rss_2.0Geosciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Geoscienceshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/GShttps://www.sciendo.comGeosciences Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Geosciences.jpg700700The effect of porosity on the reactivity of calcium sorbentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mipo-2020-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current work presents the results of seven sorbent samples investigated with respect to SO<sub>2</sub> capture. The sorbents’ reactivity and capacity indexes were determined, and the tests were carried out in accordance with the ‘classical’ procedure for limestone sorbents. The reactivity indexes (RIs) of the tested samples were in the range of 2.57 and 3.55 (mol Ca)/(mol S), while the absolute sorption coefficients as determined by the capacity index (CI) varied between 87.9 and 120.6 (g S)/(kg of sorbent). Porosimetric analysis was also carried out and the specific surface area of the samples was found to be between 0.2 and 1.7 m<sup>2</sup>/g. The number of micro-, meso- and macro-pores in individual samples was determined from the corresponding pore size distribution histograms, and the values of sorbent RIs and CIs were correlated with the samples’ total porosity and specific surface.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of selected mineral and waste sorbents for the capture of elemental mercury from exhaust gaseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mipo-2020-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Several mineralogically, chemically and texturally diverse minerals and waste materials were selected for the testing of elemental mercury capture in exhaust gas, namely tyre char resulting from the burning of pyrolytic rubber tyres, class C fly ash, mesoporous material type MCM-41 and glauconite. Each material’s mineralogical, chemical and textural characteristics were explored. In order to conduct experiments in conditions similar to those during the contact of sorbent with real coal exhaust fumes at a temperature of about 110-120°C, the experiments were carried out using a test device consisting of a furnace for burning powdered coals, a thermostatic cage for sorbent reactors and mercury gas analysers, which are able to measure and compare the effects of individual sorbents with exhaust gas. The study found that the best results for mercury sorption in the exhaust atmosphere were obtained for class C ash resulting from brown coal combustion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Activated Carbon as a Support of Catalysts for the Removal of Nitrogen Oxideshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mipo-2020-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Activated carbon was oxidised with concentrated nitric acid and impregnated with urea to form nitrogen-containing groups. Such a support was impregnated with cobalt, copper or silver nitrates to obtain catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia. Infrared spectra confirmed the formation of carboxylic and other organic oxygen-containing groups during oxidation. Nitrogen-containing species resulted from urea thermal decomposition. The metal-containing samples were hydrophilic. Cobalt and copper were present in the samples as small Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and CuO crystallites, while silver occurred in the form of large metallic crystallites, as seen from the X-ray diffraction patterns. Low temperature N<sub>2</sub> sorption revealed that all samples were microporous solids, and the chemical and thermal treatment did not change their textural properties. The copper admixture caused the highest NO conversion, but worsened the selectivity and thermal stability of functionalised carbon support.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Synthesis and application of natural sorbents with silver nanoparticles in reducing the emission of odourshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mipo-2020-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns the applicability of silver nanoparticles for reducing the emission of odours. Silver nanoparticles were successfully adsorbed on three different dolomitic limestone samples. In the next stage, wastewater from the meat industry was mixed with sorbents modified with a variable content of silver nanoparticles. After 4 days and 7 days, the concentration of ammonia was examined spectrophotometrically. Also, the degree of reduction of total odour concentration by olfactometric method was carried out. Depending on the concentration of the silver nanoparticles on the sorbents, the concentration of ammonia was 15-42 μg/cm<sup>3</sup> for nAg content equal to 0.08%, while for sorbents containing approximately 36% of nAg the concentration of ammonia was 0.09-16 μg/cm<sup>3</sup>. A leaching test of nanosilver from sorbents confirmed that the particles were bound with the sorbents by strong bonds. The percentage of eluted silver increased from 0.67% to 11%, with increased initial concentrations of nAg on the sorbents from 0.18% to 0.37%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Sorption of oil products on the synthetic zeolite granuleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mipo-2020-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, lightweight granules of zeolite Na-P1 based on expanded glass aggregates were synthesized for the application in oil products’ sorption. The