rss_2.0History FeedSciendo RSS Feed for History Feed military maintenance and repair with additive manufacturing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the study is to explore whether Additive Manufacturing (AM) can support the military maintenance and repair of combat troops at isolated tactical level maintenance sites. The study also sought an explanation as to how AM could be organised in military logistics. The subject was approached from a systemic perspective. A system dynamics modelling was used as an impact assessment method. When selecting the parameters used in the model, the 3D printing data of the spare parts printed on the MTLB armoured personnel carrier (APC) were utilised. With simulation, we identified several key nodes for replacing or enhancing conventional military logistics with an AM added supply chain. As a result of the study, it was identified that by adding metal AM to the mechanised battalion organic maintenance and repair at the field level, it can produce spare parts whose use will improve APC recovery in the event of failure. We found that the relatively slow production speed of AM is the most influential factor in the use of the method. This study introduces a new perspective on reviewing the potential of AM in military logistics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00A legal review of sieges in modern war<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the relationship between Western military doctrine, international law, and the impact of sieges in war. This paper examines three case studies – the battles of Mosul (2016–2017), the Second Battle of Donetsk Airport (2014–2015), and Ghouta – to analyze the effect of international law on the conduct of sieges and how that impacts the attacker, the besieged, and the innocent bystanders. In the end, we find that Western military doctrine is inadequate to address siege situations, which in turn can result in mishandling siege situations from an international law standpoint. Additionally, we find that international law, as well as applied law, provides the actors therein sufficient leeway to create the conditions for the siege to continue to be used well into the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Zukunftspolitik im Technozän. Der Technikfolgendiskurs in den 1970er Jahren<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At the end of the post-war economic boom in the late 1960s, a new paradigm of futures studies emerged in “western” nations and institutions. Following an era which saw a broad, albeit ambivalent, influx of cybernetic planning discourses and a euphoria for growth and science, undesired and unplanned consequences of scientific and economic expansion were now chiefly problematized. This article traces the discourse of Technology Assessment (TA), a political and scientific process in development to “foresee” harmful effects on environments, societies, and economies. It soon proved to be a field of action for both politicians who valued it as a means of technology control, and for experts of futurology to reappraise their methods under new auspices. TA and its scientific and institutional legacy in the present relate to the ongoing debate about the Anthropocene. While TA is in its essence oriented towards a progressive and positivistic outlook on the future and knowledge thereof, the Anthropocene discourse has similar origins in futures semantics found in the 1970s. Both concepts should be historicized in regard to their scientific and political contexts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Allochronie im Anthropozän: Ein Gespräch mit Erhard Schüttpelz<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Against the backdrop of the climate crisis and Anthropocene injustices, this conversation unfolds the concept of allochrony to examine modernity as a temporal regime that relied on the attribution of non-simultaneity to the populations of western colonies under the ethnographic gaze of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Positioning the racialized signifier of “the primitive” as a key concept and foil in understanding the articulation of modern subjectivity around 1900, modern temporalities are grounded in the construction of a temporal hierarchy that legitimized the dispossession of land and oppression of Indigenous peoples at the height of European imperialism. Drawing on cultural anthropology, media theory, and the history of science, this conversation provides a critical assessment of the Anthropocene by foregrounding the colonial violence and inherent paradoxes of modern epistemologies as a function of temporal categorization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Wie die Geschichte(n) der Erde bewohnen? (Literarische) Kompositionen von planetarer Zeit zwischen Moderne und Anthropozän<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As human activities increasingly shape the material reality of the earth, it becomes important to embed the temporalities of human experience and history in the larger context of planetary temporalities. In this article I ask for a composition of planetary time that allows as a theoretical