rss_2.0Geosciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geoscienceshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/GShttps://www.sciendo.comGeosciences Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Geosciences.jpg700700Role of Internal Variability of Climate System in Increase of Air Temperature in Wrocław (Poland) in the Years 1951–2018https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/quageo-2021-0027<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the course of analysing the annual air temperature in Wrocław (TWr), a rapid change of the thermal regime was found between 1987 and 1989. TWr increased by &gt;1°C, a strong, statistically significant positive trend emerged. The analysis of processes showed that strong warming in the cold season of the year (December–March) occurred as a result of an increase in the NAO intensity and warming in the warm season because of increased sunshine duration in Wrocław (ShWr). Multiple regression analysis has shown that the winter NAO Hurrell's index explains 15% of TWr variance, and the ShWr of the <italic>long-day</italic> (April–August) period 49%, whereas radiative forcing 5.9%. This indicates that the factors incidental to the internal variability of the climate system explain 64% of the TWr variability and the effect of increased CO<sub>2</sub> concentration only ~6%. The reason for this rapid change of the thermal regime was a radical change in macro-circulation conditions in the Atlantic-European circular sector, which took place between 1988 and 1989. The heat, which is the cause of warming in Wrocław, comes from an increase in solar energy inflow (April–August) and also is transported to Europe from the North Atlantic surface by atmospheric circulation (NAO). These results indicate that the role of CO<sub>2</sub> in shaping the contemporary temperature increase is overestimated, whereas the internal variability of the climate system is underestimated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00 and irrigation intensity in North Twenty Four Parganas district, West Bengal, Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mgrsd-2020-0063<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>An attempt has been made in this paper to analyse the spatio-temporal variations of cropping intensity and irrigation intensity, and their relationship, in North Twenty Four Parganas district in West Bengal, India from 1996/97 to 2015/16. The relationship between cropping intensity and irrigation intensity has been assessed using partial correlation, residual mapping and hierarchical cluster analysis. One-way ANOVA has been conducted for testing the equality of cluster means. Temporal analysis from 1996/97 to 2015/16 has shown a low positive correlation between cropping intensity and irrigation intensity for the entire district. Analysis at Agricultural Block level has revealed that cropping intensity decreased in many cases even after an increase in irrigation intensity. In general, cropping intensity has increased with the increase in irrigation intensity in the Coastal Saline Region and the Ichhamati Basin, whereas cropping intensity has increased even after a decrease in irrigation intensity in the Gangetic Plains Region in the district.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00 of China's Foreign Trade Liberalizationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mgrsd-2020-0064<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper studies the ex-post trade effects of China's multilateral, regional and bilateral trade liberalization using augmented gravity and panel data estimation methods for the period 1995–2016. China's accession to the WTO was revealed to have had a significant impact on the volume of trade as well as on bilateral exports and imports. Regional trade agreements and the majority of bilateral trade agreements were found not to be effective in increasing China's foreign trade. Only the agreements with Chile, Costa Rica and Switzerland were effective in increasing China's trade volume. Moreover, the results for Chile were driven by increases in both exports and imports, while for Costa Rica and Switzerland only by increased imports from these countries.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of transport offer on passenger traffic in the railway transport system in a post-socialist country: case study of Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bog-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study examines factors influencing the number of rail passengers in Poland. The subjects of observation were 62 cities with poviat rights. The main factors influencing demand are the number of connections and the speed of trains. Therefore, we developed an original indicator – weighted number of connections, which takes into account the number of rail connections and the speed of trains. The article can be divided into two main parts: an assessment of the diversification of transport offer and transport demand in spatial terms, and an evaluation of the relationship between the variables. Poland has a large spatial diversity in terms of public rail transport offer and passenger traffic. There are three levels of city hierarchy according to the passenger number indicator: [1] Warsaw, [2] the largest agglomerations [3] other regional cities. Transport offer was found to have a statistically significant impact on transport demand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of green space systems in small towns of Kyiv regionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bog-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analysed the current state of greening of small towns in the Kyiv region; small towns constitute 80% of all towns and cities in the region. A difference is shown to exist between the classification of green plantings that is used in Ukraine and the world-wide approach of green infrastructure. This makes it incorrect to compare the indicators of landscaping of towns in Ukraine against those of other countries. Based on the data of <italic>Master Plans</italic> of towns, the generally accepted indicators of landscaping of urban areas were calculated: provision of greenery per capita and level of landscaping. These indicators of landscaping for small towns were analysed according to