rss_2.0Business and Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Business and Economics and Economics Feed Message? Which Channel? Which Customer? - Exploring Response Rates in Multi-Channel Marketing Using Short-Form Advertising<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Formulating short-form advertising messages with little ad content that work and choosing high-performing channels to disseminate them are persistent challenges in multichannel marketing. Drawing on the persuasive systems design (PSD) model, we experimented with 33,848 actual customers of an international telecom company. In a real-life setting, we compared the effectiveness of three persuasion strategies (rational, emotional, and social) tested in three marketing channels (short message service (SMS), social media advertising, and mobile application), evaluating their effect on influencing customers to purchase international mobile phone credits. Results suggest that companies should send rational messages when using short-form advertising messages regardless of the channel to achieve higher response rates. Findings further show that certain customer characteristics are predictive of positive responses and differ by channel but not by message type. Findings from crowdsourced evaluations also indicate that people noticeably disagree on what persuasive strategy was applied to these short messages, indicating that consumers are not well-equipped to identify persuasive strategies or that what advertisers see as a “pure” strategy actually involves elements from multiple strategies as interpreted by consumers. The results have implications for the theoretical understanding of persuasive short-form commercial messaging in multichannel marketing and practical insights for advertising within a limited amount of space and attention afforded by many digital channels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00An Empirical Study on Knowledge Aggregation in Academic Virtual Community Based on Deep Learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Academic virtual community provides an environment for users to exchange knowledge, so it gathers a large amount of knowledge resources and presents a trend of rapid and disorderly growth. We learn how to organize the scattered and disordered knowledge of network community effectively and provide personalized service for users. We focus on analyzing the knowledge association among titles in an all-round way based on deep learning, so as to realize effective knowledge aggregation in academic virtual community. We take ResearchGate (RG) “online community” resources as an example and use Word2Vec model to realize deep knowledge aggregation. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to verify its scientificity, and Wide &amp; Deep learning model is used to verify its running effect. The empirical results show that the knowledge aggregation system of “online community” works well and has scientific rationality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Creating a New, Sustainable Mindset through Responsible Consumption: A Case Study of the International Chain of Sustainable Restaurants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents research conducted in the United Arab Emirates with the management of Bareburger, the chain of sustainable restaurants, as well as among its clients. In our project, we are interested in the relation between the offer of sustainability and the culture of conscious consumption. The opinions of industry experts and customers collected in an interview session are analyzed to derive the answer to the research questions. The research focuses on finding the possibility of changing the mindset and habits of consumers and creating an impact on consumer behavior by offering a responsible and sustainable nutrition model. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of sustainable restaurants on consumer culture in terms of cultivating healthy food habits. In our case study, we analyze Bareburger, a healthier fast-food chain that originated in the United States, which took the concept of sustainability to a completely new level, from ideation to implementation. Observing this process, we checked whether the unhealthy eating habits that we observe in the Middle East can be changed through the carefully composed model of a responsible restaurant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Real Time Enterprise as a Platform of Support Management Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current, fast market changes require enterprises to dynamically adapt the way they conduct their business. This poses many challenges for information technology. Market requirements for immediate response to business changes became the basis of the idea of a real-time information processing (RTE) company. RTE provides real-time information to employees and business partners. Integrated IT systems supporting management constitute a common platform – the foundation of a real-time enterprise. The aim of the article is to present the basic problems of building an IT system that is the basis of a real-time information processing (RTE) company. It is a summary of our work on this type of system. The article justifies the thesis about the need to build a system for the RTE's requirements and the conditions of its implementation. Such a system is designed to provide employees and business partners with the information they need in real time. The use of integrated systems such as ERP, CRM, SCM, and so on provides the ability to implement the main business processes of a real-time enterprise. The article presents both literature analysis and the characteristics of own work on designing IT systems for RTE. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of success factors (determinants) in system design and the use of MUST methodology (MUST is a Danish acronym for theories of and methods for design activities). The final part of the article presents a proposal for further work on IT systems for RTE in the context of existing trends such as DARQ technology (Distributed Ledger, Artificial Intelligence, Extended Reality, Quantum computing).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Research Method for Management of Thermoplastics Production Improvement in Rubber Industry with the Use of 3D Simulation Modeling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns research and improvement of production processes in one of the European companies in the rubber industry<fn id="j_fman-2021-0002_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>The company did not allow the name or country to be given.