framework to explore the manifold relations between human and more-than-human kinds of time. In a first step, I show how the relation of geological ‘deep time’ to historical time in modern geology is dominantly constructed as a dichotomy and how this dichotomic construction troubles the Anthropocene discourse, for example in Dipesh Chakrabarty’s seminal essays. In a second step, I argue that planetary temporalities should not be reduced to the geological construction of deep time. As an alternative, I propose to conceive of planetary temporality as a plurality of ‘sympoietic times’. Thinking with Donna Haraway and Anna Tsing, this approach highlights the ways in which heterogenous kinds of time entangle in world-making processes that shape the earth. Finally, I show how literary representations of geological time can be seen as a reservoir of knowledge about the manifold sympoietic relations between the temporalities of human experience and the time scales of earth history.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Vom Ausgang der Erde aus der Welt des Menschen, oder: Wie das „Prä-“ vor die Geschichte kam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The anthropocene discourse is a fascinating intervention into the current understanding of the human sphere and its environment, stimulating the re-shaping of “natural” as well as disciplinary, epistemological boundaries. But the vivid circulation of this vibrant term seems to hide the fact that the binary of the natural and the cultural sphere is not a recent invention nor is it itself a “natural” differentiation. This article will therefore shed light on its intellectual predecessors and its diachronic depth discussing contributions to European enlightenment historiography around 1800 and their narrowing understanding of “universal history” as human, written history – and as such clearly separated from the history of the earth and other species. Analyzing this crucial episode of modern historiography is of genuine importance: this specific understanding of history as limited to humans has to be regarded as the fundamental epistemological shift separating the two worlds of nature and culture that remains influential until the present day and is currently challenged by the anthropocence discourse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00(Re)Synchronisierung auf dem Boden der Tatsachen? Die Pedosphäre als Übersetzungsregion anthropologischer und geologischer Zeitlichkeit<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The new geological epoch defined by hu/man brings an end to the modern narrative and worldview of an independent anthropological agent who thrives on the passive and unlimited resources of nature and thus, one day, will transcend planetary boundaries to become truly liberated. Counterintuitively to its name, this new planetary time unit is characterized by a critical situation of formerly separated entities, hu/man and earth, which now prove to be inextricably bound together but struggle to find a common and thus livable ground. By taking ground (stemming from Greek pédon) in the sense of earth, soil and bedrock as a literally and materially relevant contact zone of our current geo-historical transformation, alternative relationships of mankind and planet can be developed. Especially the notion layers of time allows for a useful approach to both forms of horizontal manifestation, geological and historical strata, which express the interdependent reality or co-constructive worlding in the age of Anthropocene. Thus, the Anthropocene indicates an ambivalent and yet undefined dynamic for the planet and its inhabitants, since extensive geoengineering, the excavation and penetration of ground, signifies the undertaking of hu/man to realize dominance over the planet, while myriad human trace fossils are giving an ominous sign of mankind’s wasteful and self-destructive lifestyle, signaling an imminent return to the earth it originally emerged from.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Das „diplomatische Jahrhundert“: Mediatisierung von Zeitverhältnissen in den Staatswissenschaften des 18. Jahrhunderts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This essay argues that the assessment of the Anthropocene as a geological period characterized by the irreversible influence of human action on its environments should be supplemented by the consideration of media that shape the notion of history and its temporal structures – and therefore allow for such an assessment in the first place. For this purpose, the text examines practices of paperwork in early modern Germany. Reconstructing Johann Gottfried von Meiern’s concept of a past formed by historical records that can be collected and edited, it considers how practices of editing contributed to an understanding of a mediated past accessible through writing, allowing both for a better perception of the present and the planning of the future. The paper then also looks at practices of administrative writing through the example of Friedrich Karl Moser’s reflections on the contra-signature and examines how these practices helped shaping an environment of paperwork that individuals and institutions had to work through. The essay argues that these media practices shaped the concept of media as an environment that could be used as a resource but also needed to be controlled. Hence, early modern paperwork can be understood as part of the prehistory of discourses that complement the notion of the Anthropocene with the concept of a Mediocene.