rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed Food Markets within Budapest’s Large Housing Estates: Factors Influencing the Design Process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food markets provide a continuous urban function at the centre of urban quarters, and their structures are an important component of the local identity. Therefore, they could be crucial in the complex renewal process of a mass housing neighbourhood, indeed. The paper focuses on the contemporary markets within Budapest’s three large housing estates, in Újpest Centre, Békásmegyer, and Havanna, opened in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. The research is based not only on the study of relevant literature, design documents, publications, fieldwork, but also on a survey conducted with three well-recognized Hungarian architects in order to understand and compare their views on the complex context beyond the urban and architectural solutions. The questions focused on the crucial or determining factors of the design process such as the budget, the main players, references, physical context (built and natural), social context, program, and technology. These public projects of varied scale were used for exemplary contemporary food market case studies from Budapest, in which the people involved took into consideration the existing social and material problems and the potential of the heritage of modern mass housing neighbourhoods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Interaction of Landscape and Settlement Structures in the Danube region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of the identity and quality of urban spaces is currently one of the major professional problems - especially in relation to the rapidly developing urbanization of European settlements. The primary task of urban planners is to support and develop the potential of towns and cities and the quality of their urban structure. At the same time, the formation and transformation of urban structures requires an increasingly consistent approach in terms of sustainable development. A special area of research is the study of the cultural potential and uniqueness of the material and spatial structure of towns and cities and their surroundings. In this respect, it is important to monitor the optimization of the city’s macro and micro spaces through an extended analysis of the evaluation of urban and vegetation structures and their historical, cultural and environmental value. By monitoring these factors, we can optimize the processes taking place in the settlement structure, which affect the vitality and identity of urban spaces. A special area is also the monitoring of the projection and penetration of the landscape structure into the urban space. The harmonization of urban and landscape elements can also contribute to the sustainability of tourism. The evaluation of selected towns and cities in the Danube area and their surroundings in terms of the peculiarity of the image of the urban and landscape structure can help to better use the potential of individual settlements and their parts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00New Opportunities for Increasing the Renovation Rate of Buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on the long-standing problem of too low renovation rates of existing buildings and on practice-oriented solutions. The European Commission has set the goal of at least doubling the renovation quota with “The European Green Deal” and published the “Strategy for a Renovation Wave for Europe - greening our buildings, creating jobs, improving lives” on 14 October 2020. As in previous years, technical specifications have been defined even more strictly and limit values for energy consumption have been further reduced with the aim to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. The high quality of the renovation measures is ensured within the European Union and its member states. However, this has not yet been the case in relation to the quantity of implemented renovation projects. The thesis investigates which factors were neglected or were not taken into consideration sufficiently in the past, and, because of that, countries like Austria could not achieve their goals with regard to the renovation rates. This is done by identifying, selecting and verifying both specific and potential conflicting goals. On the basis of the description and analysis of the background to these potential conflicts, the actual obstacles are identified and approaches to their solutions are defined. The formulated approaches should form the basis for future in-depth discussion and further development of specific detailed solutions. The implementation of these results in a comprehensive package with technical regulations such as the “Renovation Wave for Europe” and “The European Green Deal”, opens up new opportunities for achieving the set goals. An increase in the renovation rate of existing buildings is the quantitatively measurable outcome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Field of Sustainable Architecture: Current Knowledge<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Innovative technologies help automate the work of the designer. A 3D model of the building can be used to calculate the required values. This will also allow you to create associative sections that, when changing the geometry of the 3D model, automatically adjust the drawn elements on the resulting 2D drawing. Information technologies enable participants from all over the world to work on one project and, thanks to the BIM (building information modelling) method, to design buildings during their life cycle more efficiently. At present, critical studies are published on interoper-ability in BIM and its lack of coordination or amount of information that is misinterpreted, etc. However, working in BIM is the most effective way to use computer technology to design buildings. There is a lot of information about the building in the 3D model itself, which can also be used for purposes other than construction (building management, reconstruction). But how to process a large amount of information in a 3D model? Many buildings already have their 3D models shared on cloud platforms, these contain information that could help, for example, find solutions for green construction using artificial intelligence (AI). We meet with AI every day. It supports internet search engines, predicts auto-completion words as you type. AI can also be found in architecture – not only as visions at exhibitions, but also in research on process optimization in BIM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Understanding and Anticipating the User in Space Based on Neural and Behavioural Responses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main task of architecture has been and will be to create spaces for the user. Our experiment is based on an interdisciplinary study, combining knowledge from architecture, neuroscience, psychology and artificial intelligence. We think that these disciplines can better interpret the users’ perception to architects and designers, because how do we know what users want and how they react to the created matter? This fundamental question underlines the research, designates its direction and goals. The futuristic view and exploring the user is one aspect, complemented by the application of research results to today’s reality. Nowadays, in Slovakia (and in the world), urban development is funded by the private sector and is significantly limited by the financial aspect of architecture and development, it is necessary to look for a concept that reduces the importance of finance at the expense of quality for users.