rss_2.0Cultural Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Cultural Studies Studies Feed influence of transport offer on passenger traffic in the railway transport system in a post-socialist country: case study of Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study examines factors influencing the number of rail passengers in Poland. The subjects of observation were 62 cities with poviat rights. The main factors influencing demand are the number of connections and the speed of trains. Therefore, we developed an original indicator – weighted number of connections, which takes into account the number of rail connections and the speed of trains. The article can be divided into two main parts: an assessment of the diversification of transport offer and transport demand in spatial terms, and an evaluation of the relationship between the variables. Poland has a large spatial diversity in terms of public rail transport offer and passenger traffic. There are three levels of city hierarchy according to the passenger number indicator: [1] Warsaw, [2] the largest agglomerations [3] other regional cities. Transport offer was found to have a statistically significant impact on transport demand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of green space systems in small towns of Kyiv region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analysed the current state of greening of small towns in the Kyiv region; small towns constitute 80% of all towns and cities in the region. A difference is shown to exist between the classification of green plantings that is used in Ukraine and the world-wide approach of green infrastructure. This makes it incorrect to compare the indicators of landscaping of towns in Ukraine against those of other countries. Based on the data of <italic>Master Plans</italic> of towns, the generally accepted indicators of landscaping of urban areas were calculated: provision of greenery per capita and level of landscaping. These indicators of landscaping for small towns were analysed according to different approaches. It is found that, according to the traditional calculation, the provision of green plantations exceeds 300 m<sup>2</sup> <italic>per capita</italic> for only 5% of small towns of the region, but for 70% according to the approach of green infrastructure. The provision of green areas for public use meets the established state standards (8–11 m<sup>2</sup> <italic>per capita</italic>) for only 35% of small towns in the region. Small towns are grouped into four clusters according to the similarity of landscaping indicators, where only the difference in the availability of green plantings of public use was unreliable among the clusters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Shrinking agricultural land and changing livelihoods after land acquisition in Vietnam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The phenomenon of agricultural land shrinkage is widespread in the world. This phenomenon has many causes, of which industrialisation is one. The industrialisation process is supported in most countries by the use of land acquisition as a tool to convert land use from agricultural to non-agricultural. This research surveyed 100 land-lost households to examine the impact of farmland shrinkage on their livelihoods in Vietnam. The study focuses on three factors: employment and income, how compensation money is used, and quality of life after land loss. The results show that revenue increased by USD 1,500 per household compared to before. The rate of employment depends on age and gender. There is a drop in employment among women over 35 years old and men over 40. The use of compensation money focuses on non-farm goals, with the bright spot being an investment in education for future generations. The environment and society tend to be worse according to the subjective assessment of households, but their ultimate choice is still to enjoy life after land acquisition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Recycling of municipal waste in Slovak cities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among the most urgent topics within waste management policy is the gradual transition of the economy from a linear model towards a circular economy with a more sustainable way of using resources. The European Union has responded to these changes by passing new legislation and ambitious targets so that all member states can quickly work towards achieving a greener and more sustainable Europe. However, the starting position for achieving the desired goals differs significantly from one country to another. In this paper, we therefore looked at the position of Slovakia in relation to selected waste management indicators, and at the measures taken so far. Moreover, since waste management falls under one of the many public benefit services provided under the remit of local governments, we also monitored the specific contribution of Slovak cities to the newly established trend of waste management in the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping paradigm shifts in the geography of innovation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study quantifies important theoretical tendencies in the geography of innovation in a historical view based on a novel big-data approach. It shows that the field was “born” only in the nineteen eighties after long periods (i.e. the first half of the 20th century) of analysing economic growth and regional development without endogenising the production process of innovation. The paper presents important shifts in the basic assumptions of models with the increasing use of the terms “economic instability” or “asymmetric information” instead of “economic equilibrium” and “perfect information”. These mean a deviation from traditional neoclassical regional economics, which is reflected in the fact that “geography of innovation” gained the same level of popularity in the 2000s as “industrial geography”. The paper shows that although the decline of the Marshallian term “industrial district” stopped in parallel with the work of Becattini, a new innovation systems theory took over the relative frequency of mention of the industrial district by the turn of the new millennium.