sorption of gasoline, diesel and silicone oil tests were also conducted for raw expanded glass, zeolite A, clinoptilolite and mineral sorbent available at a fuel station. All sorbents were also characterized in terms of the phase composition (X-ray diffraction) and structure (infrared spectroscopy). The zeolite Na-P1 granules achieved the highest values of sorption capacities (1.8, 2.1 and 2.6 g/g, respectively), which makes them promising materials for oils’ removal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00An analysis of the functionality of selected websites presenting data on air traffichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2020-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the article is the assessment and comparison of the functionality of websites presenting flight data and the current location of aircraft on the map. The following websites were assessed: Flightradar24 (flightradar24.com), RadarBox24 (radarbox24.com), Flightaware (flightaware.com) and Plane-finder (planefinder.com). The credibility of the presented data and the range of functions available on the websites were analyzed in detail. A number of functions included in data sets were compared to the examined websites. Additionally, the possibilities of expanding the analyzed websites and extending the scope of their functions were determined. The issue of using data from air traffic data websites for scientific research was also examined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of time availability of the selected rescue service of a large city. A case study of Warsawhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2020-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the GIS analysis of time availability of the Voivodship Emergency Ambulance and Sanitary Transport Station operates an Independent Public Health Care Facility “Meditrans” in Warsaw. The research focuses on determining the level of service for residents in each district with the emergency service station. In addition, an attempt was made to improve accessibility on the example of three selected districts. The authors attempt to select methodology of planning the location of the emergency service station in order to optimize the level of service for residents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The authorship of the Second Military Survey of Galicia and Austrian Silesia at the scale 1:28,800 and the consistency of sheet content based on selected exampleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2020-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to expand the understanding of the history of cartography of the lands of southern Poland under Austrian rule in the nineteenth century. The Austrian Second Military Survey, at the scale 1:28,800, was produced for the province of Galicia between 1861 and 1864 and for Austrian Silesia between 1838 and 1841. In Galicia, work on 413 sheets was led by thirteen cartographers, and the content and descriptions were prepared by 106 cartographic technicians. On the 42 sheets of the Silesia maps, two directors and 11 technicians were recorded. The military cartographers who prepared the survey of the two provinces belonged to 71 multinational units of the army of the Austrian Empire. Work with nineteenth-century maps is fraught with uncertainty about the consistency of the series, which may be reflected in the content of the maps. The consistency of map content was tested on sheets covering the Polish Carpathians for two types of features: linear (roads) and area (forests). Expanding the understanding of these maps may contribute to reducing uncertainty in their use for various environmental and socio-economic analyses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The use of GIS tools in the automation of examining the cartometry of old mapshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcr-2020-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Using the full potential of old maps requires interdisciplinary research, which allows for a comprehensive assessment of facts recorded on the map along with their features. The author of the article is interested in cartometric analysis. It is used to study one of these features – the location of an object in geographical space. The author describes and evaluates the usefulness of GIS tools in the automation of examining the cartometry of old maps and presents her own tool for determining the general scale of maps.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The spatial pattern of selected extreme precipitation indices for Turkey (1975-2012)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgeo-2020-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper analyses extreme precipitation characteristics of Turkey based on selected WMO climate change indices. The indices – monthly total rainy days (<italic>RDays</italic>); monthly maximum 1-day precipitation (<italic>Rx1day</italic>); simple precipitation intensity index (<italic>SDII</italic>); and monthly count of days when total precipitation (represented by PRCP) exceeds 10 mm (<italic>R10mm</italic>) – were calculated for 98 stations for the 38-year overlapping period (1975–2012). Cluster analysis was applied to evaluate the spatial characterisation of the annual precipitation extremes. Four extreme precipitation clusters were detected. Cluster 1 corresponds spatially to Central and Eastern Anatolia and is identified with the lowest values of the indices, except