rss_2.0Computer Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Computer Scienceshttps://www.sciendo.com/subject/COhttps://www.sciendo.comComputer Sciences Feedhttps://www.sciendo.com/subjectImages/Computer_Sciences.jpg700700Optimizing Team Sport Training With Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research introduces a new novel method for mathematically optimizing team sport training models to enhance two measures of athletic performance using an evolutionary computation based approach. A common training load model, consisting of daily training load prescriptions, was optimized using an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm to produce improvements in the mean match-day running intensity across a competitive season. The optimized training model was then compared to real-world observed training and performance data to assess the potential improvements in performance that could be achieved. The results demonstrated that it is possible to increase and maintain a stable level of match-day running performance across a competitive season whilst adhering to model-based and real-world constraints, using an intelligently optimized training design compared a to standard human design, across multiple performance criteria (BF+0 = 5651, BF+0 = 11803). This work demonstrates the value of evolutionary algorithms to design and optimize team sport training models and provides support staff with an effective decision support system to plan and prescribe optimal strategies to enhance in-season athlete performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparing bottom-up and top-down ratings for individual soccer playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Correctly assessing the contributions of an individual player in a team sport is challenging. However, an ability to better evaluate each player can translate into improved team performance, through better recruitment or team selection decisions. Two main ideas have emerged for using data to evaluate players: Top-down ratings observe the performance of the team as a whole and then distribute credit for this performance onto the players involved. Bottom-up ratings assign a value to each action performed, and then evaluate a player based on the sum of values for actions performed by that player. This paper compares a variant of plus-minus ratings, which is a top-down rating, and a bottom-up rating based on valuing actions by estimating probabilities. The reliability of ratings is measured by whether similar ratings are produced when using different data sets, while the validity of ratings is evaluated through the quality of match outcome forecasts generated when the ratings are used as predictor variables. The results indicate that the plus-minus ratings perform better than the bottom-up ratings with respect to the reliability and validity measures chosen and that plus-minus ratings have certain advantages that may be difficult to replicate in bottom-up ratings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Can Elite Australian Football Player’s Game Performance Be Predicted?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In elite Australian football (AF) many studies have investigated individual player performance using a variety of outcomes (e.g. team selection, game running, game rating etc.), however, none have attempted to predict a player’s performance using combinations of pre-game factors. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the ability of commonly reported individual player and team characteristics to predict individual Australian Football League (AFL) player performance, as measured through the official AFL player rating (AFLPR) (Champion Data). A total of 158 variables were derived for players (n = 64) from one AFL team using data collected during the 2014-2019 AFL seasons. Various machine learning models were trained (cross-validation) on the 2014-2018 seasons, with the 2019 season used as an independent test set. Model performance, assessed using root mean square error (RMSE), varied (4.69-5.03 test set RMSE) but was generally poor when compared to a singular variable prediction (AFLPR pre-game rating: 4.72 test set RMSE). Variation in model performance (range RMSE: 0.14 excusing worst model) was low, indicating different approaches produced similar results, however, glmnet models were marginally superior (4.69 RMSE test set). This research highlights the limited utility of currently collected pre-game variables to predict week-to-week game performance more accurately than simple singular variable baseline models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Strictness vs. flexibility: Simulation-based recognition of strategies and its success in soccerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Recognition and optimization of strategies in sport games is difficult in particular in case of team games, where a number of players are acting “independently” of each other. One way to improve the situation is to cluster the teams into a small number of tactical groups and to analyze the interaction of those groups. The aim of the study is the evaluation of the applicability of SOCCER© simulation in professional soccer by analyzing and simulation of the tactical group interaction.</p> <p>Methods: The players’ positions of tactical groups in soccer can be mapped to formation-patterns and then reflect strategic behaviour and interaction. Based on this information, Monte Carlo-Simulation allows for generating strategies, which – at least from the mathematical point of view – are optimal. In practice, behaviour can be orientated in those optimal strategies but normally is changing depending on the opponent team’s activities. Analyzing the game under the aspect of such simulated strategies revealed how strictly resp. flexible a team follows resp. varies strategic patterns.</p> <p>Approach: A Simulation- and Validation-Study on the basis of 40 position data sets of the 2014/15 German Bundesliga has been conducted to analyze and to optimize such strategic team behaviour in professional soccer.