rss_2.0Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Engineeringhttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/ENhttps://www.sciendo.comEngineering Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Engineering.jpg700700Fit And Pressure Comfort Evaluation On A Virtual Prototype Of A Tight-Fit Cycling Shirthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2021-0057<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Graduated compression is widely used for medical application to prevent perioperative venous thromboembolism, but other applications such as sportswear can potentially also benefit from it. A tight-fit cycling shirt meant to ensure the correct position during cycling and prevent injuries was designed. The aim of this study was to improve garment pattern design from the aspect of clothing pressure for providing support and enhancing comfort to the user. This paper investigates the suitability of pressure maps from 3D fashion design software CLO 3D for design and in particular its capability to discriminate between various materials and cycling postures. Moreover, the impact of the mechanical properties of fabric was analyzed. In particular, virtual prototyping tool CLO 3D and pressure mapping were employed to achieve the required graduated compression while ensuring fit and comfort. Pattern adjustments were iteratively performed until stress, strain, and pressure maps showed adequate fit and pressure of the cycling garment on the virtual cyclist in static and dynamic cycling positions. The impact of fabric types on garment fit has been shown by generating the stress, strain, and pressure maps with a virtual simulation. It was found that the visualized pressure on the human body model shows distributions that are related to contact between body and garment, and large compression stresses occur in the lower parts of the two shirts. Evident garment deformation was shown at hip level, upper arm, lower front side seam, and front neck, which can reduce garment wear comfort and freedom of movement. The output was found to be sufficiently accurate to optimize the garments based on material and cycling posture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Problem of Total Harmonic Distortion Measurement Performed by Smart Energy Metershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/msr-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, electricity is treated as commodity that should be delivered from a distributor to a consumer with a certain quality. The power quality is defined by the set of measures with specific limit values. One of the basic measures is the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), which allows to assess the level of the voltage distortion. The measurement of THD ratio should be carried out in accordance with the normative specification. It is assumed that this requirement is met by class A power quality analyzers. Currently, measures are taken to monitor power quality in a large number of measurement points with the use of smart energy meters that are part of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). The paper presents the problem of THD ratio measurement by AMI meters if voltage fluctuations occur. In such situation, inconsistency in measurement results of AMI meters and class A power quality analyzers occurs. The problem is presented on the basis of laboratory study results in which disturbances in power grid are recreated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Design of Distributed Fusion Predictor and Filter without Feedback for Nonlinear System with Correlated Noises and Random Parameter Matriceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/msr-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work presents distributed predictor and filter without feedback for nonlinear stochastic uncertain system with correlated noises. Firstly, for the problem that the process noise and measurement noise are correlated, the two-step prediction theorem based on projection theorem is used to replace the one-step prediction theorem, and the two-step prediction value of a single sensor is obtained. Secondly, the two-step prediction value of each sensor state is used as the measurement information to modify the distributed fusion predictor to obtain the distributed fusion prediction value. Then, according to the projection theorem, the prediction value of distributed fusion is used as measurement information to modify the filtering value of distributed fusion. Finally, the Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) algorithm is used to implement the algorithm proposed in this paper. By comparison with existing methods, the algorithm proposed in this paper solves the problem that existing methods cannot handle state estimation and prediction problems for nonlinear multi-sensor stochastic uncertain systems with correlated noises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Using Signal Phase in Computerized Systems of Non-destructive Testinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/msr-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Phase methods of measuring physical quantities and phase measuring equipment are widely used in various fields of science and technology. The article proposes a signal processing methodology based on a combination of the discrete Hilbert transform (DHT) and deterministic, as well as statistical methods of phase measurement. This methodology makes it possible to more fully use the information resource of the measuring signal phase in a wide range of the signal-to-noise ratio. It can be used both in computerized measurement and testing systems, as well as in the processing of measurement data. The benefits of the DHT are considered. The possibility of using statistics of directional data for phase measurements is shown. Circular statistics, such as the mean ring value, circular variance and the resulting vector length, were proposed for use in the phase measurements. Some examples of the use of this methodology in measurements and non-destructive testing are given.