rainy days. Cluster 2 is concentrated mainly on the west and south of Anatolia, and especially the coastal zone, and can be characterised with the lowest rainy days, and high and moderate values of other indices. These two clusters are the most prominent classes throughout the country, and include a total of 82 stations. Cluster 3 is clearly located in the Black Sea coastal zone in the north, and has high and moderate index values. Two stations on the north-east coast of the Black Sea region are identified as Cluster 4, which exhibits the highest values among all indices. The overall results reveal that winter months and October have the highest proportion of precipitation extremes in Turkey. The north-east part of the Black Sea region and Mediterranean coastal area from the south-west to the south-east are prone to frequent extreme precipitation events.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Using Multiple Coordinate Systems and Datum Transformations on the Calculated Coordinates in Palestinehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgeo-2020-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The recent developments in spatial data collection, management and software require the availability of proper geodetic infrastructures for integrating different types and sources of coordinates without causing effective changes in positions. Nowadays, positions are mostly collected by GNSS data collectors based on WGS84/ITRF reference systems. The data are then subjected to transformations and projections to a locally used system. Another possibility is direct data collection based on the local coordinate system by classical surveys using land surveying, photogrammetry, laser scanning, etc. The spatial data management is commonly operated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software for mapping, analysis, planning, and other services. The conversions between different coordinate systems should be well defined to guarantee the consistency of the coordinates on all systems and tools. In Palestine, the classical and local surveys are all based on the local coordinate system Pal1923Grid for engineering, cadastral and planning applications. The different GNSS RTK-service providers use different definitions and transformation methods between WGS84 or the International Terrestrial Reference Frames (ITRF) and the local Palestine1923Grid, whereas the Land authority has adopted a group of parameters to be implemented on the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data collectors, which do not fit with Palestine1923Grid properties. Additionally, different transformation methods are used in GIS applications for converting the coordinates between the different systems using WGS84 as an intermediate system. Here, the coordinates of a group of the geodetic network in the West Bank of Palestine are used to assess the accuracy of the different transformations and systems by comparing the transformed coordinates using the GNSS system and the originally registered coordinates. Furthermore, a grid of points covering the coordinate system extents is used to describe the differences between the transformations and systems. It was found that the parameters provided by GNSS service providers have results that are consistent with each other and the geodetic network in the West Bank of Palestine compared to GIS-software parameters. By contrast, all systems have extremely deteriorated coordinates in the Gaza strip and the further parts of the Pal1923Grid extents.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary state of glaciers in Chukotka and Kolyma highlandshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgeo-2020-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this work is to assess the main parameters of the Chukotka and Kolyma glaciers (small forms of glaciation, SFG): their size and volume, and changes therein over time. The point as to whether these SFG can be considered glaciers or are in transition into, for example, rock glaciers is also presented. SFG areas were defined from the early 1980s (data from the catalogue of the glaciers compiled by R.V. Sedov) to 2005, and up to 2017: these data were retrieved from satellite images. The maximum of the SGF reduction occurred in the Chantalsky Range, Iskaten Range, and in the northern part of Chukotka Peninsula. The smallest retreat by this time relates to the glaciers of the southern part of the peninsula. Glacier volumes are determined by the formula of S.A. Nikitin for corrie glaciers, based on in-situ volume measurements, and by our own method: the average glacier thickness is calculated from isogypsum patterns, constructed using DEMs of individual glaciers based on images taken from a drone during field work, and using ArcticDEM for others.