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Walter Benjamins Eschatologie der Katastrophe: Fortschritt, Unterbrechung und das Ende der Geschichte<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper analyses Walter Benjamin’s conceptions of time in the context of Anthropocene thought. In the paper, I study Benjamin’s figures of time and discuss their contribution to understanding the Anthropocene as a critical present. I analyse Walter Benjamin’s temporalities of modernity, focusing progress and primal history (Urgeschichte) in the light of Benjamin’s idea of catastrophe. I start by explaining Benjamin’s ideas in the context of the Anthropocene discourse. I then proceed to the analysis of specific figures of time, namely of primal history (Urgeschichte), progress, catastrophe and nowtime (Jetztzeit). Questioning the ambiguity of Benjamin’s concept of history, I show a hypothetical, in Benjamin’s sense revolutionary side of the Anthropocene time. In the light of Benjamin’s thought, the latter depicts the utopian, to some extent apocalyptical horizon of the absent border between man and nature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Moderne Zeitlichkeiten und das Anthropozän<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Framed by the difficulty of coming to terms with the disruptive temporalities of the climate crisis, the proposition of the Anthropocene invites a critical re-contextualization of modern concepts of time and subjectivity. The declaration of the human as an agent of geological stratification both re-inscribes and challenges the temporal self-image of western modernity as an anthropocentric narrative of progress and ontological supremacy. Establishing a dialogue between historiography and the environmental humanities, this article embeds the Anthropocene hypothesis in recent scholarship on the pluralization of modern temporalities and suggests opportunities to revisit and decenter the specific hegemonic preconceptions and implications of considering modernity and the Anthropocene as temporal regimes with universalist, yet contingent claims on divergent conceptions of being-in-time. Contextualized with references to the emergence of historicism in the late 19th century and decolonial critiques that help frame the articulation of western modernity as a practice of temporalized hegemony, this article provides a stepping-stone and introduction to what it might mean to revisit and pluralize modern times against the backdrop of the Anthropocene.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Do navigation maps need a legend? Empirical assessment of the intuitiveness of point symbols on mobile maps<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Navigation applications and the mobile maps that are integral to them are now widely used all over the world. The most popular applications of this type, such as Google Maps, has more than a billion users a month. To save time, users of navigation applications generally use the maps without referring to their legends, which are not shown in the default settings. In such circumstances, only intuitive symbols are read correctly. Mobile maps often have an extensive system of point symbols (POIs – points of interests), and navigation applications sometimes differ significantly in the symbols they use. Point symbols have been the subject of theoretical considerations and empirical studies of users, but there is a lack of comparative research indicating more and less effective solutions for designing intuitive symbols on mobile maps. This article presents the results of empirical research on the intuitiveness of POI symbols used in selected navigation applications. The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire with 127 respondents. The results confirmed the hypothesis that the analysed symbols used in navigation applications would differ in level of intuitiveness. In addition, features of design solutions that increase or decrease the intuitiveness of point symbols were identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Kulturökologie und ökologische Kulturen in der Großregion/Écologie culturelle et cultures écologiques dans la Grande Région. bei vielen Beachtung findet: Zu den Transformationen des Populären<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Being popular means getting noticed by many. Popularity is measured as well as staged. Rankings and charts provide information on what is popular while vying for popularity themselves. They do not speak to the quality or originality of the popular, only to its evident success across different scales of evaluation. People do not buy good products, they buy popular ones; they do not listen to the best music, but to popular music; they do not share, like or retweet important, but popular news. Even the ‘unpopular’ can be popular: a despised politician, a hated jingle, an unpopular measure.