</p> <p>Results: The Validation-Study demonstrated the applicability of our tactical model. The results of the Simulation-Study revealed that offensive player groups need less tactical strictness in order to gain successful ball possession whereas defensive player groups need tactical strictness to do so.</p> <p>Conclusion: The strategic behaviour could be recognized and served as basis for optimization analysis: offensive players should play with a more flexible tactical orientation to stay in possession of the ball, whereas defensive players should play with a more planned orientation in order to be successful. The strategic behaviour of tactical groups can be recognized and optimized using Monte Carlo-based analysis, proposing a new and innovative approach to quantify tactical performance in soccer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of the Evaluation of Performance Preconditions in Tennis with the Use of Equal and Expertly Judged Criteria Weightshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tennis performance is influenced by various factors, among which physical performance factors play an important role. The aim of the study was an analysis of possibilities of the use of Saaty’s method for assessing the level of performance prerequisites and comparing the results obtained using equal weights and various weights. The research on Czech female players (U12; n = 211) was based on the results of the TENDIAG1 test battery (9 items) and the results were processed by FuzzME software and relevant statistical methods (correlation coefficient r, Student´s t-test, effect size index d). The results of Saaty’s method show that the most important athletic performance criteria for tennis coaches are the leg reaction time and the running speed, while the least important are endurance and strength. The evaluation using various criteria weights offers a finer scale for assessing athletes’ performance prerequisites despite the proven high degree of association between the results obtained with equal and various weights and the insignificant difference of mean values. The results have shown possibilities for the use of a fuzzy approach in sports practice and motivate further research towards broadening the structure or the number of evaluation criteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Sports Information Systems: A systematic reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many professional sport organizations are currently in the process of finding or already using <italic>sports information systems (SIS)</italic> to integrate data from different information and measurement systems. The problem is that requirements are very heterogeneous. That is why no consistent definition of <italic>SIS</italic> and their categories exist, and it is often not clear which fields and functions <italic>SIS</italic> must cover. This work aims to provide a structured comparison of commercial <italic>SIS</italic> available on the market to provide an overview of the relevant features and characterize categories. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search for relevant <italic>SIS</italic> providers was conducted. A catalog of 164 review items was created to define relevant features of <italic>SIS</italic> and to conduct semi-standardized interviews with product representatives. Overall 36 eligible <italic>SIS</italic> from 11 countries were identified and 21 of them were interviewed. The analysis of the interviews has shown that there are features that are present in all <italic>SIS</italic>, whereas others differ or are generally less represented. As a result, different <italic>SIS</italic> categories have been defined. The study suggests a more differentiated categorization of <italic>SIS</italic> is necessary and terms need to be defined more precisely. This review should be considered when companies designing <italic>SIS</italic> or sport organizations select <italic>SIS</italic>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Validation of Velocity Measuring Devices in Velocity Based Strength Traininghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ijcss-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To control and monitor strength training with a barbell various systems are on the consumer market. They provide the user with information regarding velocity, acceleration and trajectory of the barbell. Some systems additionally calculate the 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) of exercises and use it to suggest individual intensities for future training. Three systems were tested: GymAware, PUSH Band 2.0 and Vmaxpro. The GymAware system bases on linear position transducers, PUSH Band 2.0 and Vmaxpro base on inertial measurement units. The aim of this paper was to determine the accuracy of the three systems with regard to the determination of the average velocity of each repetition of three barbell strength exercises (squat, barbell rowing, deadlift). The velocity data of the three systems were compared to a Vicon system using linear regression analyses and Bland-Altman-diagrams.</p> <p>In the linear regression analyses the smallest coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>.) in each exercise can be observed for PUSH Band 2.0. In the Bland-Altman diagrams the mean value of the differences in the average velocities is near zero for all systems and all exercises. PUSH Band 2.0 has the largest differences between the Limits of Agreement. For GymAware and Vmaxpro these differences are comparable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Which Message? Which Channel? Which Customer? - Exploring Response Rates in Multi-Channel Marketing Using Short-Form Advertisinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/dim-2021-0011<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Formulating short-form advertising messages with little ad content that work and choosing high-performing channels to disseminate them are persistent challenges in multichannel marketing. Drawing on the persuasive