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Websites and social networks of communes in Slovakia: development and current state<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the main features of today’s information society is the availability of data of various kinds provided by various companies and organisations. In the following paper, we focus on evaluating the dynamics of development and the current state of existence of websites of communes in Slovakia, which represent a database of their activities and serve as the main communication channel between citizens and self-government representatives. Another important channel is social networks, which are still enjoying huge popularity among Internet users. On the basis of the results of an online questionnaire that involved almost 60% of the addressed self-governments, we will point out the adaptation of self-governments to the use of social networks. One of the important tasks of such research is the distribution of the obtained results to end users. This is achieved through an example of a description of basic technical and functional specifications by using the website created by the authors. This website has the ambition of becoming a sort of central access point for all those interested in information about communes in Slovakia. By means of standard tabular, but also interactive graphic and map outputs, it gives an idea of selected indicators of self-governments in a user-friendly form, thus helping to increase client awareness of this specific issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Can Corpus Consultation Compensate for the Lack of Knowledge in Legal Translation Training?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is generally assumed that a good knowledge of the legal field is a prerequisite to deliver legal translations. This paper will challenge this assumption by presenting a case study with third-year bachelor’s students who participated in a translation project. The students, enrolled in a course in translation practice, were trained in corpus consultation at the beginning of the academic year. Nearly at the end, they translated an extract of a supply contract without being trained in the legal field. They consulted a pre-compiled offline corpus and online bilingual dictionaries. The paper findings highlight that knowledge of the legal field would have certainly helped the students make more informed decisions and avoid some mistranslations. However, the major shortcomings were actually due to ineffective corpus or dictionary consultation. In particular, formulaic expressions and collocations were neglected. In light of the paper findings, it can be speculated that in translation training, effective corpus consultation may help users deliver high-quality legal translations. It also seemed that thorough knowledge of the legal field is not a prerequisite, at least as far as short texts are concerned.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Arabic Legal Phraseology in Positive Law and Jurisprudence: The Historical Influence of Translation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study examines Arabic legal phraseology formation from the standpoint of positive law and jurisprudence. It claims that phraseological constructions in Arabic legislative and statutory texts are largely influenced by the translation process of Roman law texts. However, scholarly literature still relies to some extent on formulae used in the Islamic jurisprudence. To illustrate this, three examples of legal principles anchored in Islamic jurisprundence, known as <italic>legal maxims</italic>, are subjected to a comparative analysis and discussed along with their corresponding expressions in positive law in modern-day Arabic. Ultimately, the purpose of this paper is twofold: firstly, to demonstrate that the phraseology present in many Arabic positive laws is fully adapted to corresponding formulations in the Roman law, steming from a historical translation process that accompanied the codification movement in the beginning of the 20th century; secondly, to emphasize the significance of textual genre awareness in legal translation. Concretely, the introductory section provides an overview of recent studies that have addressed legal phraseologisms. It is followed by a section on the historical role of translation in the construction of certain phraseologisms. The general legal principles of (a) burden of proof, (b) presumption of innocence, and (c) the pacta sunt servanda principle are then examined in order to shed light on the influence of both the Civilist tradition and Islamic jurisprudence on the use of legal Arabic today, as well as to demonstrate how the translation of phraseologisms is dependent on the parameters of genre. The analysis leads to the conclusion that proper use of phraseologisms, whether in drafting or translation, is closely linked to knowledge of phraseology formation and the historical influence of translation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Language- And Legal Culture Peculiarities in Selected Swiss Constitutional Acts Including a Translational Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the analysis is linguaculture expressing linguistic and cultural differences occurring in every language of law. They relate to vocabulary and editing principles of law acts. It seems that preserving such differences in the target translation makes it possible to reveal specific legislation trends of a given country, which express political motivation. Their preservation in the translated text requires good knowledge of law and in-depth comparative analysis. The focus of the analysis in this text is on the expression of gender in the law texts and specifically, on the translation of feminatives and legal names relevant for cultural dimension of a given law system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistics Difficulties in Harmonisation of European Union Law: The Example of Directives on Procedural Guaranties in Criminal Matters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Multilingual writing of European directives is faced with a few linguistic difficulties, like choosing an appropriate legal terms. All linguistic versions shall reflect the same content event though the legal system of each Member State is different and some legal concept do not have an equivalent in other legal systems. In this way, legal writing of European Directive is a very complex subject both from legal and linguistic perspective. The aim of this article is to discuss different linguistics difficulties that could appear during the harmonisation of criminal proceedings in European Union, where multilingualism is a key value and to analyse the possible solutions, when dealing with those difficulties. It seems that even if multilingualism is a big challenge to European Union, it could have a positive influence on the quality of European legislation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Everything Changes… More or Less. Opinions about the Post-Pandemic World among Ethnic Hungarians from Transylvania (Romania)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The analysis presents some of the results of an online survey regarding the COVID-19 pandemic, which was undertaken among ethnic Hungarians from Transylvania. The survey was based on a convenience sample and was realized between 16 and 26 April 2020, so during a specific period of the lockdown. Among others, the questionnaire asked the respondents about the degree in which the post-pandemic world would change. The answers to the question show that nearly three quarters of the respondents think that the world will not change at all or it will suffer only minor changes. Those who are more prone towards seeing a