different approaches. It is found that, according to the traditional calculation, the provision of green plantations exceeds 300 m<sup>2</sup> <italic>per capita</italic> for only 5% of small towns of the region, but for 70% according to the approach of green infrastructure. The provision of green areas for public use meets the established state standards (8–11 m<sup>2</sup> <italic>per capita</italic>) for only 35% of small towns in the region. Small towns are grouped into four clusters according to the similarity of landscaping indicators, where only the difference in the availability of green plantings of public use was unreliable among the clusters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Shrinking agricultural land and changing livelihoods after land acquisition in Vietnamhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bog-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The phenomenon of agricultural land shrinkage is widespread in the world. This phenomenon has many causes, of which industrialisation is one. The industrialisation process is supported in most countries by the use of land acquisition as a tool to convert land use from agricultural to non-agricultural. This research surveyed 100 land-lost households to examine the impact of farmland shrinkage on their livelihoods in Vietnam. The study focuses on three factors: employment and income, how compensation money is used, and quality of life after land loss. The results show that revenue increased by USD 1,500 per household compared to before. The rate of employment depends on age and gender. There is a drop in employment among women over 35 years old and men over 40. The use of compensation money focuses on non-farm goals, with the bright spot being an investment in education for future generations. The environment and society tend to be worse according to the subjective assessment of households, but their ultimate choice is still to enjoy life after land acquisition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Recycling of municipal waste in Slovak citieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bog-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among the most urgent topics within waste management policy is the gradual transition of the economy from a linear model towards a circular economy with a more sustainable way of using resources. The European Union has responded to these changes by passing new legislation and ambitious targets so that all member states can quickly work towards achieving a greener and more sustainable Europe. However, the starting position for achieving the desired goals differs significantly from one country to another. In this paper, we therefore looked at the position of Slovakia in relation to selected waste management indicators, and at the measures taken so far. Moreover, since waste management falls under one of the many public benefit services provided under the remit of local governments, we also monitored the specific contribution of Slovak cities to the newly established trend of waste management in the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping paradigm shifts in the geography of innovationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bog-2021-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study quantifies important theoretical tendencies in the geography of innovation in a historical view based on a novel big-data approach. It shows that the field was “born” only in the nineteen eighties after long periods (i.e. the first half of the 20th century) of analysing economic growth and regional development without endogenising the production process of innovation. The paper presents important shifts in the basic assumptions of models with the increasing use of the terms “economic instability” or “asymmetric information” instead of “economic equilibrium” and “perfect information”. These mean a deviation from traditional neoclassical regional economics, which is reflected in the fact that “geography of innovation” gained the same level of popularity in the 2000s as “industrial geography”. The paper shows that although the decline of the Marshallian term “industrial district” stopped in parallel with the work of Becattini, a new innovation systems theory took over the relative frequency of mention of the industrial district by the turn of the new millennium.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Websites and social networks of communes in Slovakia: development and current statehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bog-2021-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the main features of today’s information society is the availability of data of various kinds provided by various companies and organisations. In the following paper, we focus on evaluating the dynamics of development and the current state of existence of websites of communes in Slovakia, which represent a database of their activities and serve as the main communication channel between citizens and self-government representatives. Another important channel is social networks, which are still enjoying huge popularity among Internet users. On the basis of the results of an online questionnaire that involved almost 60% of the addressed self-governments, we will point out the adaptation of self-governments to the use of social networks. One of the important tasks of such research is the distribution of the obtained results to end users. This is achieved through an example of a description of basic technical and functional specifications by using the website created by the authors. This website has the ambition of becoming a sort of central access point for all those interested in information about communes in Slovakia. By means of standard tabular, but also interactive graphic and map outputs, it gives an idea of selected indicators of self-governments in a user-friendly form, thus helping to increase client awareness of this specific issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Slumping as a record of regional tectonics and palaeoslope changes in the Satpura Basin, central Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soft-sediment deformation structures play an important role in interpreting regional tectonics and basin evolution during slumping events. The Satpura Basin is