</p></fn>. The main goal is to improve the production process of the thermo-plastics obtained from polymer materials on the company's production line. Improvement is defined as a reduction of the setup time of a key machine in the tested production process. The research method includes the analysis of the literature, observation of the studied process, and the accomplished computer simulation experiments. The proposed activities relate to the reinforcement of the key part of the machine, the change of the machine setup method, and the preliminary staff assignment to the specific tasks. The results of the simulation experiments confirm the implementation of the proposed improvements. The theoretical contribution to the research field development is the proposal of the simulation modeling methodology to improve production processes of continuous materials. Practical conclusions lead to recommendations for the implementation of improvements in the enterprise, with direct application of the proposed actions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovation and Leadership: A Study of Organizations Based in the United Arab Emirates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The successful practice of innovation in any organization demands the integration and interaction of individual, collective, and organizational climate levels of management. Leadership styles have an impact on all these three levels of management. However, little work has been done to assess this impact, especially in the context of United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based organizations. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing whether leadership processes, tools, and techniques differ in innovative organizations and, thereafter, propose general leadership requirements for innovative projects in the UAE. This study adopts statistical data-processing methods, such as descriptive statistics, the reliability of the instrument, correlation, and regression analysis. Data obtained through a survey of UAE-based organizations were used for analyzing whether innovativeness (as perceived by employees) is statistically correlated with leadership dimensions. The research results show that the transformational leadership style scores better over transactional leadership when it comes to predicting innovations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in the Perception of Organizational Culture in Non-Public Universities in Poland by Academic and Administrative Staff – A Study Based on Cameron and Quinn's Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to present differences in the perception of current and desired organizational culture between two different types of workers – academic and administrative staff – in non-public universities in Poland. A synthetic review of the literature on organizational culture at universities and the workplace attitudes of the two groups of university employees was conducted and presented. Research in the form of a survey based on Cameron and Quinn's model was conducted in three non-public universities in Poland. A sample of opinions of 115 workers was gathered and analyzed. It was found in the study that according to academic workers, the present culture was market culture, whereas for administrative workers, it was hierarchy culture. Both groups chose clan culture as the preferred culture. The findings may be useful for higher education decision makers in their attempts to transform universities into market-oriented, yet friendly workplaces. The study's limitations include a relatively small sample of respondents. A further, more comprehensive research into the subject will be worth conducting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Strategic Communication and Competitive Advantage: Assessing CEO Letters of Global Airline Alliances<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the last several decades, global airline alliances have ensured their market presence in the aviation industry. Scholars have focused on the effects of alliance affiliation for airlines and what the competitive advantages of alliances are. However, these issues have been discussed in relation to operational aspects. The quality of strategic communication can be an important factor in achieving a competitive advantage and realizing a differentiation strategy. This study assessed the differences in quality of strategic communication between the three leading alliance groups (oneworld, SkyTeam, and Star Alliance) and a non-alliance group. Comprehensive content analysis was implemented using the letters of chief executive officers (CEOs) of 46 airlines. We found that the non-alliance group has more ideal CEO letters than the alliance groups, and the main topics and quality of CEO letters of alliance group differed. This study provides a novel insight into the competitive advantage of global airline alliances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Digital Technology Platforms in the Context of Cybersecurity in the Industrial Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study discusses the use of digital technology platforms (DTPs) in the context of cyber-security in the industrial sector, with a focus on digital industry (industrial) platforms (DIPs). A definition of DTPs is presented, including the author's interpretation, as well as the scope of DTP application in the industrial sector, which includes, in particular, European Digital Platforms (EDPs) and Polish Digital Platforms (PDPs), such as non-ferrous metals PDP or intelligent transport systems PDP. This is followed by a section covering the theoretical basis of the study that highlights the key challenges and risks associated with the use of DTPs as well as the methods for their neutralization in the form of specific concepts and systems that can be employed in the industrial sector. The subsequent section of the study is based on results of the author's own survey which collected information from a total of 120 companies operating in Poland, which were granted subsidies under the Operational Program Innovative Economy for investments involving the implementation and development of DTPs. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire developed by the author, which consisted of 23 questions. In this respect, as shown by the author's own studies, of greatest relevance are hardware failures and Internet outage events. Most importantly, concerns about such risks are some of the major factors underlying the negative attitudes of management staff of industrial companies toward DTPs, and therefore, it is so important to ensure that any such risks can be effectively addressed. They can be avoided through the use of certain concepts and systems such as STOE or CVSS. A typical company may know the model of DTPs in the context of challenges in the field of cybersecurity through this study; in particular, it can improve IT security.