rss_2.0Architecture and Design FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture and Design and Design Feed‘Where have all the flowers grown’: the relationship between a plant and its place in sixteenth-century botanical treatises dwelling thinking. Natural history and philosophy in sixteenth-century European dried gardens patterns and exotic plants in nineteenth-century Bucharest public gardens and Gardening in Early Modern England and Wales“The Early Modern Study of Plants, an Essential Part of Natural Philosophy‚Manipulation Flora: Seventeenth-Century Botanical Practices and Natural Philosophy” Improving Natural Knowledge: The Multiple Uses and Meanings of Plants for European Gardens influence of transport offer on passenger traffic in the railway transport system in a post-socialist country: case study of Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study examines factors influencing the number of rail passengers in Poland. The subjects of observation were 62 cities with poviat rights. The main factors influencing demand are the number of connections and the speed of trains. Therefore, we developed an original indicator – weighted number of connections, which takes into account the number of rail connections and the speed of trains. The article can be divided into two main parts: an assessment of the diversification of transport offer and transport demand in spatial terms, and an evaluation of the relationship between the variables. Poland has a large spatial diversity in terms of public rail transport offer and passenger traffic. There are three levels of city hierarchy according to the passenger number indicator: [1] Warsaw, [2] the largest agglomerations [3] other regional cities. Transport offer was found to have a statistically significant impact on transport demand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of green space systems in small towns of Kyiv region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analysed the current state of greening of small towns in the Kyiv region; small towns constitute 80% of all towns and cities in the region. A difference is shown to exist between the classification of green plantings that is used in Ukraine and the world-wide approach of green infrastructure. This makes it incorrect to compare the indicators of landscaping of towns in Ukraine against those of other countries. Based on the data of <italic>Master Plans</italic> of towns, the generally accepted indicators of landscaping of urban areas were calculated: provision of greenery per capita and level of landscaping. These indicators of landscaping for small towns were analysed according to different approaches. It is found that, according to the traditional calculation, the provision of green plantations exceeds 300 m<sup>2</sup> <italic>per capita</italic> for only 5% of small towns of the region, but for 70% according to the approach of green infrastructure. The provision of green areas for public use meets the established state standards (8–11 m<sup>2</sup> <italic>per capita</italic>) for only 35% of small towns in the region. Small towns are grouped into four clusters according to the similarity of landscaping indicators, where only the difference in the availability of green plantings of public use was unreliable among the clusters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Shrinking agricultural land and changing livelihoods after land acquisition in Vietnam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The phenomenon of agricultural land shrinkage is widespread in the world. This phenomenon has many causes, of which industrialisation is one. The industrialisation process is supported in most countries by the use of land acquisition as a tool to convert land use from agricultural to non-agricultural. This research surveyed 100 land-lost households to examine the impact of farmland shrinkage on their livelihoods in Vietnam. The study focuses on three factors: employment and income, how compensation money is used, and quality of life after land loss. The results show that revenue increased by USD 1,500 per household compared to before. The rate of employment depends on age and gender. There is a drop in employment among women over 35 years old and men over 40. The use of compensation money focuses on non-farm goals, with the bright spot being an investment in education for future generations. The environment and society tend to be worse according to the subjective assessment of households, but their ultimate choice is still to enjoy life after land acquisition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Recycling of municipal waste in Slovak cities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among the most urgent topics within waste management policy is the gradual transition of the economy from a linear model towards a circular economy with a more sustainable way of using resources. The European Union has responded to these changes by passing new legislation and ambitious targets so that all member states can quickly work towards achieving a greener and more sustainable Europe. However, the starting position for achieving the desired goals differs significantly from one country to another. In this paper, we therefore looked at the position of Slovakia in relation to selected waste management indicators, and at the measures taken so far. Moreover, since waste management falls under one of the many public benefit services provided under the remit of local governments, we also monitored the specific contribution of Slovak cities to the newly established trend of waste management in the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping paradigm shifts in the geography of innovation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study quantifies important theoretical tendencies in the geography of innovation in a historical view based on a novel big-data approach. It shows that the field was “born” only in the nineteen eighties after long periods (i.e. the first half of the 20th century) of analysing economic growth and regional development without endogenising the production process of innovation. The paper presents important shifts in the basic assumptions of models with the increasing use of the terms “economic instability” or “asymmetric information” instead of “economic equilibrium” and “perfect information”. These mean a deviation from traditional neoclassical regional economics, which is reflected in the fact that “geography of innovation” gained the same level of popularity in the 2000s as “industrial geography”. The paper shows that although the decline of the Marshallian term “industrial district” stopped in parallel with the work of Becattini, a new innovation systems theory took over the relative frequency of mention of the industrial district by the turn of the new millennium.