rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed Strength of the Tide in the Tagus Estuary Reviews: Mohammed El Faïz, Olhão: Universidade do Algarve, 2018 Scope, Goals and Outcomes of AQUA’s Project and Enlightened Techniques: The (Waterwheel) of Aranjuez (Spain) Reviews: Michael J. Harrower, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016. 224 pp the Water Supply System of the National Palace of Queluz Gardens Development of Industrial Activity in Tomar: a Study on the Unpublished Document of Bernardo Daniel de Moraes Requirement Role of Greenery in the Perception Process Based on Gibson's Theory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In urban design, greenery is associated with ecological, health, recreational and leisure functions. The author would like to draw attention to the different roles of greenery forms in the process of space perception. The study analyzed greenery as an important element of the spatial environment, influencing the multisensory human experience and perception of the environment, including architectural objects. The considerations were based mainly on the theory of perception according to J. Gibson. The aim of the analysis is to draw attention to the forms of greenery, which, by their diversity and changeability in time, provide an enormous amount of stimuli that act on all the senses and make the process of perception more complete. The role of greenery in the process of perception is very large and multifaceted, so according to the author, greenery forms should be more appreciated by urban planners as a tool for designing space and human experience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Aerodynamic Phenomena in Selected Quarter of Building Development in Warsaw Downtown with Reference to Air Pollution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Air pollution, both gaseous and in the form of dust, is a problem that affects numerous densely built-up areas of modern cities. Based on this assumption, the authors of the following paper have examined an exemplary part of urban space with various building developments located in Warsaw downtown. Both experimental and numerical studies were conducted for the two prevailing wind directions observed in this area, that is the west wind and the south-west wind.</p> <p>Experimental research was conducted with the application of two known laboratory techniques, i.e., the oil visualization method and the sand erosion technique. The studies were conducted in an open-circuit wind tunnel. Commercial ANSYS Fluent program was used for numerical simulations. The k-ε realizable turbulence model, often applied for this type of tasks, was used in the calculations. As a result, distributions of the velocity amplification coefficient were obtained in the area under consideration, as well as images that present the averaged airflow direction. On basis thereof, potential zones where contamination accumulation may occur were determined.</p> <p>The impact that introduction of a hypothetical high-rise building into the area would exert on wind conditions in its vicinity was also tested. High-rise buildings tend to intensify airflow in their immediate vicinity. Thus, they can improve ventilation conditions of nearby streets. However, in this particular case, the research prompted the conclusion that the proposed building causes turbulence and increased velocity gradients in the majority of elevation planes. On the other hand, in the ground-level zone, the building blocks rather than intensifies the airflow.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Personal Proof of the City<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Human as a species is very similar to each other but it is also a separate, individual phenomenon. The city was created to resemble it. Treated as living tissue, it can harmoniously develop and follow its identity, constituting an autonomous phenomenon despite many similarities. The article deals with the problem of identifying cities on the basis of their similarities in the structure and quality of architectural and urban spaces. The article aims to distinguish the important, original compositional elements and to indicate universal factors determining the identity of the city. As a result, the characteristics of the city were discussed, while allowing for the creation of a matrix that would allow for proper recognition of the structure of a given city and proper development. The whole discussion was embedded in the framework of the applied observational, heuristic, and case study method, the aim of which is to find the right answer and confirm the main assumptions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Designing Responsive Environments in the Stary Browar in Poznań. Method and Process in Creating Public Space in the City<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the era of rapid development of digital technologies, designers are faced with the challenge of incorporating the tools of the virtual world into the physical world. The widespread use of new media in design makes it possible to create environments that influence human experience. One of the design methods that have influenced human feelings for several decades is Experience Design - an extremely versatile, immersive method, creating exhibition environments, commercial spaces, urban interiors, and virtual worlds of games, applications and websites. This paper aims to present a design process and effect of an experimental, innovative academic program of semester course “Immersive environments and interactivity in designing architectural interiors and their surroundings”<sup>1</sup> Moreover, the author’s didactic intention is to present the application of modern digital technologies in urban space design. Gathering the knowledge about the experience design method and its tool - the experience path fulfils high expectations set on students in their future careers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The destructive influence of external factors on building partitions in historic buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the destructive influence of external factors on building partitions in selected historic buildings made from made full-bodied solid ceramic bricks. The external factors are an additional element that adversely affects the maintaining of historic buildings in a good technical condition, and they are complementary to a number of harmful factors that destructively act upon on such buildings. In order to estimate the range of damage in historic buildings, selected buildings that have been exposed to external factors for a long time in the Podlaskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodships were analysed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Planning of areas in the vicinity of large industrial plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Planning space around large industrial plants affects urban development and significantly impacts the integration of industrial areas with a city’s structure. Large industrial plants act as functional and spatial barriers within the urban fabric. Their immediate areas undergo transformation and are currently becoming sites of various uses. New manufacturing technologies limit the nuisance caused by industry and the siting of plants aids in using the areas around them. The objective of this paper is t present an analysis of the transformation of the existing function-spatial structure, transport layout and compositional relations in the vicinity of selected large industrial plants in Kraków and Skawina. The study covered areas around the north-eastern territory of the Metallurgy Plant in Kraków and selected industrial plants in Skawina.</p> <p>This study was based on original analyses of the existing functio-spatial structure, compositional relationships and transport accessibility. The form of development of areas adjacent to large industrial plants was found to be a product of local determinants. Compositional relationships and functional linkages affected the quality of the space and its visual reception, which in many cases is a natural urban development reserve.