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Innovations and Smart Solutions for Society and Economy: Pros and Cons<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI) may involve significant potential threats to personal data privacy, national security, and social and economic stability. AI-based solutions are often promoted as “intelligent” or “smart” because they are autonomous in optimizing various processes. Because they can modify their behavior without human supervision by analyzing data from the environment, AI-based systems may be more prone to malfunctions and malicious activities than conventional software systems. Moreover, due to existing regulatory gaps, development and operation of AI-based products are not yet subject to adequate risk management and administrative supervision. Resonating to recent reports about potential threats resulting from AI-based systems, this paper presents an outline of a prospective risk assessment for adaptive and autonomous products. This research resulted in extensive catalogs of possible damages, initiating events, and preventive policies that can be useful for risk managers involved in conducting risk assessment procedures for AI-based systems. The paper concludes with the analysis and discussion of changes in business, legal, and institutional environments required to ensure the public that AI-based solutions can be trusted, are transparent and safe, and can improve the quality of life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Positive Leadership in the Process of Change on the Example of the Banking Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In today's world, the success of modern company in dealing with change depends, to a large extent, on a positive approach toward its knowledge workers. The aim of the present study is to indicate the significance of positive leadership in the implementation of crucial changes in an organization in the environment of knowledge workers. The study has researched the case of a major Polish bank undergoing significant change in the Risk Management Division. Presented research covers the period between 2013 and 2019 and was conducted thanks to the participation of nearly 600 employees. Changes in the level of their engagement were systematically studied. All ten leaders in the division were also investigated, so that ten individual Reiss Motivation Profile (RMP) profiles could be created. Study results have confirmed that team leaders possess characteristics that confirm their preferred style is positive leadership, with a clear servant leadership attitude. The formulated hypotheses have been positively verified. It has been confirmed that the orientation of leaders on positive leadership ensured an effective implementation of crucial changes in the environment of knowledge workers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Patterns of the Distribution of the Demand of End-Consumers among Retailers in the Zone of their Residence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development of retail and e-commerce is forcing marketing and logistics to be competitive and adapt to the demands of end-customers. At the same time, accurately determining the demand for goods allows to better understand customers and plan deliveries. The purpose of this article is to study the change in patterns of probability of choosing the option to purchase goods among end-consumers with and without the presence of e-commerce. The study consisted of research buyers, determining the probability of purchasing goods from “consumer basket” in the traditional way and over the Internet, which is considered for the example of one of the Kharkiv districts. The results develop e-commerce potential in Ukraine and are intended to determine the motives of consumers when choosing a shopping option.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality Gaps in Higher Education from the Perspective of Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented research work relates to the category of quality in higher education. This article aims to present the determinants of the quality of education in the context of international standards. The background of the considerations is the Bologna Declaration and the European Higher Education Area. The results of the research carried out with the use of the nominal group method and the data analysis carried out based on the SERVQUAL model for education revealed groups of quality determinants that are not included in the standards of internal quality assurance. It has been found that the principle of autonomy of universities in the European Higher Education Area is a sufficient basis to include the determinants of the quality of education identified by internal stakeholders of a given university in the internal quality of education assurance system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Differentiating retirement age to compensate for health differences<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Population aging in Europe calls for an overall rise in the age of retirement. However, most observers agree that the latter should be differentiated to account for different individuals’ heterogeneous health when they grow older. This paper explores the relevance of this idea using the European Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) panel data. It first quantifies the health gradient across and within each of the European countries across sociodemographic groups (i.e., Gender × Education) at typical retirement age. It then estimates the degree of retirement age differentiation that would be needed to equalize expected health at the moment of retirement. Results point at the need for a very high degree of differentiation to equalize expected health, both across and within, European countries. But the paper also shows that systematic retirement age differentiation would fail to match a significant portion of the full distribution of health status. In a world synonymous with systematic health-based retirement age differentiation, there would still be a lot of what health economists call F-mistakes ([F]ailure of treatment, i.e., no retirement for people in poor health) and E-mistakes ([E]xcessive treatment, i.e., people in good health going for retirement).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Recent trends in the youth labor market in Colombia: Diagnosis and policy challenges<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper characterizes the labor market of youth in Colombia from 2008 to 2017. We estimate labor market indicators for individuals aged between 14 and 28 years using microdata from Colombia's household surveys over the study period. Our estimates document the main patterns and trends in the labor market of youth in labor force participation, employment, unemployment, informality, and earnings. We compare these statistics with the same indicators of adults (individuals aged between 29 and 65 years), and explore differences in characteristics within youth such as gender, region, educational attainment, socioeconomic status (SES), and experience. Results indicate that participation rate of young Colombians have increased in recent years, but are mainly employed in low-quality jobs namely unsalaried and informal. We also document marked inequalities in labor market outcomes across youth characteristics. We provide a series of recommendations to guide future youth labor policy based on these estimates as well as the critical analysis of recent youth policies in Colombia.