interpreted as pull-apart with a monoclinal northerly palaeoslope throughout its evolution. The basin formed as a result of sinistral strike-slip faulting, induced by the ENE–WSW-trending Son-Narmada South fault in the north and the Tapti North fault in the south. We have analysed the slump folds within the basalmost Talchir Formation and related these to regional tectonics and palaeoslope changes in the Satpura Basin. The glaciofluvial strata of the Talchir Formation, exposed in the southern part of the Satpura Basin, record intricacies of folds created during slumping. Several fold styles can be distinguished, within alternations of competent sandstone and incompetent shale layers, some of which indicate buckling. Upright folds, resulting from pure shear, underwent rotation of their axial planes and fold axes during simple shear-dominated progressive deformation when the slump moved downslope. The soft-sediment deformation structures that we have studied show refolding patterns that closely resemble comparable folds known from lithified rocks. These layers with refolded structures are overlain by unde-formed sediments, which proves that they are the product of a single ongoing slumping process, rather than of successive deformation events. Our analysis of their fold axes and axial planes, together with fold vergences and thrust directions within the slumps, suggests a mean slumping direction towards the southwest. Analyses of slump folds and their relationship with regional tectonics have allowed us to reinterpret basin evolution history. The southwesterly trending palaeoslope of the basin suggest that the slope of the basin was not uniform throughout its evolution. At the opening, the oblique slip fault, which trended NE–SW, generated due to movement along the ENE–WSW basin bounding faults, was more active and triggered slumping event within the Talchir deposits in the basin. With progressive overlapping of the basin-bounding faults, the Satpura Basin gradually tilted towards the north.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Caves as geoheritage resource in remote desert areas: a preliminary evaluation of Djara Cave in the Western Desert of Egypthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Caves are rare in northeast Africa and, thus, deserve attention as potential geoheritage objects (geosites). Assessment of Djara Cave and its vicinity (Western Desert, Egypt) has permitted to document unique features, such as the cave itself as a peculiar subsurface landform, speleothems providing data for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, rock art demonstrating elements of past landscapes, siliceous nodules weathered from Eocene limestones and a network of dry drainage channels indicative of wetter palaeoenvironments. These features are assigned to geomorphological, sedimentological and palaeogeographical types of geoheritage. Djara Cave and its vicinity are proposed as a geosite of national rank; it is vulnerable to anthropogenic stress and needs geoconservation measures and instalment of interpretative signs. This geosite is already popular among tourists, and can be used for further tourism development. More generally, the presence of caves in Egyptian desert areas makes possible the recognition of national speleological heritage that requires special country-level strategies of management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: Handbook of geotourism, by Ross Dowling and David Newsome (Eds.), 2018. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Cheltenham, UK. 520 pages. Hardback: price £190, ISBN: 9781785368851.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0014ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Burdigalian-Langhian foraminifera of the northwest High Zagros Thrust Belt, southwest Iranhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The foraminiferal contents of the lower–middle Miocene succession exposed in three sections in north Nur Abad on the northwestern side of the High Zagros Thrust Belt were studied. Assemblages of larger foraminifera from these sections can be referred to Zone SBZ 25 (and the <italic>Miogypsina globulus</italic> and <italic>Miogypsina intermedia</italic> subzones), which correlates with the Burdigalian Stage. For the first time, planktonic foraminifera documented from the Nur Abad area document Lang-hian deposits in the High Zagros, the upper 20 metres of the upper Sayl Cheshmeh section being characterised by the occurrence of planktonic foraminifera such as <italic>Globigerina concinna</italic> (Reuss), <italic>Globigerina diplostoma</italic> (Reuss), <italic>Globigerinoides obliquus</italic> (Bolli), <italic>Orbulina bilobata</italic> (d’Orbigny) and <italic>O.universa</italic> (d’Orbigny). This association characterises the <italic>Orbulina suturalis</italic> Interval Zone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods of management of bottom sediments from selected water reservoirs – a literature reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sediment accumulation is a process that is typical of all types of water reservoirs. The rate and pattern of such accumulation are related to processes taking place in catchments that produce the sediments and to those within reservoirs that determine the percentage of the inflowing load that is trapped and where it is deposited. To keep reservoirs in working order requires desilting and managing of such bottom sediments once they are removed. The choice of strategy for sediment management depends on chemical and physical properties which result from both natural and anthropogenic processes. To varying degrees, these sediments may be contaminated with chemical compounds, especially trace metals. Therefore, research is needed in order to assess the quality of sediments, which will allow to opt for the proper management strategy. Based on an analysis of the available literature, the possibility of using sediments from reservoirs has been determined, using quality criteria and in accordance with applicable law and regulations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: , by J. Zalasiewicz, C.N. Waters, M. Williams & C.P. Summerhayes, 2019. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. 361 pages. Hardback: price £44.99, ISBN 9781108475235.