</p> <p>Due to the specificity of industrial areas, concentrations of vehicular traffic and dominance within space, it may prove interesting to develop a dedicated form of development for areas near large industrial plants. This form would have to shield against possible nuisances while also offering the potential for a new, attractive and diverse functio-spatial structure. The transformation of and the problems present in these areas are distinctive of many cities in Poland and around the world and require new, cohesive planning principles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the possibility of employing 3D printing technology in crisis situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Events related to climate change and the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the increasing incidence of new diseases, have all caused the prominence of regional security and crisis management around the world to rise. Three-dimensional printing, which has seen noteworthy developed in recent years, both in terms of print parameters, and the magnitude of the production potential, may prove helpful in this matter. Enormous opportunities have arisen which, if properly directed, can save human life and preserve health in crisis situations, when traditional supply chains could be disrupted or even prevented. The use of additive technologies, however, has its limitations and in order to be able to take full advantage of the opportunities they offer, a legitimate functional system should be created and embedded within proper structures to support crisis management. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printers and the possibility of their implementation as part of the current crisis-response systems. The article proposes a model for incorporating additive technologies into the crisis-management system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Operational problems of tramway infrastructure in sharp curves<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Elements of the tramway track that require special attention in the design and maintenance of the tramway infrastructure are sharp curves (curves with small radii). In such places, there are a number of unfavourable operational problems, which are discussed in the article below. It describes the characteristics of such geometric elements and analyses the interaction of the wheel-rail system. Moreover, the most important operational problems are presented, such as the wear of wheels and tramway rails, the buckling of the rails, and noise and vibrations occurring during the passage of the tram. Methods of reducing unfavourable phenomena occurring on curves in the tramway infrastructure were also highlighted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Calculation of brake-force distribution on three-axle agricultural trailers using simulation methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a new methodology for calculating the optimal linear distribution of braking forces for a three-axle trailer with “walking beam” and “bogie” suspension of the rear axle assembly that will meet the requirements of the new European legislation, EU Directive 2015/68. On this basis, a computer program for selecting the linear distribution of braking forces between axles has been developed. The presented calculations and simulation results of the braking process can be used in the design process to select the parameters of the wheel braking mechanisms and then the characteristics of the pneumatic valves of the braking system. The adaptation of the braking system of agriculture trailers is a very important factor for improving the safety of the transportation systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Improved rack and pinion drive<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A typical rack and pinion drive set is comprised of a rack and a pinion. There is an inter-tooth clearance between the mating teeth of the rack and the pinion, which has advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantage of this clearance is the errors that occur in the positioning of the machine tool during set-up. Elimination of clearance between teeth is possible by using a pinion drive with two pinions. This ensures continuous contact between the teeth, regardless of the direction of machine movement.</p> <p>These are found on new machines, while older machines do not have such a solution. This paper presents a solution with two pinions, which can be used in such older machines and which makes it possible to achieve qualitative parameters that were not possible before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The systems method as an educative tool for sustainable architecture design on the example of solar building design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following article discusses the systems method as an educative tool for teaching sustainable architecture, including environmental design. Based on this method, a systemic model was created which provided a pillar of the learning process that concluded with a solar building project. This method offered a holistic view of the issues of pro-environmental design and led to an understanding of the relationship between the urban scale and the scale of the building. This aspect was considered crucial in teaching sustainable development architecture.</p> <p>The systems method has been recently used in China as a part of an environmental design course which only lasted for forty-eight lesson hours. The method proved to be an effective educational tool that enabled the obtaining of satisfactory design effects in such a short period of time. Additionally, the method was successful in conditions of cultural and linguistic barriers and a lack of prior preparation of students in the field of architectural design. The created systems model determined a precisely defined path for the teaching process in advance, as the specified issues included only those that were needed to achieve the set project goals. This approach resulted in the optimisation of teaching time, while ensuring the completeness of the assumed results.</p> <p>Experience gained from the didactic process leads to the conclusions that the systems method can be an adequate educative tool for solving multidisciplinary problems. Based on the example of solar building design, a systems method made it possible to indicate three main external factors that influence the design: macro-scale urban elements (district scale), micro-scale urban development (housing estate) and climatic conditions. The article also presents the possibilities of transforming the system model, in order to facilitate its more universal application, with reference to such issues as the topic of classes, as well as to the required scope and level of detail of the design task.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Rzeszów as an example of a ‘new town’ tailored for the modern era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The city life cycle is an issue that can be considered from many perspectives. Klaassen’s period cycle is the basic model of city life: urbanisation– suburbanisation–deurbanisation–reurbanisation. In each of these periods, cities develop by, building and transforming their structures. This article presents various approaches to shaping new urban spaces using the city of Rzeszów as an example. In the city’s history, three periods are distinguished during which structures referred to as the ‘new town’ were created in the 16<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries and continue to be created now. After analysing the site-forming processes, the most important features of new-town urban systems are compared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Humic substances and significance of their application – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is based on recent articles regarding applications of humic substances (HSs). HSs are natural organic materials, which have a number of potential applications. Furthermore, HSs are cheap, widespread and obtainable from bio-waste materials. HSs can be used as organic compound sorbents or in detoxification. They are applied as organic additives due to their positive effect on soil and plants, even under stress conditions. HSs reduce water consumption and minimise environmental problems. HSs are utilised for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soils and as substitutes for synthetic washing agents. From an environmental engineering point of view, it is beneficial to remove HSs from municipal management, where they are undesirable (by-products of disinfection) and to utilise them where they are valuable. The aim of this article is to provide a greater insight into research about the applications of HSs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1