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Statutory, effective, and optimal net tax schedules in Lithuania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We estimate effective and optimal net income tax schedules and compare them to the estimated statutory rates for the case of Lithuania for the period 2014–2015. Values of effective net tax rates are estimated from the survey of EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions; the statutory net tax rates are estimated with the European tax-benefit simulator EUROMOD, whereas optimal net taxes are calculated via <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_izajolp-2021-0005_ref_043">Saez (2002)</xref> methodology. We find that the three net tax schedules are similar for employees in the middle of the income distribution. At the bottom of the income distribution, optimal net tax schedules suggest higher in-work benefits. The net tax schedules diverge substantially for the self-employed. At the top of the income distribution, where the majority of self-employed are concentrated, the self-employed are required to pay 15 cents less net taxes per Euro than employees—and they effectively pay 29 cents less.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Mitigating Long-term Unemployment in Europe<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>While unemployment rates in Europe declined after the global financial crisis until 2018/2019, the incidence of long-term unemployment, the share of people who have been unemployed for &gt;1 year to the total unemployed, remained high. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic could aggravate the long-term unemployment. This paper explores the factors associated with long-term unemployment in European countries using a panel of 25 European countries over the period 2000–2018. We find that skill mismatches, labor market matching efficiency, and labor market policies are associated with the incidence of long-term unemployment. Among the different types of active labor market policies, training and startup incentives are found to be effective in reducing long-term unemployment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Does universal long-term care insurance boost female labor force participation? Macro-level evidence<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Although a public long-term care (LTC) program is a potentially important factor for the labor supply of female informal caregivers, there are only a handful of individual-level studies on this topic and the macro-level impacts of LTC programs are still largely unknown. Exploiting the introduction of nationwide long-term care insurance (LTCI) in Japan and utilizing a synthetic control method, we examine how LTCI introduction has altered the trends of public expenditures on in-kind benefits for the elderly, public health expenditure, and female labor force participation. The estimation results using the panel data of OECD countries (1980–2013) suggest that LTCI introduction substantially increased the in-kind benefits for the elderly by around one percentage point of GDP 10 years after LTCI introduction, but we do not find a positive effect on the labor force participation for middle-aged women. The fact that we do not observe any positive LTCI effects on middle-aged female labor force participation on a macro level implies that positive LTCI effects on female labor supply observed in some previous microlevel studies may be cancelled out by some other factors or are small enough to be detected under a general-equilibrium setting.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Who cleans my house if the government pays? Refugees, low-educated workers, and long-term unemployed in tax-subsidized domestic service firms<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Many European countries have implemented policies to revive their domestic service sectors. A common goal of these reforms has been to create employment for disadvantaged groups on the domestic labor market. I evaluate a Swedish policy where domestic service firms receive a 50% tax deduction on labor costs. Detailed data from tax records identify all formal workers and owners of firms that receive deductions. I describe the composition of workers and owners in these firms with respect to three groups targeted by Swedish policymakers: refugees, people with low education, and people who enter the workforce from long-term unemployment. I find that the shares of refugees and long-term unemployed in the subsidized sector barely exceed the shares in the full private labor force, and fall far below the shares in industrial sectors with a predominance of elementary jobs. The share of people with low education is higher than in the full private sector and on par with other low-skilled sectors. I conclude that the tax subsidy largely failed to improve employment opportunities among the target groups. An extended analysis suggests that labor immigration from other EU countries may be a partial explanation for this. EU immigrants operate half of all subsidized firms in Sweden's largest cities and nearly exclusively employ other EU immigrants.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00“Fine...I’ll do it myself”: Lessons from self-employment grants in a long recession period<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper evaluates the effect of a self-employment grant scheme for unemployed individuals—designed to ease the first 12 months of business operation—on firm growth, survival, and labor market reintegration in Croatia in the 2010–2017 period. Grants offered a moderate amount of finances (up to 50% of average annual gross salary) and absorbed only 5% of funds allocated to active labor market policies (ALMPs), but accounted for 10% of new firms opened throughout the years. We contribute to the literature on self-employment grants with several novel findings. Exploiting the longitudinal structure of the unemployment episodes dataset, we find that individuals who finish their spell with a grant have a significantly lower probability of returning to unemployment. The policy is particularly effective for individuals who would have otherwise had labor market opportunities (men, more educated, prime-age workers, previously employed), individuals who became unemployed after inactivity and lost their job due to a firm's closure—which demonstrates that self-employment subsidies can be effective in ameliorating unemployment. However, the policy was not effective for longer unemployed individuals. At the firm level, we find descriptive evidence that limited liability firms opened via a grant have lower growth potential and worse survival profile, while unlimited liability firms—even though a sizable portion of them closes after a required 12-month grant period—have a more favorable survival profile. Finally, we also find that the effectiveness of these grants has increased throughout the years, indicating toward the direction of institutional learning.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-19T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1