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0016ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Field evidence suggests that the Palaeoproterozoic Gowganda Formation in Canada is non-glacial in originhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During more than a century since its original identification, the Gowganda Formation in Ontario (Canada) has gradually been reinterpreted from representing mainly subglacial tillites to secondary gravity flow and glaciomarine deposits. The main pieces of geological evidence advanced in favour of glaciation in recent articles are outsized clasts that have been interpreted as dropstones and patches of diamictites in a single small-sized area at Cobalt which is still interpreted as displaying subglacial basal tillites. The present research considers field evidence in the Gowganda Formation in the light of more recent work on gravity flows linked to tectonics. Detailed studies have demonstrated that the clasts which are interpreted to be dropstones rarely penetrate laminae and are commonly draped by sediments the appearance of which is similar to lonestones in gravity flows. The “subglacial area” at Cobalt displays evidence of tectonics and gravity flows, which can be traced from the underlying bedrock, and then further in the overlying sequence of diamictites and rhythmites. The sum of geological features displays appearances at odds with a primary glaciogenic origin, and there is no unequivocal evidence present of glaciation. The data indicate deposition by non-glaciogenic gravity flows, including cohesive debris flows for the more compact units, probably triggered by tectonic displacements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: , by Abhijit Mukherjee, Bridget Scanlon, Alice Aureli, Simon Langan, Huaming Guo and Andrew McKenzie (Eds.), 2020. Elsevier, Amsterdam. 676 pages. Paperback: price $150.00, ISBN 9780128181720; e-Book: price $105.00, ISBN 9780128181737.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/logos-2021-0015ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00SALBEC – A Python Library and GUI Application to Calculate the Diurnal Variation of the Soil ALBEdohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/quageo-2021-0026<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study presents the SALBEC – Soil ALBEdo Calculator – a Python library and Graphical User Interface designed to predict the diurnal variation of the clear-sky albedo based on the soil surface properties. Such predictions are becoming more and more necessary with the increasing role of remote measurements. The software uses the following input parameters: the soil spectrum, soil roughness, day of the year (DOY) and sample location. It returns the diurnal albedo variation and, as a unique feature, optimal observation time in the form of tables and graphs as outputs. Models created with the SALBEC were compared with the data acquired under near clear-sky conditions. The comparison shows that the differences between the models and measured data do not exceed the variation of input parameters. The software is directed towards scientists and professionals who require precise estimations of the albedo of soils for different field observation times. Our software is issued as free and open source software (FOSS) and is publicly available at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="https://github.com/jarekj71/salbec">https://github.com/jarekj71/salbec</ext-link>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Seismic bearing capacity of shallow strip footing embedded in slope resting on two-layered soilhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sgem-2021-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper, the limit equilibrium method with the pseudo-static approach is developed in the evaluation of the influence of slope on the bearing capacity of a shallow foundation. Particle swarm optimisation (PSO) technique is applied to optimise the solution. Minimum bearing capacity coefficients of shallow foundation near slopes are presented in the form of a design table for practical use in geotechnical engineering. It has been shown that the seismic bearing capacity coefficients reduce considerably with an increase in seismic coefficient. Be sides, the magnitude of bearing capacity coefficients decreases further with an increase in slope inclination.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary status of topographic mapping in Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The fundamentals and contemporary status of topographic mapping of Ukraine’s territory has been studied. Prior to declaration of Ukraine’s independence, its territory was covered with 1:10,000 to 1:1,000,000 scale topographic maps made by sub-divisions of the Chief Department of Geodesy and Cartography affiliated with the Council of Ministers of the USSR (GUGK USSR) and sub-divisions of the Military Topographic Service (MTS) of the USSR Armed Forces. Topographic mapping related cooperation between these institutions has been described. Topographic study of Ukraine’s territory as at 1991 has been subject to close analysis, with due consideration of the coordinate systems used for topographic maps.</p> <p>During the first years after Ukraine’s independence declaration topographic maps in Ukraine were made according to the previously effective Soviet instructions in the 1942 coordinate systems and 1977 Baltic height system. Since mid 1990s, Ukraine enjoyed transition from analog technology of making topographic maps to digital one. The contemporary legal and statutory support of topographic mapping in Ukraine has been studied; the implementation since 1 January 2007 of the UCS-2000 national geodetic reference coordinate system and the height system measurement works have been analyzed. Focus has been made on obsolescence of information of contemporary topographic maps and on extensive deprivation of secrecy for topographic maps in 2000s.</p> <p>Critical for the development of topographic mapping in Ukraine is now the Law of Ukraine “On National Geospatial Data Infrastructure” adopted in 2020. The Topographic Service of the Armed Forces (TS AF) of Ukraine carried out big scopes of works to update the topographic maps related to Russia’s military operations against Ukraine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1