rss_2.0History FeedSciendo RSS Feed for History Feed of Russia and Poland for the Smolensk Catastrophe from the Perspective of European Convention on Human Rights in a Limited Liability Company as an Element of Marital Property of Investigation Under Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights and Investigations of Incidents of Historic Significance Issues of Smolensk Tragedy Against the Obligations of Art. 2 of European Convention on Human Rights Requirements Deriving from the Procedural Aspect of Art. 2 of the European Convention of Human Rightsin the Context of Polish and Russian Investigation Regarding the Air Crash of Polish Air Force Tu-154 in Smolensk Agreement from 1993, Its Omission in the Forming of the Process of Investigation on the Causes of Polish Air Force Tu-154 Crash in Smolensk and the Formula of Establishing the Agreement Between the Governments of the Polish Republic and Russian Federation on the Investigation on Its Causes According to the Rules of the Chicago Convention From 1944 Books and Memory – Evaluating the Memorial Site's Significance for Former Stasi Prisoners’ Individual Memories<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Memorial sites document aspects of history. Thus, they represent a historical past deemed relevant by the initiators in the public sphere. The former Stasi detention center and district administration in Dresden Bautzner Straße is a memorial site that is dedicated to a critical representation of the communist dictatorship in East Germany. This does, however, not tell much about the historical site's meaning to the visitors. In order to get an impression of the visitors’ spontaneous reactions and thoughts, I systematically examine and categorize the memorial site's visitor books. Through these books, memorial sites offer visitors the opportunity to write down their thoughts thereby enabling an open channel of communication. My focus is on entries by persons who explicitly identify as former inmates of the very detention center they visited. They make up roughly 10 percent of all entries. I examine which thoughts former Stasi prisoners wrote down having visited their place of ordeal. What feelings and thoughts emerge after the visit? My aim is to shed light on the memorial site's significance and importance for the prisoner's individual memory by analyzing the entries’ type and content. The visitor books offer an authentic and intriguing access to former political prisoners’ mental world and their individual memory. This contribution connects the media representation of the communist dictatorship and its meaning for the former prisoners’ individual memory.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The City of Solidarity's Diverse Legacies: A Framework for Interpreting the Local Memory of the 1963 Skopje Earthquake and the Post-earthquake Urban Reconstruction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On July 26, 1963, a calamitous tremor struck Skopje, the capital of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, the southernmost Yugoslav federal unit. The politically nonaligned Yugoslav government immediately issued a call for help for its third-largest city. The call was initially picked up by the Yugoslav republics, who were then followed by more than 80 states across the globe and a high number of international organizations, all providing help to Skopje and Skopjans in the aftermath of the catastrophe—an episode of human solidarity many contemporaries described as unprecedented. This paper aims to provide an overview of commemorative activities held in Skopje from 1964 to 2020 related to the 1963 Skopje earthquake. I aim to reconstruct both the commemorative events and commemorative narratives about the 1963 Skopje earthquake in Skopje as well as its major memory agents and agencies by triangulating archival materials, media and institutional discourses, and secondary literature. I identify and discuss three commemorative phases, 1963–81, 1981–2000, and 2001–20, and I structure the argument on the multidirectionality of the notion of solidarity in the public domain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Lessons on Communism: Party Schools in Italy in the 20th Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Italian Communist Party created the most effective political school—and the only one in Italy—aimed at creating cadre leaders. The first schools were in Rome and Milan, and over the following decades the school system spread throughout the country, eventually counting about a hundred schools active throughout Italy until 1989.</p> <p>The school in Rome, which was the only one to remain open for a further four years, was the main model for the others. Called the Frattocchie School, it was a residential school in the hills of Rome and was in operation from 1944 to 1993. The students attended classes from six months to a year; they studied historical materialism and the history of Bolshevism but also experienced collective life, group identity, and the theoretical and practical values of communism.</p> <p>The Frattocchie model began with an initial period in which training consisted of the organization and acculturation of the working classes, starting with workers and peasants, according to a schema influenced by the Soviet schools but where the socializing bent of the Italian institutes mitigated the sectarianism and dogmatism of Moscow.