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysing flood history and simulating the nature of future floods using Gumbel method and Log-Pearson Type III: the case of the Mayurakshi River Basin, Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bgeo-2020-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Floods of the Mayurakshi River Basin (MRB) have been historically documented since 1860. The high magnitude, low-frequency flood events have drastically changed to low magnitude, high-frequency flood events in the post-dam period, especially after the 1950s, when the major civil structures (Massanjore dam, Tilpara barrage, Brahmani barrage, Deucha barrage, and Bakreshwar weir) were constructed in the MRB. The present study intends to find out the nature of flood frequency using the extreme value method of Gumbel and Log-Pearson type III (LP-III). The results show that the highest flood magnitude (11,327 m<sup>3</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>) was observed during 1957–2009 for the Tilpara barrage with a return probability of 1.85% and the lowest (708 m<sup>3</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>) recorded by the Bakreshwar weir during 1956–77 with a return probability of 4.55%. In the present endeavour, we have computed the predicted discharge for the different return periods, like 2, 5, 10, 25, 50,100, and 200 years. The quantile-quantile plot shows that the expected discharge calculated using LP-III is more normally distributed than that of Gumbel. Moreover, Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test, Anderson–Darling (AD), and x2 distribution show that LP-III distribution is more normally distributed than the Gumbel at 0.01 significance level, implying its greater reliability and acceptance in the flood simulation of the MRB.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of waterbirds on chemical and biological features of water and sediments of a large, shallow dam reservoirhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/s13545-014-0160-9<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Large numbers of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos (max. 10,490 ind.), Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus (max. 3,430 ind.) and Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo (max. 1,449 ind.) were recorded on the Goczałkowice Reservoir, Poland (2,754 ha). Most of the waterbirds occurred in the backwater of this reservoir. The amount of phosphorus and nitrogen loaded by the most numerous waterbirds into Goczałkowice Reservoir was estimated at 958 kg and 2,621 kg, respectively in 2011 and 1,043 kg and 2,793 kg, respectively in 2012. In 2011 and 2012, the waterbirds introduced a considerable amount of phosphorus, nitrogen and a large number of coliforms into the backwater of the reservoir. The concentration of different forms of phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll-a and bacteria coli in the water was not greater at the site of birds’ concentration (except dissolved organic nitrogen). The concentration of nitrates in the water at the site near the breeding colony of gulls in comparison with the reference site was not different. The amounts of P-tot and N-tot in the sediment were similar at the site affected by waterbirds and at the reference site. The dynamics of water masses was not the reason for the lack of differences between the studied sites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Freshwater green algal biofouling of boats in the Kabul River, Pakistanhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/s13545-014-0150-y<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Freshwater green algal biofouling of boats refers to the accrual of freshwater green algae on boats immersed in water. The current research focused on the morphological characteristics of the isolates, species ecology, and the physicochemical properties of the water at the sampling sites. Two localities, Haji Zai and Sardaryab, were sampled at the Kabul River in the district of Charsadda, Pakistan. Freshwater green algae causing biofouling were isolated from the boats. A total of three genera: Cladophora, Rhizoclonium, and Spirogyra with fifteen species belonging to the families Cladophoraceae and Zygnemataceae were observed. Statistical analysis reveals significant stimulation of green algal species in the boats’ fouled communities by increases in water temperature, conductivity, and Total Suspended Solids (TSS). The algal growth at the Haji Zai site is suppressed by TDS in autumn (Pearson −0.56) and is stimulated by water temperature in spring (Pearson 0.44). At the Sardaryab site, algae were stimulated in spring by pH of water (Pearson 0.61), and suppressed by Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in autumn (Pearson −0.43). Statistical analysis indicates that pH, conductivity, and temperature are the main factors determining the algal biofouling in the Kabul River.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Latitudinal pattern of abundance and composition of ciliate communities in the surface waters of the Atlantic Oceanhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/s13545-014-0161-8<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Abundance, biomass, and taxonomic composition of the ciliate community were studied in the surface waters along a transect between 50°S 61°W and 48°N 5°W (Atlantic Ocean, March-April 2011). The abundance of heterotrophic ciliates was low in the equatorial zone (280–320 cells l−1, 0.11–0.12 μg C l−1), but it increased toward both the northern and southern temperate zones with the maximum abundance observed at 44°S (2667 cells l−1, 0.82 μg C l−1). This pattern resembles the global distribution of oceanic primary production, which is low at lower latitudes and high in temperate zones. In temperate zones ciliate abundance peaks during spring and fall. Thus, because the present study was carried out during spring in the northern hemisphere and austral fall in the southern hemisphere, the ciliate abundance at higher latitudes was additionally elevated. Functionally autotrophic Mesodinium rubrum was only observed in the northern