totally or a majorly changed world are in a minority. We assume that this situation could reflect a wishful thinking in front of an uncertain context. The regression analysis showed that respondents’ opinion regarding the change can be only marginally predicted by the selected independent variables. Men, those holding materialistic values, are significantly less convinced that the world will suffer major/total changes. On the other hand, trust in several institutions raises the odds of formulating the opinion that the post-pandemic world will be considerably changed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Collaboration and Networking in Adult Education and Training. A Case Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article discusses the analysis of the available resources in the <italic>Pro Educatione Network of Adult Education and Training</italic>. The study unveils the provided human resources, economic potential, organizational capacities and relationships as well as the surplus by the network of the 15 adult education organizations. The results show that networking brings access to different resources for network members. Half of the network member organizations affirm intense relationships, i.e. they often call for the collaboration of network member organizations for their adult education and training programmes, and significant co-creation activities are taking place. Despite the fact that several network member organizations have limited resources for the operation of adult education, they achieve significant efficiency; in other words, they can reach out to a considerable number of adult learners through their education and training programmes. The analysis identified passive, moderately active, and very active network members. It also identified areas with deficits in networking.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Narrative Child Protection in Hungary. The Importance of Knowing the History of the Families in Need in the Social Work with Children<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study is reflecting on the nature and features of social work with families with children, attempting to discuss social work as assistance and apprehension and to detect whether there is any causal link between the efficiency of social work and the narrative approach and the “unstoried”, “faceless” condition of the families. We argue that professional attitude aimed at providing child protection support is not possible without knowing the story of families with children. Without a helping attitude, no real social work is possible, and thus the client remains invisible and faceless in the process of child welfare or child protection interventions. Besides the actual situations of story-based intervention in social work (micro level), narrativity is also important for the transparent and adequate functioning of the system (mezzo level); moreover, it can become a factor of paradigm shift in social and political discourse on social work and its target groups (macro level). The study is based on the research entitled <italic>Child Protection Trends Supporting Children’s Well-Being</italic> carried out within the Research Scholarship granted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (2017–2020). The research focused on the family concept of child protection professionals and their views of the clients that can be deducted from this concept. The research also examines the notion and functions of the family from the viewpoint of children, young people and their parents as well as the professional attitudes and interventions determined by these perceptions. Research results show that due to the diversity and complexity of the problems of families in the purview of the child protection system one cannot reflect on professional solutions along types of problems. Successful functioning and efficient child protection rely rather on revealing individual and specific needs. All this indicates that child welfare and child protection work is possible only if built on personal stories.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Embeddedness or Marginalization? Aspects for Analysing the Local Embeddedness of Innovative Agricultural Enterprises in Szeklerland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Relying on an interview-based research carried out in the Szeklerland region (Romania), the present study investigates the social embeddedness patterns of innovative agricultural initiatives existing in rural areas. The analysis covers three areas: structural embeddedness patterns of local scale, practical initiatives strengthening social embeddedness, and ideas of innovative actors on their future role within the local community. The innovative agricultural actors included in the analysis are local agents who attempt to position themselves and their activities on a local scale amidst diffuse and constantly changing conditions. The specific forms of embeddedness under scrutiny here indicate that innovative actors and practices form part of the local community mostly on the structural level, functionally making their presence felt to a lesser extent.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Digital Space Dimension in Education. A Review on a Pilot Research<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Following a short review on the importance and challenges of digital education, we review some of the findings of a study which we conducted on the basis of an online survey among students of the teacher-training programme at the University of Debrecen (for the purposes of a pilot project) in 2019. The 75 respondents were between 18 and 23 years of age and mostly students of humanities and natural sciences. The survey is obviously not representative, its function being to serve as a ground of a pilot survey to further our work and to extend it to other universities. Among others, the results show that 62.7% of the students learnt the use of digital tools by self-improvement; the majority of future teachers (85.3%) are willing and motivated to use ICT tools in the context of education. The question regarding the importance of reading in a digital world showed that almost each of the respondents considered reading to remain an important activity. In order to make reading attractive, respondents emphasized the need to renew compulsory literature and to use digital tools for reading.