well as direct connections to specialized knowledge flows. Is cluster formation and development a driver for the revival of the Romanian wine industry? What are the impediments that delay further progress? To answer these questions, a qualitative research was conducted with support of statistical data collected mainly from the Global Competitiveness Report, the Romanian Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the National Institute of Statistics, and the International Organization of Vine and Wine. The paper focuses on the case of the vine and wine region of the Târnave Valley to understand the impediments for cluster development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Neuromanagement: the scientific approach to contemporary management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The last years have been marked by the attempts to approach the management discipline from a new, innovative perspective, in accordance with the present times, marked by complex challenges and highly increased competition. Given the importance and impact of scientific advances and also the explosion of research in the field of neuroscience, management had to be redefined and its critical variables had to be analyzed from a different perspective. An interdisciplinary vision was needed to enable future researches and explanations of the decision-making processes, leadership practices, change management, innovation, creativity, human resources performance, engagement of people and emotions. Literature review has been made, from the classical management theories and models, the historical concepts of man, to the new, full of perspectives spectrum of neuroscience, brain functioning and, its infinite potential, that opened new horizons, uncovered resources and tools to face the realities of the new business world. The main purpose of this article is to overview the transition from management to neuromanagement, from leadership to neuroleadership, the role and impact of these concepts on the holistic approach of management science. This evolution allows not only the confirmation of a set of assumptions but also access to a wide range of knowledge, with multiple possibilities of applications in organizational management and opens avenues for future researches.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Indefinite vs. fixed-term work contracts: the impact over the teachers’ work-engagement<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A teacher’s work during the school year should be seen as a marathon or as a sprint? This paper intends to contribute to the expanding body of literature on the work-engagement issues of education employees from a perspective of strategic human resources management. It investigates how the length of their working contracts influences the level of engagement shown for their work. It was assumed that the existence of an indefinite or a fixed-term work contract brings up aspects such as stability, predictability and coherence for a teacher’s work, all thought to be parts of a positive engagement state of mind. Nevertheless, the acknowledgement and the acceptance of a short time collaboration could bring just as good results if the focus remains on the present moment. In order to gain a better understanding it was performed a quantitative research materialized in a questionnaire, answered by school teachers employed under both forms of contracts. The findings of this study are of value for any of the educational field stakeholders as the system’s human resources are the most valuable asset for a qualitative result. In the end, implications of a predominant engaged or disengaged stuff will be discussed and human resources management suggestions will be made.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Considerations on the void or voidable agreement under Romanian law<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of nullity under New Civil Code enacted on 1st of October 2011 has been amended. Thus, the New Civil Code brings more clarity and amends partially some of the former concepts of nullity and its legal regime. In this respect, new legal provisions have been enacted for the purpose of clarifying the nature and the effects, respectively the option to confirm/remedy or, to restore the null and/or voidable legal acts. The notary public becomes a new competence through which the nullity can be confirmed upon parties’ request. Such new procedure saves a lot of resources for the parties with no/low appetite to initiate and to be part of the court action. This paper aims to critically to analyze the novelties and to identify the upsides and the downsides which may incur in practice when implementing such new concepts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors with impact on the knowledge management practices within shared service centers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays it has become easier and easier to reach and achieve information and a great reason for that is the fast evolution of technology. Along with these less complicated opportunities to access information there is an increasing consciousness of recognizing the ways to use it in different moments in time especially within the business environment. Successful organizations empower employees to share knowledge by rewarding them for such actions. And the organization’s leaders must be role models of sharing knowledge regularly with their teams, and they should discuss openly about successes and failures. Taking all these aspects into account, in this paper various processes of knowledge management (KM) are presented from theoretical approaches to practical ones. Successful examples of KM within multiple Shared Service Centers of two multinational companies based in Bucharest, Romania are displayed in order to uncover best practices. A qualitative and in the same time a quantitative investigation were expanded and tested in these Shared Service Centers with the objective to detect the current most suitable patterns and procedures of KM in 2019 and, simultaneously, the difficulties in applying the KM methods within an organization. Information from different employees in the companies was gathered regarding the key success factors of implementing Knowledge Management in organizations (organizational culture, leadership, efficient and systematic processes, technology and strategy). The results certified that communication, along with an open professional behavior, sharing experiences and teamwork as the most important factors for boosting Knowledge Management within the organization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Romanian family business branding: contextual factors of influence of decisional processes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the difficulties of the economic environment and the challenges encountered, family businesses in Romania are drivers of economic growth. The tumultuous history and the cultural differences have impacted the way businesses are conducted and how decisions are made, especially in family-run companies, influencing how the family aspect is being portrayed and turned into a competitive advantage. The purpose of this paper is to determine how these contextual factors are influencing the promotion of the family aspect in the family business brand. The methodology of this paper is the exploratory qualitative interview-based study. Empirical data has been collected by way of in-depth semi-structured interviews with eleven Romanian family business owners or managers selected through non-probability purposive sampling, further analysed using content analysis technique. Results suggest that Romania’s cultural background directly affects family businesses and the way they promote their family image, identity and reputation. Although this has a positive effect, few Romanian family businesses are active and promote themselves on the marketplace as a family business. Romanian families have a high degree of autonomy and accountability in relation to local communities which can help or impede the development of a family brand because both families and communities require transparency and there is a high degree of uncertainty which can impact both the business and the family owners. The reference to current literature primarily relates to the position of the family in the business but most notably to branding. The role of family members is drawn to limit actions in certain aspects of promotion and branding, as a direct result of high-conservative views.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving the performance of organizational innovation processes by applying the Six Sigma methodology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concept of innovation management with the Six Sigma methodology, focusing on the impact analysis of the quality management principles on the organizational innovation processes. To achieve this objective, the DMAIC methodology was used – define (D), measure (M), analyze (A), improve (I) and control (C). Based on this methodology by introducing innovation in the improvement phase of the DMAIC model, we developed the model called DMAIC - IM (DMAIC - Innovation Management model). A case study related to the implementation of the DMAIC-IM Model was carried out within a company that produces and sells products for the automotive industry. Thus, the performances of the processes were measured, the obtained values were compared with the ideal values from a statistical point of view and the methods for eliminating the variations were identified. Also, the critical factors of the innovation success of organizations were analyzed resulting ways to remove the obstacles that lead to this success. According to the research results, the application of the Six Sigma methodology has a positive impact on the performance of the organizational innovation processes. The proposed solution has a set of indicators and can help organizations to improve their system of evaluating the innovation processes performances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficient institution in the context of environmental policies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of new environmental paradigms for the efficient customization of both traditional and renewable energy systems, the international regulations aim to be effective sources of alignment. The control practices in a big state-owned enterprise are the concepts implemented in this paper into a multi-criteria decision-making model for understanding, observing and accommodate the personnel for reaching high service quality. The best practices for effective policy design are alternatives in an Analytic Network Processes model designed and estimated by the staff in the audit department of the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy (RRAE). This model integrates all the national and international regulations at which the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy adhered and it determines what is the practical measures need to be taken at the level of each and every employee, in terms of individual forms of evaluation, so that principles regarding the implementation of the energy efficient systems produce tangible effects. The conceptual instrument considered for the effective alignment is the internal marketing. Internal marketing as a method built the foundation of a multi-criteria decision-making model whose alternatives are employees” evaluations forms. The model designed and estimated by staff in the audit department of the Romanian Regulatory Authority for Energy is developed using the analytic network processes theory (ANP) and the SuperDecisions software.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1