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00A Measurement Method of Determining the Power Supply Parameters for the Optimal Operation of a Synchronous Motorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/msr-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents a measurement method for determining the power supply parameters for the optimal operation of a synchronous motor, i.e. operation with minimal losses in the entire load range. The measurement strategy is based on the search for the minimum sum of the power supplied to the excitation circuit and the stator circuit for the assumed load torque values. The process of searching for the minimum sum of power can be significantly shortened and simplified by using a network parameter meter. The research confirmed the usefulness of the proposed method for determining the optimal operation parameters of a synchronous motor. The tested motor was a machine with a cylindrical rotor, but the developed method will also be applicable to synchronous machines with salient pole rotors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Anthropologic Measurements in Pectus Carinatum Brace Treatment Evaluationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/msr-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Objectives: Brace treatment in children with pectus carinatum has become the method of choice during the last decade. The authors evaluate the role of anthropometric measurements in diagnostic and treatment processes.</p> <p>Methods: A prospective study, analysing a compressive brace treatment for pectus carinatum, performed between January 2018 and September 2020. Demographic data, anthropometric dimensions and indexes of the chest, data connected to an orthosis usage, as well as ongoing treatment outcomes were analysed.</p> <p>Results: Forty-seven consecutive patients aged between 10 to 18 years with pectus carinatum were prescribed a compressive brace. Thirtynine of them (83 %) reached clinically positive results while wearing the orthosis for 6 ± 3 months. An improvement in the sagittal chest diameter was 0.5 cm – 2.8 cm (mean 1.0 cm ± 0.5 cm) and an improvement of the Thoracic Index was 0.8 % – 25.1 % (6.4 % ± 4.5 %) by using the brace on average for (6 ± 2) hours a day.</p> <p>Conclusion: Clinical anthropometric measurements can evaluate the dimensions of chest wall and treatment progress in patients with pectus carinatum precisely and thus replace the need for more complex examinations requiring X-rays.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Vectorcardiographic Ventricular Gradient with Constituents, and Myocardial Action Potential Parameter Distributionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/msr-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Theoretical grounds of integral vectors of ventricular depolarization and repolarization and their sum, i.e., the spatial ventricular gradient, have been studied. A systematic description and biophysical interpretation of these parameters are presented based on the distribution of cardiomyocyte action potential parameters in the inhomogeneous bidomain model of the myocardium. Recent medical studies have shown high efficiency and predictive value of the ventricular gradient, its constituents and related parameters, such as the angle between the con-stituents, the acceleration of repolarization, etc. Simple examples for a myocardial strip clarify the relationship between the action potential parameters and the resulting ventricular gradient. An explanation with graphic illustration is given for the very informative decartogram of repolarization acceleration. The results obtained here are useful in the modeling of vectorcardiograms for various pathological conditions of the heart ventricles and for various characteristics of the cardiomyocyte action potential, which determine its shape.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Actuator control using TCP IP communication under LabVIEW USB6001 environmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cjece-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article introduces a basic LED control using the USB6001 hardware, which is a LabVIEW product. It may be thought of as an extension device for real-time testing of simulation results. LabVIEW2014 is the software used. TCP is the communication technique, which has already been incorporated in LabVIEW via one of the communication modules. It might also be done on the same platform. There are two objects in this article, a server and a client, that may transport data or messages between these two applications. The Transmission Control Protocol governs the transmission process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00A Survey on Automatic Design Methods for Swarm Robotics Systemshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cjece-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Swarm robots are a branch of robotics that draws inspiration from biological swarms to mimic their collective behavior. Automatic design methods are part of swarm engineering, depend on artificial intelligence algorithms to produce the collective behavior of robots. In general, they follow two-approach evolutionary algorithms like practical swarm optimization and reinforcement learning. This paper studies these approaches, illustrating the effect of modifications and enhancements of algorithms for both directions, showing important parameters considered for the best performance of the swarm, and explaining the methods and advantages of using deep learning to reinforcement learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00A survey for Communication security of the embedded systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cjece-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The embedded operating system is a task-oriented computing platform that can be tailored, low-cost, and has high requirements for reliability and real-time performance. It plays an extremely important role in engineering applications. With the gradual application of embedded systems in various fields, the shortcomings of its insufficient ability to respond to security threats have gradually emerged, and many hackers have turned their attack targets into embedded systems. The important reason for these attacks is that embedded systems lack sufficient multi-layer protection mechanisms. This article focuses on the threats embedded systems face in terms of communication security. Then analyze the existing communication security-related technologies from the perspectives of the network layer, the transport layer, and the application layer. Finally, it summarizes the research direction of embedded system security countermeasures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental Parameters Monitoring Systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cjece-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The project presents the development of a system for monitoring environmental parameters. At the base of this system is the ESP-32S board that collects, processes and transmits data from the three sensors to the two web interfaces. The role of these web interfaces is to display the data collected from the sensors. The local web interface consists of two windows, the first window contains the table of sensors that displays the data measured by the sensors at that time. In the second window you can see the data measured by the sensors through graphs. They