</p> <p>The aim of the training was to build the careers of future politicians capable of embodying the ideals of a party that demanded control, preparation, and discipline. For this reason, the Italian Communist Party schools represented an original example in teaching methods and curricula, handing down the memory of communism over time. The diaries, questionnaires, and testimonies of the students who attended the Frattocchie School in its 50 years of activity are important sources and a precious heritage to understand how the Communist “faith” became a vehicle of recognition and belonging. Even today the name Frattocchie is associated with a model of party school to be imitated in order to teach methods and principles to those who want to pursue a political career.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Introduction: Remembering the Socialist Past<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This text focuses on qualitative research of the past when it comes to the communist regimes in Europe, particularly Slovakia (as part of former Czechoslovakia). The authors introduce the ongoing research project Current Images of the Socialism as well as its methodological and theoretical frames. They present the findings and challenges, as also articulated during the international conference Memory of the Communist Past (2020) and introduce selected articles included in this special issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Reconciliation: The Institutionalization of Memory in Post-Yugoslav Slovenia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For Slovenian society the turning point in 1989 meant many things: the making of a new state, a transition to a new political and economic system, but also a new dimension of remembrance. The democratization process that started in the late 1980s and continued in the 1990s was deeply interwoven with the reconfiguration of public remembrance and the legitimation of the nascent Slovenian state. This resulted in a long and still ongoing project of reconciliation (sprava), a process of surpassing the divisions in society caused by the injustices and crimes committed by the Communist leadership in the previous decades. Its goal seems simple: to reach a point where history will no longer be a source of division in politics and where a relative unity could be established within the society.</p> <p>As it moves away from the discussion of the disputed past itself, this article focuses on the history of the concept of reconciliation and the state's subsequent memorial policy of the last three decades. The development of the concept entails changes in the understanding of the past after two major political shifts: after 1990, when Slovenia became an independent state; and again after 2004, when it joined the European Union (EU). The identification of these shifts is based on the changes in the content of political and public debates. I propose that the Slovenian reconciliation between 1990 and 2004 be regarded as a specific element of the period from the end of communism until the Slovenian accession to the EU (transition), during which the political system changed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Stalinist Past in Contemporary Russian TV Serials: Reconfigurations of Memory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The two main issues that continue to be in the focus of hot public discussions in Russian society are the Great Patriotic War (the German–Soviet war of 1941–1945, as part of World War II) and the tragedy of Stalinism. While the Great Patriotic War was widely reflected in Soviet literature and cinema, the Stalinist issue was seldom represented in Soviet art. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a period when Soviet and post-Soviet art contributed much to the debates on the Soviet past, and several significant anti-Stalinist films and literary works were created. Since the early 2000s, the cultural situation in Russian society has changed and nostalgia of the Soviet past has spread in the mass consciousness. The purpose of this research is to analyze how the Stalinist past is reconstructed in public memory in contemporary cinema narratives. We arrive at the conclusion that since the 2000s, public interest has drifted from images of war heroism to ordinary people’ lives under Stalin; the contemporary public interest is not the war heroes and famous victims of repressions, but the everydayness of ordinary Soviet citizens who tried to build their private lives, careers, friendships, and family relations under the conditions of pressure from the authorities, spreading fear in the society, shortage of goods, and loss of loved ones. We concentrate on several representative Russian TV serials, such as “Liquidation” (2007), “Maryina Roscha” (2012), and “Leningrad, 46” (2014–2015), because all of them are devoted to the first year of the Soviet peaceful life in different Soviet cities, such as Odessa, Moscow, and Leningrad.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Trauma and Community<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents an example of trauma recovery and post-traumatic growth in the story of three generations of a family that lost five sons in World War II and post-war mass killings, experienced the imprisonment of one son and the emigration of two daughters, expropriation of their possessions, and post-war communist harassment. With the help of the village community, the connection between family members, and because of their inherent faith, the pain of trauma has been transformed through three generations into national awareness, courage, emotional vulnerability, and creativity. In Slovenia, there are a few examples of villages that resisted partisan violence against the population and held out against the communist revolution but paid for it with several people who were killed, abducted, or imprisoned. These