systems design (PSD) model, we experimented with 33,848 actual customers of an international telecom company. In a real-life setting, we compared the effectiveness of three persuasion strategies (rational, emotional, and social) tested in three marketing channels (short message service (SMS), social media advertising, and mobile application), evaluating their effect on influencing customers to purchase international mobile phone credits. Results suggest that companies should send rational messages when using short-form advertising messages regardless of the channel to achieve higher response rates. Findings further show that certain customer characteristics are predictive of positive responses and differ by channel but not by message type. Findings from crowdsourced evaluations also indicate that people noticeably disagree on what persuasive strategy was applied to these short messages, indicating that consumers are not well-equipped to identify persuasive strategies or that what advertisers see as a “pure” strategy actually involves elements from multiple strategies as interpreted by consumers. The results have implications for the theoretical understanding of persuasive short-form commercial messaging in multichannel marketing and practical insights for advertising within a limited amount of space and attention afforded by many digital channels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00An Empirical Study on Knowledge Aggregation in Academic Virtual Community Based on Deep Learninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/dim-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Academic virtual community provides an environment for users to exchange knowledge, so it gathers a large amount of knowledge resources and presents a trend of rapid and disorderly growth. We learn how to organize the scattered and disordered knowledge of network community effectively and provide personalized service for users. We focus on analyzing the knowledge association among titles in an all-round way based on deep learning, so as to realize effective knowledge aggregation in academic virtual community. We take ResearchGate (RG) “online community” resources as an example and use Word2Vec model to realize deep knowledge aggregation. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to verify its scientificity, and Wide &amp; Deep learning model is used to verify its running effect. The empirical results show that the knowledge aggregation system of “online community” works well and has scientific rationality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Creating a New, Sustainable Mindset through Responsible Consumption: A Case Study of the International Chain of Sustainable Restaurantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents research conducted in the United Arab Emirates with the management of Bareburger, the chain of sustainable restaurants, as well as among its clients. In our project, we are interested in the relation between the offer of sustainability and the culture of conscious consumption. The opinions of industry experts and customers collected in an interview session are analyzed to derive the answer to the research questions. The research focuses on finding the possibility of changing the mindset and habits of consumers and creating an impact on consumer behavior by offering a responsible and sustainable nutrition model. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effect of sustainable restaurants on consumer culture in terms of cultivating healthy food habits. In our case study, we analyze Bareburger, a healthier fast-food chain that originated in the United States, which took the concept of sustainability to a completely new level, from ideation to implementation. Observing this process, we checked whether the unhealthy eating habits that we observe in the Middle East can be changed through the carefully composed model of a responsible restaurant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Real Time Enterprise as a Platform of Support Management Systemshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current, fast market changes require enterprises to dynamically adapt the way they conduct their business. This poses many challenges for information technology. Market requirements for immediate response to business changes became the basis of the idea of a real-time information processing (RTE) company. RTE provides real-time information to employees and business partners. Integrated IT systems supporting management constitute a common platform – the foundation of a real-time enterprise. The aim of the article is to present the basic problems of building an IT system that is the basis of a real-time information processing (RTE) company. It is a summary of our work on this type of system. The article justifies the thesis about the need to build a system for the RTE's requirements and the conditions of its implementation. Such a system is designed to provide employees and business partners with the information they need in real time. The use of integrated systems such as ERP, CRM, SCM, and so on provides the ability to implement the main business processes of a real-time enterprise. The article presents both literature analysis and the characteristics of own work on designing IT systems for RTE. Particular attention was paid to the analysis of success factors (determinants) in system design and the use of MUST methodology (MUST is a Danish acronym for theories of and methods for design activities). The final part of the article presents a proposal for further work on IT systems for RTE in the context of existing trends such as DARQ technology (Distributed Ledger, Artificial Intelligence, Extended Reality, Quantum computing).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Research Method for Management of Thermoplastics Production Improvement in Rubber Industry with the Use of 3D Simulation Modelinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns research and improvement of production processes in one of the European companies in the rubber industry<fn id="j_fman-2021-0002_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>The company did not allow the name or country to be given.