store the sensor data, giving the user the ability to view previously measured data. The local web interface provides sensor data only in the Wi-Fi network coverage area, and its data is deleted when the server is closed. The global web interface displays data using graphs. At the base of this web interface is the ThingSpeak platform that allows the system to transmit data anywhere in the world, store data in the Cloud space and the possibility of using special analysis functions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Identification of the Key Causes and Measures to Prevent Building Collapses in Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0049<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Buildings collapse in the Nigerian major urban cities continues to engender an excessive number of fatalities, injuries and property damage. The collapse of building infrastructure, though prominent in developing economies, is a worldwide issue. Building developments collapse at the construction stages and in some cases after commissioning. Examples abound in recent times in Abuja and Lagos. The major problem is the unquantifiable resources wasted when building construction development collapses. If the answer to this endemic problem is proper project management, it becomes imperative to institutionalize its activities in Nigeria. Building Collapse is an occurrence that has been notorious over the decades. It is caused by many factors which have their great impact on the lives and properties of man. This study reviews current causes in the building industry. In view of this development, this study is aimed at demonstrating how real estate project management strategy helps in building collapse. Data from the primary source were basically from the designed instrument, which were distributed to the population of 100 professionals in the building industries. In this paper, it was concluded that the key causes of building collapse are weak/faulty foundations, inefficient stringent quality control in material utilization, and management, boycotting the professionals, absence of proper site investigation, the absence of proper site investigation and the engagement of inexperienced personnel. The aim of the study was to identify the factors influencing the occurrence of construction disasters in Nigeria in order to prevent them in the future. However, the analysis of the results gathered, reveal that, there was variance in opinions, as to the causes of building collapse among professionals in an attempt to exonerate themselves from the blame for building collapse. These were classified as the areas in the building sector that were prone to building collapse. Therefore, this study claims that the above-listed causes of building collapse are predominant in the Nigerian construction industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Surface Morphology of a Microplastic as an Indicator of Its Microscale Degradationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0057<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most of the plastic produced, being one-use plastic packaging, is finally disposed of into the environment. Several agents such as solar radiation, mechanical forces, and microbial action may enable the degradation of these plastics. The purpose of this article is to present a method for studying the properties of a surface of a microplastic particle affected by erosion at the microscale level, which occurred with the help of destructive forces associated with the impact of the sea. The results of analysis of the morphology of the tested sample of microplastic (consisting of poly(propylene)) allowed observing how it was degraded. Examining the surface of a microplastic, one can analyze a number of factors as well as determine the possible path the material has traveled until it was collected as a sample. By determining the scale of the patterns, it is possible to estimate how long the sample and other microplastics present in marine environments have been there. The use of an Atomic Force Microscope not only allows the surface of the sample to be imaged in a non-destructive manner but also enables the degree of degradation to be calculated mathematically, provided a baseline is established from which erosion can be assumed to have originated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Resistance to Seawater of a New Cement Mortar Based on Additions of Recycled Producthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0060<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to explore some sustainability indicators including mainly the resistance to seawater of mortars containing 5% kaolin filler in the sand and different types of ecoproducts as cement additions. To this end, an experimental study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of three types of cement additions (glass powder (GP), metakaolin (MK) and brick waste (BW)) with contents of 5, 15 and 25% as well as binary and ternary combinations of these same additions. The results obtained made it possible to show the effectiveness of filler and cement additions (glass powder (GP) or / and metakaolin (MK) compared to brick waste (BW)) in improving the durability of mortars against aggressive agents such as seawater. In the end, the cement mortars made from 25% MK, 25% GP and this compound of 5% GP and 25% MK showed good resistance to attack by seawater.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the Occurrence of Progressive Collapse in High-Rise Steel Buildings with Different Braced Configurationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0048<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The progressive collapse phenomenon refers to a chain of damages in a structure where all or a large part of the structure is destroyed by an initial local collapse in it, which can lead to very disastrous results. Therefore, the prevention of progressive collapse has become a necessary action in the design and analysis of buildings and it is vital to investigate this topic more accurately. This study aims to present a proposed pattern in the configuration of braces at the height of a high-rise steel building for reducing the probability of progressive collapse. In this regard, the vertical displacement of 18-story structure with four scenarios of column removal and five concentric bracing patterns including V, Inverted V, X, discontinuous X-bracing at height, and a combination of Xbracing in the side spans and discontinuous X-bracing at height in the middle spans are investigated and compared. In this study, the Alternative Path Method (APM) is used based on the GSA guideline for the analysis of progressive collapse. The results of this research showed that the use of X-bracing in the side