hemisphere and tropical waters. Its maximum abundance was observed at 48°N (1080 cells l−1, 1.14 μg C l−1). The most frequently observed ciliates were oligotrichs and choreotrichs. Other important ciliates were haptorids (including M. rubrum) and hypotrichs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-04T00:00:00.000+00:00New localities of rare species Kobayasiella okadae (Skvortzov) Lange-Bert. and K. tintinnus Buczkó, Wojtal & Jahn in Europe — morphological and ecological characteristicshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/s13545-014-0155-6<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the present work conducted in the area of Międzyrzeki Strict Nature Reserve in the Roztocze National Park was to show new sites of rare and species new to Poland from the Kobayasiella genus (K. okadae (Skvortzov) Lange-Bert., K. tintinnus Buczkó, Wojtal &amp; Jahn) with regard to morphological and ecological characteristics. Chemical parameters show that investigated habitats are poor and oligotrophic with a low content of chlorides, sulfates and nitrates. K. okadae, K. subtilissima (Cleve) Lange-Bert. and K. tintinnus were found in the studied area. The authors suggest the use of synonym Navicula hoeflerii Cholnoky for the Kobayasiella okadae. LM and SEM images were used in the analysis of the material.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Predation of adult large diving beetles Dytiscus marginalis (Linnaeus, 1758), Dytiscus circumcinctus (Ahrens, 1811) and Cybister lateralimarginalis (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) on fish fryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/s13545-014-0153-8<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented study describes the presence of fish fry in the diet of imagines of large Dytiscidae. The study was conducted between March and September in 2012 and 2013. A total of 163 large, aquatic, diving beetles were caught, which represented the following species: Dytiscus marginalis, Dytiscus circumcinctus, Cybister lateralimarginalis. Fish were identified by scales, bones, vertebrae, pharyngeal teeth. Insects were identified by epicrania, mandibles, hooks, limbs, body segments, eyes and wings. Crustaceans were identified by limbs and Oligochaeta by bristles. Seeds and eggs of invertebrates were found whole and intact. Fragments of fish fry were found in the digestive tracts of all three species collected in three studied ponds. The alimentary canals of the studied beetles contained also fragments of insects, detritus, plant tissue, Crustacea, Arachnida, other invertebrates, Oligochaeta, and Gastropoda.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Occurrence of potentially human pathogenic bacteria in the seawater and in the sand of the recreational coastal beach in the southern Baltic Seahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/s13545-014-0154-7<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The occurrence and the distribution of potentially human pathogenic bacteria such as Aeromonas, Pseudomonas aeruoginosa, Staphylococcus and Vibrio-like organisms in the sand and the adjacent seawater of the recreational coastal beach were studied. The highest mean number among these four studied groups of bacteria was represented by Aeromonas-like organisms and the lowest one by Staphylococcus-like organisms. Dry sand was inhabited by the highest number of all studied potentially pathogenic bacteria. Within a year, the number of the studied bacteria inhabiting the sand and the seawater showed considerable monthly changes. There were differences in the abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria between the surface and the subsurface sand layers with a clear decrease in their number toward the deeper layers of the sand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Resistance of riverine macroinvertebrate assemblages to hydrological extremeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/s13545-014-0159-2<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Macroinvertebrates were sampled in the lowland Drzewiczka River downstream from a dam reservoir and just below a whitewater slalom canoeing track. For over 20 years, pulse flow fluctuations of moderate intensity, an effect of two-three hour long releases of water per day to enable training of canoeists, induced a patchy mosaic in the tailwater riverbed compared to a natural site. After these regular disturbances, three accidental events of increased discharge of different magnitudes (three, five and sixteen times higher compared to a long-term median) occurred in two following years and we were able to investigate their impact on the habitat-specific processes.</p> <p>Two of the three events (in September 2000 and March 2001) had a minor effect on abiotic and biotic variables, while the third one (in February 2002, over 40 m3 s−1 discharge) destabilized the bed habitat, washing away the flood-sensitive macroinvertebrates of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera. In the dominant benthic group, i.e. Chironomidae, varied resistance patterns were observed, depending on their mode of life and patch occupancy. In conclusion, biota in the Drzewiczka River have adapted their life history to long-term moderate flow disturbance, but the largest flood mobilized bed sediments together with most of their dwellers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-04T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1