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00About the System of Prejudices among the Hungarian Youth in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, and Ukraine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study is focused on the relationship between the youth and other social groups based on the data of the GeneZYs 2019 study. The study asked 15–29-year-olds from four countries regarding how appealing or unappealing they feel 24 different social groups. Research results show that several social groups, e.g., homosexuals, migrants/refugees, skinheads, drug users, are especially perceived as relatively repulsive/distasteful by the youth of the studied countries. Starting from theoretical and empirical antecedents, the author presumed that the low level of openness among the youth could be explained by several factors such as socio-demographic background, religiosity, value orientation, and sources of information. Based on empirical results, the author takes an analytical approach on the population under study. The goal of the study is to exceed the level of a partial analysis and to explore a typology while redefining the relationship between the motivation factors of prejudices. The hypotheses were partially confirmed. Compared to the author’s expectations, the typology of young people based on their attitudes towards otherness seems to be harder to explain. Three groups were identified: a smaller one which feels others being appealing, a larger one with a neutral attitude towards others and which sympathizes less with Hungarian groups than the average, and a mediumsized third group which dislikes otherness. From the characterization of the groups, one can discover that among those who dislike otherness, the overrepresented categories are: men, young people from rural areas, those who finished secondary education level, those economically active, young people from Ukraine, atheists, those who did not study abroad, people who suffered from discrimination experiences, young people with regional Hungarian and/or Hungarian identity, people who are not satisfied with the national economy and interethnic relations, and those who see the future in a pessimistic way.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Burnout and Depression in Medical Assistants in State-Owned Healthcare Institutions in Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Similarly to other countries in the Eastern European Region, the situation of medical assistants in Romania is fairly difficult. Due to the lack of personnel, health professionals are typically overwhelmed with work. The Quality of Life Research Centre at Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania conducted a non-representative survey among medical assistants in Romanian state-owned healthcare institutions. The sample size is 312 Romanian and Hungarian speaking nurses from six counties. The present study problematizes the mental health of medical assistants, more precisely burnout and depression, along demographic, social, and labour market features. The determinants of burnout and depression are being searched for among these structural and situational variables, and their controlled impact is being assessed with linear regression. Results indicate an excessive risk of burnout and depression for nurses with lower-qualification working in outpatient care. Differences in the mental health of medical assistants echo to a large extent social inequalities, so that controlled for covariates, household income has a significant impact upon burnout and depression. From demographic agents, the protective effect of partnership is outstanding, and the number of supportive relationships is a protective factor of its own right against both burnout and depression. Female assistants are more at risk for depression but not for burnout, whereas workload increases the risk of burnout but not of depression. The analysis takes sides of the distinctness of burnout and depression. Although both syndromes are largely influenced by social features, burnout seems to be more situationally influenced whereas depression more structurally affected.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Hungarian Nationality Ethnic Minorities Living in Poverty and Social Exclusion in Ukraine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of the article is to give an overall description of the situation of Hungarian minority households with children in Ukrainian villages. The region is a marginal area both economically and geographically, being in a peripheral position with little attention falling upon it and even less of the development sources. Furthermore, there is a lack of information on welfare benefits, and no direct statistical data are available on the characteristics of the social policy system.</p><p>As for the total lack of prior statistics on poverty, this essay is meant to be exploratory to show the area’s poverty features, focusing on the children. By the use of combined data collection, including quantitative and qualitative techniques, we gained information by questionnaire surveys of about 253 children in 139 households. There were carried out 23 exploratory interviews as well. The core of our analysis is the specific labour market situation, the earning opportunities, and forms of employment that provide for livelihoods for the households with children. Besides the backwardness of the area studied in the research, the strategies and life situations that characterize the Transcarpathian Hungarians are also presented, which are beyond the known European forms of poverty.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Global Stars on Local Screens: BTS and Its “Army”<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This research note is aimed at exploring the opportunities and challenges faced by teenagers living in an underprivileged region in Romania as fans of an internationally popular K-pop band. We used desk research and netnography to explore similarities and differences between the local and international BTS (Bangtan Sonyeondan) fandom, also called “Army”. Which are the barriers a Hungarian “Army” from Romania encounters when engaging with their idols? What is the role of K-pop in opening up the language and cultural bubble in which Hungarian youth in rural Romania live?1 The innovative element in our empirical research is the <italic>focus on family context</italic>: we interviewed both BTS fans and their parents in order to assess to what extent is K-pop in general and BTS in particular part of their daily lives. With its limitations as a small-scale qualitative analysis, such research can give insights into fan studies from a comparative perspective.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Trust and Technologies of Sense. VR and Proprioception in<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper investigates the changing role of media devices in constructing fictive worlds through senses, and the changing relation we have to our senses. The demand for immersion in a virtual visual reality has its precedents, shown for example by the popularity of the kaleidoscope, the peeping box, the Guckkasten, or the panoramas. But while the immersive effect of these illusion spaces was based on visual perception, now we have multisensory interactive spaces that trigger our proprioception (body awareness and feeling of presence). The VR experience <italic>Hamlet Encounters</italic> offers a unique experience and exemplary use of distance, dislocation, and perception of one’s own senses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1