villages became a source of national consciousness and political social activity and strongly supported Slovenia in 1990 in the process of gaining independence from Yugoslavia. In most of these villages, affiliation with the Roman Catholic Church, the connection between the village community, and the connection between the younger generations and the older ones are also strong. We will present the stories of three women, a grandmother, a mother, and a daughter, and through their narration illustrate the process of moving from PTSD to post-traumatic growth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Grenzen und Ordnungen aus kulturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive: Tagungsbericht zur 6. Jahrestagung der Kulturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft e. V. „B/ORDERING CULTURES: Alltag, Politik, Ästhetik“8.10.–10.10.2020, Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder) der Paranoia Konspiration, Kritik und Imagination in F. J. Degenhardts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Zusammenfassung</title> <p>In den letzten Jahren vernahm man verstärkt die Diagnose, dass bewährte Formen der Kritik an ihr Ende gekommen seien. Stattdessen scheinen konspirative Narrative in krisenhaften Perioden des sozialen Wandels, in denen politische Zuschreibungen wie epistemische Wirklichkeitskonventionen erodieren, bewährte Argumentationen und Imaginationen der Sozialkritik zu absorbieren: Sie erklären den systemischen Zusammenhang zwischen sozialen Missständen, schaffen einen evidenten Boden für eine neue Politik der Wahrheit und mobilisieren in ihrer alarmierenden Dringlichkeit für die politische Praxis. In der Lektüre von Franz Josef Degenhardts 1975 erschienenen politischen Roman Brandstellen stellt sich der Beitrag die Frage, wie aus Kritik das Gegenteil von Kritik, nämlich ein hermetisches Erklärungsmodell der Paranoia, werden kann. Gleichzeitig entwirft der Roman ein literarisches Programm, das dem der Sozialkritik nicht unähnlich ist. Politische Literatur lässt sich hier in Anlehnung an Fredric Jameson als eine Kartografie des Sozialen lesen, die im Modus des Fiktionalen die Verteilung von sozialer Herrschaft neu justiert.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Maltzahn, Katrin von/Schieren, Mona (Hg.) (2019): Re:Bunker. Erinnerungskulturen, Analogien, Technoide Mentalitäten. Berlin: Argobooks, 253 S., ISBN 978-3-942700-94-8, 28,00 €, Provokation, Lektüre. Björn Höcke und Rolf-Dieter Sieferle im Kontext<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Die vorgelegten Überlegungen präsentieren anhand von Sieferles <italic>Finis Germania</italic> und Höckes <italic>Nie zweimal in denselben Fluss</italic> Überlegungen zur kulturellen und politischen Diskursstrategie der Neuen Rechten. Die Strategie wird anhand der Auseinandersetzung mit den Figuren des Lesens, des Umgangs mit Büchern und anhand des Umgangs mit Gegenständen und Figuren der Bildung rekonstruiert.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Alkemeyer, Thomas/Buschmann, Nikolaus/Etzemüller, Thomas (Hg.) (2019): Gegenwartsdiagnosen. Kulturelle Formen gesellschaftlicher Selbstproblematisierung in der Moderne. Bielefeld: transcript, 626 S., ISBN 978-3-8376-4134-9, 34,99 €. durch die Rechnung. Eine Anmerkung zur Restitutionsdebatte, die Deutschland drei Jahre in Atem hielt.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Der Artikel setzt sich, durchaus polemisch, mit einigen Motiven des jüngsten Diskurses über die Rückgabe von Artefakten aus deutschen Museen an staatliche Institutionen auf dem Boden ehemaliger Kolonialgebiete auseinander. Er vertritt die These, dass dadurch gerade keine Entschuldigung stattfindet (ganz im Sinne von Marcel Mauss' „reçevoir est reçu“), sondern bestehende regionale Konflikte vertieft und neokolonialistische Verhaltensweisen befördert werden. Zudem plädiert er dafür, die Wissenschaft möge sich nicht voreilig von der Politik entmündigen lassen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent commanders: The impact of a cultural paradigm derived from a secularised Christianity on the philosophy of infocentric warfare<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article examines how a religious cultural paradigm deriving from the Humanism of the West affects the modern art and science of War. It was in the framework of a religified Humanism, in which man ‘stole’ God’s capabilities and properties, that the worldview of man-god was created. This worldview permeated the development of military strategy, thereby facilitating its transformation in the worldview of a commander-god; this is the same worldview which today threatens to reach extremes, assisted by technological evolution allowing the development of robust C4ISR networks <fn id="j_jms-2021-0005_fn_001_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c11b1b1Aa" symbol="1"><p>Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. The acronym today is C5ISR, with the addition of Combat Systems.</p></fn> interconnected with precision guided munitions (PGMs) of various configurations. The article then examines the influence of Western intellectualism, which is a basic element of Western Christianity, over the development of modern theories and perceptions on military strategy and the risks that can arise for future Western armies from this impact. As an antidote to this influence, the article suggests a new perception on military strategy which emphasises adaptability and flexibility and is based on a cultural paradigm from the Orthodox Christian Faith.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-21T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1