</p></fn>. The main goal is to improve the production process of the thermo-plastics obtained from polymer materials on the company's production line. Improvement is defined as a reduction of the setup time of a key machine in the tested production process. The research method includes the analysis of the literature, observation of the studied process, and the accomplished computer simulation experiments. The proposed activities relate to the reinforcement of the key part of the machine, the change of the machine setup method, and the preliminary staff assignment to the specific tasks. The results of the simulation experiments confirm the implementation of the proposed improvements. The theoretical contribution to the research field development is the proposal of the simulation modeling methodology to improve production processes of continuous materials. Practical conclusions lead to recommendations for the implementation of improvements in the enterprise, with direct application of the proposed actions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovation and Leadership: A Study of Organizations Based in the United Arab Emirateshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The successful practice of innovation in any organization demands the integration and interaction of individual, collective, and organizational climate levels of management. Leadership styles have an impact on all these three levels of management. However, little work has been done to assess this impact, especially in the context of United Arab Emirates (UAE)-based organizations. This study was conducted with the purpose of assessing whether leadership processes, tools, and techniques differ in innovative organizations and, thereafter, propose general leadership requirements for innovative projects in the UAE. This study adopts statistical data-processing methods, such as descriptive statistics, the reliability of the instrument, correlation, and regression analysis. Data obtained through a survey of UAE-based organizations were used for analyzing whether innovativeness (as perceived by employees) is statistically correlated with leadership dimensions. The research results show that the transformational leadership style scores better over transactional leadership when it comes to predicting innovations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in the Perception of Organizational Culture in Non-Public Universities in Poland by Academic and Administrative Staff – A Study Based on Cameron and Quinn's Modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to present differences in the perception of current and desired organizational culture between two different types of workers – academic and administrative staff – in non-public universities in Poland. A synthetic review of the literature on organizational culture at universities and the workplace attitudes of the two groups of university employees was conducted and presented. Research in the form of a survey based on Cameron and Quinn's model was conducted in three non-public universities in Poland. A sample of opinions of 115 workers was gathered and analyzed. It was found in the study that according to academic workers, the present culture was market culture, whereas for administrative workers, it was hierarchy culture. Both groups chose clan culture as the preferred culture. The findings may be useful for higher education decision makers in their attempts to transform universities into market-oriented, yet friendly workplaces. The study's limitations include a relatively small sample of respondents. A further, more comprehensive research into the subject will be worth conducting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Strategic Communication and Competitive Advantage: Assessing CEO Letters of Global Airline Allianceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the last several decades, global airline alliances have ensured their market presence in the aviation industry. Scholars have focused on the effects of alliance affiliation for airlines and what the competitive advantages of alliances are. However, these issues have been discussed in relation to operational aspects. The quality of strategic communication can be an important factor in achieving a competitive advantage and realizing a differentiation strategy. This study assessed the differences in quality of strategic communication between the three leading alliance groups (oneworld, SkyTeam, and Star Alliance) and a non-alliance group. Comprehensive content analysis was implemented using the letters of chief executive officers (CEOs) of 46 airlines. We found that the non-alliance group has more ideal CEO letters than the alliance groups, and the main topics and quality of CEO letters of alliance group differed. This study provides a novel insight into the competitive advantage of global airline alliances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Digital Technology Platforms in the Context of Cybersecurity in the Industrial Sectorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study discusses the use of digital technology platforms (DTPs) in the context of cyber-security in the industrial sector, with a focus on digital industry (industrial) platforms (DIPs). A definition of DTPs is presented, including the author's interpretation, as well as the scope of DTP application in the industrial sector, which includes, in particular, European Digital Platforms (EDPs) and Polish Digital Platforms (PDPs), such as non-ferrous metals PDP or intelligent transport systems PDP. This is followed by a section covering the theoretical basis of the study that highlights the key challenges and risks associated with the use of DTPs as well as the methods for their neutralization in the form of specific concepts and systems that can be employed in the industrial sector. The subsequent section of the study is based on results of the author's own survey which collected information from a total of 120 companies operating in Poland, which were granted subsidies under the Operational Program Innovative Economy for investments involving the implementation and development of DTPs. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire developed by the author, which consisted of 23 questions. In this respect, as shown by the author's own studies, of greatest relevance are hardware failures and Internet outage events. Most importantly, concerns about such risks are some of the major factors underlying the negative attitudes of management staff of industrial companies toward DTPs, and therefore, it is so important to ensure that any such risks can be effectively addressed. They can be avoided through the use of certain concepts and systems such as STOE or CVSS. A typical company may know the model of DTPs in the context of challenges in the field of cybersecurity through this study; in particular, it can improve IT security.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Innovations and Smart Solutions for Society and Economy: Pros and Conshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent developments in artificial intelligence (AI) may involve significant potential threats to personal data privacy, national security, and social and economic stability. AI-based solutions are often promoted as “intelligent” or “smart” because they are autonomous in optimizing various processes. Because they can modify their behavior without human supervision by analyzing data from the environment, AI-based systems may be more prone to malfunctions and malicious activities than conventional software systems. Moreover, due to existing regulatory gaps, development and operation of AI-based products are not yet subject to adequate risk management and administrative supervision. Resonating to recent reports about potential threats resulting from AI-based systems, this paper presents an outline of a prospective risk assessment for adaptive and autonomous products. This research resulted in extensive catalogs of possible damages, initiating events, and preventive policies that can be useful for risk managers involved in conducting risk assessment procedures for AI-based systems. The paper concludes with the analysis and discussion of changes in business, legal, and institutional environments required to ensure the public that AI-based solutions can be trusted, are transparent and safe, and can improve the quality of life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Positive Leadership in the Process of Change on the Example of the Banking Sectorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In today's world, the success of modern company in dealing with change depends, to a large extent, on a positive approach toward its knowledge workers. The aim of the present study is to indicate the significance of positive leadership in the implementation of crucial changes in an organization in the environment of knowledge workers. The study has researched the case of a major Polish bank undergoing significant change in the Risk Management Division. Presented research covers the period between 2013 and 2019 and was conducted thanks to the participation of nearly 600 employees. Changes in the level of their engagement were systematically studied. All ten leaders in the division were also investigated, so that ten individual Reiss Motivation Profile (RMP) profiles could be created. Study results have confirmed that team leaders possess characteristics that confirm their preferred style is positive leadership, with a clear servant leadership attitude. The formulated hypotheses have been positively verified. It has been confirmed that the orientation of leaders on positive leadership ensured an effective implementation of crucial changes in the environment of knowledge workers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Patterns of the Distribution of the Demand of End-Consumers among Retailers in the Zone of their Residencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development of retail and e-commerce is forcing marketing and logistics to be competitive and adapt to the demands of end-customers. At the same time, accurately determining the demand for goods allows to better understand customers and plan deliveries. The purpose of this article is to study the change in patterns of probability of choosing the option to purchase goods among end-consumers with and without the presence of e-commerce. The study consisted of research buyers, determining the probability of purchasing goods from “consumer basket” in the traditional way and over the Internet, which is considered for the example of one of the Kharkiv districts. The results develop e-commerce potential in Ukraine and are intended to determine the motives of consumers when choosing a shopping option.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality Gaps in Higher Education from the Perspective of Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/fman-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented research work relates to the category of quality in higher education. This article aims to present the determinants of the quality of education in the context of international standards. The background of the considerations is the Bologna Declaration and the European Higher Education Area. The results of the research carried out with the use of the nominal group method and the data analysis carried out based on the SERVQUAL model for education revealed groups of quality determinants that are not included in the standards of internal quality assurance. It has been found that the principle of autonomy of universities in the European Higher Education Area is a sufficient basis to include the determinants of the quality of education identified by internal stakeholders of a given university in the internal quality of education assurance system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-10T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1