</p> <p>The popular modifies whatever it affords with attention. Its quantitatively and hierarchically comparative terms (‘bestseller’, ‘outperformer’, ‘high score’, ‘viral’) generate valences that do not inhere in the objects themselves. Conversely, the non-popular, which does not find any measurable resonance in these terms, risks being dismissed as irrelevant or worthless simply because it does not appear in any rankings or ratings. This can also be observed particularly with artefacts whose relevance as part of high culture could be taken for granted even when they do not achieve mass resonance.</p> <p>Our paper proposes the following central hypothesis: The transformations of the popular, which began in Europe around 1800 and introduced the powerful distinction between low culture and high culture, establish a competitive distinction between the popular and the non-popular becoming dominant over the course of the 20th century. As a result, the popular is no longer either culture of the ‘lower classes’ or the inclusion of the ‘people’ in the service of higher goals. The popular today is hardly the object of desired transgressions (Leslie Fiedler’s “cross the border, close the gap”) or an expression of felt or feared “massification” or “flattening”. The dissemination of the popular is no longer a normative project. It has, in fact, become an inescapable condition of cultural self-understanding in the globalised present. The purpose of our research is to devise a theory of the popular that does justice to this fact. Our research outline identifies two decisive transformations that have led to this condition: 1. the popularization of quantifying methods to measure attention in popular culture around 1950; 2. the popularization of the Internet around 2000, whereby the question of what can and cannot become popular is partially removed from the gatekeepers of the established mass media, educational institutions and cultural elites and is increasingly decided via social media.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Emotionen im Feld – Emotionen in der Wissenschaft: Tagebuch und Monographie bei Bronisław Malinowski<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Welche Rolle spielen Emotionen in der Ethnografie? Zwei Texte von Bronisław Malinowski (1884–1942) werden einer kontrastiven Analyse unterzogen: sein postum herausgegebenes Tagebuch, <italic>A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term</italic> (1967), und seine wissenschaftliche Monografie, <italic>Argonauts of the Western Pacific</italic> (1922). Mit der teilnehmenden Beobachtung begründete Malinowski einen Forschungsstil, der die Forschenden in die Lebenswelt der Beforschten auch emotional involvierte. Die Publikation seines Tagebuches löste jedoch einen Skandal aus, weil seine Einträge dem Ideal des empathischen Beobachters zu widersprechen schienen. Da beide Texte auf der gleichen Periode der Feldforschung auf den Trobriand-Inseln in Papua-Neuguinea (1914–1918) beruhen, ermöglichen sie eine vergleichende Versuchsanordnung: Wie unterscheiden sich die Darstellungen der Emotionen des Forschers? Werden im Tagebuch Emotionen verhandelt, die aus der Monografie ,verdrängt‘ wurden? Gibt es umgekehrt Emotionen, die in der Monografie einen größeren Raum einnehmen? Und wie verhalten sich die Darstellung eigener Emotionen, die Darstellung der Emotionen anderer und die Wirkabsicht der Texte zueinander? Die Studie verbindet quantitative und qualitative Verfahren und verfolgt damit ein methodologisches Interesse: Das Vokabular wird anhand von Emotionsdiktionären digital ausgewertet. Schlüsselpassagen werden im close reading rhetorisch und narratologisch verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, wie Malinowski Emotionen, die im Tagebuch breiten Raum einnehmen, in der Monografie ausspart oder nur andeutet. Zugleich zeigen sie die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen digitaler Philologie.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Die Errettung der Zivilisation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Der jüngsten Konjunktur des Animismus, die sich mittlerweile unter der Bezeichnung ‘Neuer Animismus’ (New Animism) zu einer mehr oder minder kohärenten Strömung formiert hat, gilt die animistische Onto-Epistemologie als Gegenmodell zur Moderne, als alternative und für die heutige Zeit opportune Weltanschauung. Als bestimmte Spielart des <italic>Turns</italic> zu relationalen Onto-Epistemologien wird der Neue Animismus genealogisch innerhalb der Geschichte der anthropologischen Animismusforschung sowie innerhalb der symbolischen Ordnung der ‘westlichen Zivilisation’ verortet. Mit Edward Tylors ‘altem’ Animismus aus den Ursprüngen der Disziplin wird die Kontrastfolie für den Neuen Animismus entwickelt; mit Alfred Irving Hallowells Ethno-Metaphysik zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts wird sein Vorläufer vorgestellt; und mit Nurit Bird-Davids wegweisender Wiederaufnahme von Hallowell, erweitert durch James Gibsons Umweltbegriff und Marilyn Stratherns Dividuum, wird schließlich die ‘Gründungsschrift’ des Neuen Animismus präsentiert. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser genealogischen Rekonstruktion wird anhand des programmatischen <italic>The Handbook of Contemporary Animism</italic> (2013) das zentrale Motiv des Versprechens der Rettung der Zivilisation durch die Bewältigung der Krise der Vorstellung exponiert. Ziel der Rekonstruktion ist, die Grundlage für eine Kritik des Neuen Animismus zu legen, die nicht stets aufs Neue die Differenz zu Moderne und Aufklärung betont, sondern den Begriff der Zivilisation zum Ausgangspunkt hat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Problemgeschichten. ‚Rezeption‘ in Hans Blumenbergs frühen Schriften<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Der Artikel erschließt den heuristischen Stellenwert des Begriffs der Rezeption für Hans Blumenbergs frühe Schriften. Blumenberg führt diesen Begriff in seiner Dissertation (1947) zur mittelalterlich-scholastischen Ontologie ein, um eine Dynamik zu beschreiben, in der die unausdrücklichen Voraussetzungen geschichtlicher Transformationsprozesse geschaffen werden, mit der aber auch die Thematisierbarkeit ontologischer oder historischer Probleme insgesamt fraglich wird. Anhand der Sammelrezension <italic>Epochenschwelle und Rezeption</italic> (1958) und des Aufsatzes <italic>Kritik und Rezeption</italic> (1959) lässt sich verdeutlichen, dass das Konzept zwischen Kontinuität und Diskontinuität einerseits, zwischen Textzeugnissen und Latenz andererseits vermittelt. Blumenbergs früher Rezeptionsbegriff ist nicht nur, wie von Hans Robert Jauß später nahegelegt, ein Baustein der Vorgeschichte der Konstanzer Rezeptionstheorie; neben der konzeptuell-heuristischen Funktion ist mit seiner Perspektive vielmehr ein grundlegendes verfahrenstechnisches Problem verbunden, das hier als Vorform einer Philologie der Unbegrifflichkeit gefasst wird.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Ole Nymoen/Wolfgang M. Schmitt (2021): Influencer – Die Ideologie der Werbekörper, Berlin: Suhrkamp, 192 S, ISBN: 978-3-518-07640-8, 15,- Euro. loyalty: a grounded theory about tactical officers’ challenges when leading licensed medical personnel in combat zones<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objectives</title> <p>The aim was to explore the tactical officers’ (TOs) main concerns when leading licensed medical personnel (LMP) in combat zones and how they resolved them.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>A classic grounded theory was chosen in order to develop a theory, which explained and conceptualized the TOs behaviors. Ten individual interviews and five informal conversations were conducted with TOs with various ranks, experienced in leading LMPs on military operations in Afghanistan, Mali and/or Aden (outside the coast of Somalia).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The theory unifying loyalty explains how TOs handle the challenges when leading LMP. To create loyalty TOs use four strategies: executing orders, clearing out roles, marking limits and clarifying rules and laws. These strategies can be used by two leadership styles, hierarchical and democratic.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>In order to fulfill the military duties it is essential to unify LMP in the unit, which is a challenge since LMP experience dual loyalty. The main goal for TOs is to ensure and maintain stability and do the military duties when being in combat zones and that requires using both leadership styles, depending on what the conditions in combat zones requires.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: Sanjay Seth. . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020. 252 pp. ISBN: 978-0197500583 and Boreholes: Resilient Water Provision in Nairobi<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In most Global South cities, the majority of urban residents, especially those in informal settlements, continue to survive off the main infrastructural grid. In Nairobi for instance, over 60% of residents live in informal settlements, defined by widespread squalor and shortage of key infrastructures for everyday living. Despite their existence as unplanned, these informal settlements have witnessed some forms of innovation around alternative technologies for water provision. Through oral and archival sources, this article shows that although large infrastructural systems are critical to urban dwellers, Nairobi’s waterscape has always found its resilience in a quilted landscape of water supply technologies. As part of this quilt, boreholes and wells have long been essential, either as key solutions or as complements to the main supply system. The author explores the development of Nairobi’s centralised formal water supply system from 1899 to date locating inherently built vulnerabilities that are born out of the dependency on large infrastructural systems. He concludes that the centralised piped water supply system is critical hence vulnerable, and that urban resilience for both the poor and rich urban class, is built on alternatives that ensure multiplicity of access and usage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1