spans and discontinuous X-bracing in the middle spans in nonlinear static and dynamic analyses performed better in reducing the probability of progressive collapse than other bracing configurations. Finally, it is recommended to use discontinuous X-bracing at the height that would place the bracings in one direction and providing alternative paths for force transferring in the structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Repair and Renovation of the Historic Church in Ruda Śląska After Many Failures Caused by Mining Exploitationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0051<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes a case of the church, which for nearly 70 years was exposed to the impact of 26 mining exploitations conducted under the church or very close to the church at different depths. These caused damage in the form of superficial cracks of vaults and walls as well as the loosening of the front layer of stone façade of towers. The construction has been preserved due to the continuous monitoring and numerous repairs and renovations. Currently, there is no mining exploitation under the church.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Contracts’ Performance Measurement in Czech Construction Companieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0058<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Performance measurement of construction contracts belongs to the crucial activities enabling the improvement of processes in a construction company. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and analyse performance management practices applied by contractors in the Czech construction sector. Original data were collected using a questionnaire survey and quantified through relative frequency of occurrence. These data have been supplemented by interviews with experts in the field in order to assess the importance of the individual criteria and other relevant performance aspects. The main findings illustrate differences in approach with respect to company size, as well as the most frequently used performance indicators and criteria. The study also focused on the performance measurement of subcontractors and the factors influencing contract success. The results show that large companies have already developed elaborate measurement systems and have sufficient staff for this purpose. Companies in the Micro&amp;Small category show worse measurement performance, mainly due to the lack of qualified staff.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Improvement of the Mechanical Behavior of Composite Materials with Different Binders Based on Local Plant Fibers Alfa and Disshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0053<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concerned about the environmental and economic impact, composite materials are increasingly used in the construction sector. Indeed, the use of plant fibers as reinforcement in construction materials have been the subject of several researches in recent years; the main motivation is the weight gain combined with high mechanical characteristics. The objective of this research concerns the study of the physicomechanical properties of composite materials with cement and clay matrices reinforced with Alfa and Diss fibers with dimensions ranging from 2 to 8 cm. This involves evaluating the performance of these materials according to the formulation, for a volume ratio (Alfa or Diss / Matrix fibers equal to 4), using dry fibers and pre-wetted fibers. The study of the mechanical properties showed a drop of the performance for both compression and bending strength compared to the reference material without adding fibers (cement or clay paste). It should be noted that the best mechanical performance is obtained for the case of composites materials with cementitious matrix with pre-wetted fibers. On the other hand, in the case of composites with clayey matrices, pre-wetting does not improve the mechanical characteristics. It is also noted that the best dimensions of fibers which improve the mechanical characteristics in bending are generally 6 cm for composites with a clay matrix and between 2 and 4 cm for cementitious composites. In all cases, the fibers in composite materials with cement or clay matrix create a bridging effect, making it possible to limit the progression of cracks during loading. This phenomenon gives to the various composite materials a ductile behavior.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Significance of Wastewater Treatment to Nitrous Oxide Emissionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0059<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The sewage flowing into the wastewater treatment plant through the sewer system, as well as transported by the slurry fleet, are subjected to treatment processes. These processes, carried out under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, contribute to the emission of greenhouse gases. On the basis of available reports and previous research, the emission of nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O) from wastewater was estimated at approx. 4-5% in relation to the global amount of this gas emission from anthropogenic sources. Data obtained from the operation of full-scale WWTPs show a wide range of values of the N<sub>2</sub>O emission factors from 0.0006 to 0.045 (kgN<sub>2</sub>O-N/kgN) [18].</p> <p>The article describes possible sources of nitrous oxide emission from wastewater treatment plants and presents the basic principles of its balancing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Application of Sentinel-2 Data for Automatic Forest Cover Changes Assessment – Białowieża Primeval Forest Case Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ceer-2021-0054<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sentinel-2 mission, as a part of European Space Agency Earth Observation Program Copernicus, designed specifically for Earth surface observations provides images in 13 bands. That imaging is used to analyse many subject areas as Land monitoring, Emergency management, Security and Climate change. In the presented paper the application of Sentinel-2 data for automatic forest cover changes detection has been analysed. As input data, B02, B03, B04 and B08 bands have been used to compute Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ENDVI). To track changes in the forest cover over the years, for each pixel the difference in the value of vegetation indices between consecutive years have been calculated. Then the threshold was set at the level of 0.15. The values of differences above the threshold mean a significant decrease in the quality of vegetation and may be considered areas of deforestation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1