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural Urban Catalysts as Meaning of the City<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>City is a network with clear organization and architecture. It also has permanent connections. Human senses, perception and cognition are the base points while understanding these connections. Hypothesis of this article proposes that concentration of creativity potential in strategically placed junctions (cultural nodes) would catalyse people flow between them naturally. Three main features of the cultural node are distinguished, and possible identification methodology is being proposed. This strategy leads to more extensive methodology research and appliance analysing city structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Large-Scale Buildings of the Resort Establishments of the Soviet Period and their Present State in Jūrmala City, Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a summary of large-scale buildings of resort establishments of Soviet period in Jūrmala, by analysing their typology, physical parameters, scenarios of the development, architectural stylistic and the present state of physical condition and authentic substance. The research reveals that half of the large-scale resort buildings are already irreversibly lost and the rest of buildings are seriously endangered due to the tendency of extensive rebuilding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Can Micro-Housing Policies Enable Higher Liveability Standard in Urban Areas? Case Study of Cascais Historical Centre, Lisbon, Portugal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Liveability within urban planning is a necessary prerequisite to the development of micro-housing. Liveability may contribute to improvement of urban environments where micro-homes are prevalent, notably, in highly populated urban areas. After a brief review of the concept, discussion is focused on whether the historic centre of Cascais has liveability standards to facilitate micro housing. The key metrics highlight if such metrics perform the role of determining whether Cascais fulfils the set liveability criteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of water price and the number of residents on the economic efficiency of water recovery from grey water<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the results of an analysis of the economic viability of using an installation for the treatment of grey water. Economic indicators in the form of simple payback time (SPBT) and net present value (NPV) were used in the analysis. The use of a dual water supply system should theoretically enable the reduction of the costs of both water supply and sewage disposal, ensuring investment profitability. The article presents the impact of the number of residents as well as the impact of water and sewage on the profitability of using example water-recovery systems. It was found that both factors have a huge impact on the result of the economic analysis. For a small number of residents and at a low price of water supply and sewage disposal, it is not profitable to invest in a water-recovery system. This is due to the high price of purification devices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A suitability assessment using an instrumented impact test of the use of selected structural steel grades on the basis of their changes in response to exposure to fire<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, changes occurring in structural steel after exposure to fire are described and discussed. The steel structure before and after fire determines its susceptibility to brittle cracking. The individual phases of cracking are described and interpreted on the basis of a load-displacement graph, directly obtained from the Charpy impact test. The relationship between the intensity of individual fracture energies and the type and appearance of the sample fractures are demonstrated. The program of planned Charpy impact tests and expected hazards after the exposure to fire of selected steel grades are presented. Standard simplified load-displacement graphs are assigned to the steel transition curve. The course of various cracking mechanisms occurring in the case of brittle fractures and plastic fractures are discussed. The aim of this article is to evaluate the possibility of the assessment of structural steel after a fire based on results obtained during the Charpy impact test.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Small Historical Centres: an opportunity for the “smart” revitalization of Inner Areas in the Post (post) COVID Era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Pandemic is forcing everyone to become aware of the need for a change in the cultural and socio-economic paradigms of recent decades.</p> <p>During the twentieth century, on the one hand, entire populations concentrated in urban areas with ever higher population densities, at the same time giving rise to the phenomenon of “urban sprawl” or “suburbanization”.</p> <p>On the other hand, entire territories have been abandoned (the so-called “inner areas”).</p> <p>Now, we can define territorial rebalancing strategies based precisely on the reactivation of “inner areas”. Strategies that, in the Post (post) COVID era will have to be not only resilient, but anti-fragile. And the key is precisely in the future of the smaller historical centres.</p> <p>This article aims to review the strengths and weaknesses of small historic centres, outlining possible scenarios for their “smart” revitalization and for a true sustainable and inclusive development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the possibility of employing 3D printing technology in crisis situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Events related to climate change and the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the increasing incidence of new diseases, have all caused the prominence of regional security and crisis management around the world to rise. Three-dimensional printing, which has seen noteworthy developed in recent years, both in terms of print parameters, and the magnitude of the production potential, may prove helpful in this matter. Enormous opportunities have arisen which, if properly directed, can save human life and preserve health in crisis situations, when traditional supply chains could be disrupted or even prevented. The use of additive technologies, however, has its limitations and in order to be able to take full advantage of the opportunities they offer, a legitimate functional system should be created and embedded within proper structures to support crisis management. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printers and the possibility of their implementation as part of the current crisis-response systems. The article proposes a model for incorporating additive technologies into the crisis-management system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Rzeszów as an example of a ‘new town’ tailored for the modern era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The city life cycle is an issue that can be considered from many perspectives. Klaassen’s period cycle is the basic model of city life: urbanisation– suburbanisation–deurbanisation–reurbanisation. In each of these periods, cities develop by, building and transforming their structures. This article presents various approaches to shaping new urban spaces using the city of Rzeszów as an example. In the city’s history, three periods are distinguished during which structures referred to as the ‘new town’ were created in the 16<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries and continue to be created now. After analysing the site-forming processes, the most important features of new-town urban systems are compared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00A review of modern materials used in military camouflage within the radar frequency range<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents an overview of materials which can be employed used to camouflage objects on the modern battlefield in the radar frequency range.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Mixing effects in the river downstream from pollution discharge point<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper follows the propagation of pollution in a river with a rectangular cross-section of the river bed and a variable cross-sectional velocity. The calculations were made for steady flows and steady pollutant concentrations. To approximate the velocity distribution in the river bed a set of equations for current and vorticity functions was solved. The distribution of pollutant concentrations in the river was calculated from a bidirectional advection and turbulent diffusion equation. Analysis of the distribution of concentrations leads to the conclusion that the effects of transverse advection associated with a lateral inflow of pollutants disappear relatively quickly. Therefore, the distribution of concentrations in cross sections further downstream from the point of pollutant discharge can be determined quite accurately just from an advection-diffusion model, with no transverse advection effects included. Such a level of accuracy is usually sufficient to assess the impact of a pollution source on the aquatic environment. The transverse mixing of pollutants in the stream proceeds slowly and creates a large mixing zone in which the concentrations of pollutants (low but still significant for water quality) can be detected in cross-sections that are remote from the pollutant discharge point. Transverse advection may be ignored while calculating concentrations in remote cross sections at straight watercourse sections and in steady state conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00HMM-based phoneme speech recognition system for the control and command of industrial robots<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the integration of human-robot interaction with speech recognition has gained a lot of pace in the manufacturing industries. Conventional methods to control the robots include semi-autonomous, fully-autonomous, and wired methods. Operating through a teaching pendant or a joystick is easy to implement but is not effective when the robot is deployed to perform complex repetitive tasks. Speech and touch are natural ways of communicating for humans and speech recognition, being the best option, is a heavily researched technology. In this study, we aim at developing a stable and robust speech recognition system to allow humans to communicate with machines (robotic-arm) in a seamless manner. This paper investigates the potential of the linear predictive coding technique to develop a stable and robust HMM-based phoneme speech recognition system for applications in robotics. Our system is divided into three segments: a microphone array, a voice module, and a robotic arm with three degrees of freedom (DOF). To validate our approach, we performed experiments with simple and complex sentences for various robotic activities such as manipulating a cube and pick and place tasks. Moreover, we also analyzed the test results to rectify problems including accuracy and recognition score.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Multivariate classification of provinces of Vietnam according to the level of sustainable development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research aims to classify the level of sustainability of 63 provinces in Vietnam upon 24 indicators reflecting three main dimensions of sustainable development by using multivariate classification method for the year 2014–2016. First of all, the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to group quantitative variables that reflect important aspects of each component of sustainable development of localities in Vietnam into a number of limited dimensions (factors). The results of PCA illustrate 8 principal components in which 3 main components of economic and social pillar, and 2 main components for environmental pillar. After that, the second method was applied by using the hierarchical methods of cluster analysis for the set of 8 principal components conducted by PCA. With the candidate solution divided all of the provinces into 6 clusters, the analysis shows that the higher level of sustainable development belongs to South East, Red River Delta, and North Central, in which 4 provinces of South East (Ho Chi Minh City, Binh Duong, Dong Nai, and Ba Ria – Vung Tau) form a group with the highest level of sustainability. The regions such as South Central Coastal, Highland area, and Mekong River Delta have the medium level; the North midland and mountain areas are regions at the low level of sustainability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatial differentiation of public administration employees due to professional burnout<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the results of classifying public administration employees in terms of level of occupational burnout, taking into account their place of residence, gender and age. One of the methods of multidimensional statistical analysis – classification trees – was used as a research tool. Two dependent variables are defined. The first has only two variants, defined as “no occupational burnout” and “occupational burnout”, which characterise all respondents. The second dependent variable was limited to those respondents diagnosed with occupational burnout and has four variants corresponding to intensity of burnout. The obtained results indicate the differentiation of voivodeships (first-order administrative regions) in terms of the level of the studied phenomenon.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluating housing in urban planning using TOPSIS technique: cities of Isfahan province<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The indices of housing serve as an important tool in planning for housing, in that they allow the parameters affecting housing to be recognised and any planning process to be facilitated. The purpose of the study is to investigate and to evaluate the housing situation in cities of Isfahan province. The study is applied and descriptive-analytic in terms of method. Thirty-nine indices were collected in the housing sector. Then the rate of prosperity and ranking of the cities were evaluated by TOPSIS method. Prosperity is defined here as an important index of housing that reflects the welfare of residents. The cities were then categorised into six levels of prosperity: Very important, Important, Partially important, Moderate, Poor and Very poor. The results from the study indicate an imbalance in the studied indices between the cities, and a clear disparity between the levels of prosperity in the cities, and the only city in the very prosperous group is Isfahan, with a rate of 0.813.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1