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Websites and social networks of communes in Slovakia: development and current state<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the main features of today’s information society is the availability of data of various kinds provided by various companies and organisations. In the following paper, we focus on evaluating the dynamics of development and the current state of existence of websites of communes in Slovakia, which represent a database of their activities and serve as the main communication channel between citizens and self-government representatives. Another important channel is social networks, which are still enjoying huge popularity among Internet users. On the basis of the results of an online questionnaire that involved almost 60% of the addressed self-governments, we will point out the adaptation of self-governments to the use of social networks. One of the important tasks of such research is the distribution of the obtained results to end users. This is achieved through an example of a description of basic technical and functional specifications by using the website created by the authors. This website has the ambition of becoming a sort of central access point for all those interested in information about communes in Slovakia. By means of standard tabular, but also interactive graphic and map outputs, it gives an idea of selected indicators of self-governments in a user-friendly form, thus helping to increase client awareness of this specific issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Large-Scale Buildings of the Resort Establishments of the Soviet Period and their Present State in Jūrmala City, Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a summary of large-scale buildings of resort establishments of Soviet period in Jūrmala, by analysing their typology, physical parameters, scenarios of the development, architectural stylistic and the present state of physical condition and authentic substance. The research reveals that half of the large-scale resort buildings are already irreversibly lost and the rest of buildings are seriously endangered due to the tendency of extensive rebuilding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Can Micro-Housing Policies Enable Higher Liveability Standard in Urban Areas? Case Study of Cascais Historical Centre, Lisbon, Portugal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Liveability within urban planning is a necessary prerequisite to the development of micro-housing. Liveability may contribute to improvement of urban environments where micro-homes are prevalent, notably, in highly populated urban areas. After a brief review of the concept, discussion is focused on whether the historic centre of Cascais has liveability standards to facilitate micro housing. The key metrics highlight if such metrics perform the role of determining whether Cascais fulfils the set liveability criteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Approaches to Modernizing the Architectural and Planning Structure of Maternity Institutions in the Context of a Pandemic and a New Social Distance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses individual approaches to the formation of the architectural and spatial environment of maternity hospitals and perinatal centres contributing to social distancing. A ‘functional-spatial’ approach is proposed, in which the boundaries of spaces in the most active functional areas of the maternity hospital are changed: entrance area, reception of women in labour, area for relatives and visitors of the hospital, delivery of newborns, consultations in the polyclinic department of the maternity hospital. As a planning technique for distancing is proposed the formation of a system of space ‘soft borders’ using flexible, inclined, semi-cylindrical and ‘flowing’ translucent partitions. The second, ‘environmental approach’, is based on changing the scheme of communication and environmental situations in the internal environment of the maternity hospital due to the thoughtful arrangement of furniture and interior equipment, as well as due to light, colour and graphic navigation. Such a reorganization of the architectural and spatial structure of the maternity hospitals, based on the requirements of social distancing, preserves the value characteristics of the therapeutic environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Ability of Architects to See Autopoietic Environmental Features<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article discusses the way of rating the competency of architects through their ability to recognize the autopoietic properties of architecture in developed urban projects. The following theoretical methods were used: abstraction, analogy, generalization and reasoning. Metalanguage of consideration (opposite to directive metalanguage) embedded in projects displays the fact, that a person is able to recognize such autopoietic features as connotations, memory traces, that are important for continuity of locus cultural identity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Visual Identity of Riga 21st Century Multi-Apartment Developments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is claimed that rapid changes, including globalization and urbanization, may lead to uniform urban environment. Therefore, it is crucial to address issues in terms of local architecture. This research particularly focuses on the visual identity of Riga 21st century residential developments. Theoretical studies and empirical research methods were used. According to the research results, the most typical characteristics are linear building blocks, symmetric arraignment of façade elements, polychrome façade colour approach and usage of white/grey/ black colour palette. However, considering variety of visual expressions as well as different architectural and spatial situations, there cannot be determined one exact visual identity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural Urban Catalysts as Meaning of the City<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>City is a network with clear organization and architecture. It also has permanent connections. Human senses, perception and cognition are the base points while understanding these connections. Hypothesis of this article proposes that concentration of creativity potential in strategically placed junctions (cultural nodes) would catalyse people flow between them naturally. Three main features of the cultural node are distinguished, and possible identification methodology is being proposed. This strategy leads to more extensive methodology research and appliance analysing city structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00A Comprehensive Review on the Effects of COVID-19 Pandemic on Public Urban Spaces<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>COVID-19, evidently the world’s worst pandemic during the last two centuries, has predicated several challenges for urban designers, especially in their bid to find appropriate designing strategies. Even though there are umpteenth studies in the literature that have focused on the different aspects of COVID-19 related pandemics, very scant studies sought to find appropriate mitigating strategies in designing pandemic friendly urban spaces. Thus, through qualitative grounded theory as a main methodological approach, this study hypothesized that the COVID-19 induced pandemic has direct effects on the liveability of public spaces. Accordingly, by developing a comprehensive review of the literature on the environmental and socio-economic effects of the pandemic, this study proposed a comprehensive framework for understanding its side effects and a comprehensive mitigating strategy to deal with it in the short and long term of designing a healthy urban environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Compactness is Not Enough: Development and Trends of a Sustainable Urban Concept<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The changing concept of sustainable development is changing the practice of designing sustainable urban forms. The article presents a variety of concepts of a sustainable urban form and their ambiguous assessment – the model of a compact city, if applied in all cases, can cost the quality of one’s environment and the quality of life. New bottom-up trends are emerging in theory and in practice of the 21st century, which focus on the urban planning process which is more inclusive in terms of society. The article discusses examples of the creation of a sustainable urban narrative for the development of a relationship with the community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1