rss_2.0Contributions to Tobacco & Nicotine Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Contributions to Tobacco & Nicotine Researchhttps://sciendo.com/journal/CTTRhttps://www.sciendo.comContributions to Tobacco & Nicotine Research 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/625aa51c2022133f2f24d909/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220524T111801Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220524%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=201d03ffc87038e5aaa879113cd102703b2c8cdba29e2f5eea9f0b8c2b54e490200300Editors’ Notehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0006ARTICLE2022-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimated Public Health Gains From German Smokers Switching to Reduced-Risk Alternatives: Results From Population Health Impact Modellinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Smoking is associated with cancer and cardio-respiratory mortality. Reducing smoking prevalence will lead to fewer deaths and more life-years. Here, we estimate the impact of hypothetical introduction of reduced-risk products (heat-not-burn products and e-cigarettes) in Germany from 1995 to 2015 on mortality from lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke in men and women aged 30–79 years.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>We used a previously described population health impact model, with individuals with a defined baseline cigarette smoking distribution followed under a “Null Scenario”, with reduced-risk products never introduced, and various “Alternative Scenarios” where they are. Transition probabilities allow product use to change annually, with the individual product histories allowing estimation of risks, relative to never users, which are then used to estimate reductions in deaths and life-years lost for each Alternative Scenario.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>In the Null Scenario, we estimated 852,000 deaths from cigarette smoking (42,600 per year), with 8.61 million life-years lost. Had everyone ceased smoking in 1995, and with no use of reduced-risk products, these numbers would reduce by 217,000 and 2.88 million. Compared to the Null Scenario, the estimated reductions would be 159,000 and 2.06 million with an immediate complete switch to heat-not-burn products and 179,000 and 2.34 million with 50% of smokers immediately switching to heat-not-burn products and 50% to e-cigarettes. In four Scenarios with a more gradual switch, the estimated decreases were 39,800–81,000 deaths and 0.50–1.05 million life-years, representing 17.5%–37.5% of the effect of immediate cessation in 1995. These estimates assume that switching to heat-not-burn products and e-cigarettes involves risk decreases of 80% and 95% of those from quitting, respectively. The reductions in mortality would be greater with more diseases and a wider age range considered or with a longer follow-up period, as the decreases increased markedly with time. Various limitations are discussed, none affecting the conclusion that introducing these new products into Germany in 1995 could have substantially reduced deaths and life-years lost.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Deaths from cigarette smoking could be substantially reduced not only by cessation but additionally by switching to reduced-risk products. Respective public health campaigns might increase such switching.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimated Public Health Gains From Smokers in Germany Switching to Reduced-Risk Alternatives: Results From Population Health Impact Modelling by Socioeconomic Grouphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>We previously estimated the impact of introducing heat-not-burn products and e-cigarettes in Germany on smoking-related disease mortality in men and women aged 30–79 years between 1995 and 2015. Here, we estimate the impact by socioeconomic group.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Individuals with a defined baseline cigarette smoking distribution were followed under a “Null Scenario” (no reduced-risk products) and “Alternative Scenarios” (reduced-risk products introduced). Transition probabilities allowed estimation of annual product use changes, with individual product histories used to estimate reductions in deaths and life-years lost. Here, however, individuals were classified into two socioeconomic groups defined by income and education, with allowance for variation by group in initial smoking prevalence and the probability of changing product use, or of changing socioeconomic group.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>With no allowance for socioeconomic group, deaths would have reduced by 217,000 (from 852,000 for continued smoking) had everyone immediately ceased smoking in 1995 and by 40,000 to 179,000 had one or two types of reduced-risk products – the heat-not-burn product and the e-cigarette – been adopted by smokers to varying extents. With such allowance, we estimate substantial drops in each socioeconomic group. Where all cigarette smokers switched immediately, half of them to heat-not-burn products, half to e-cigarettes, the estimated drops in deaths were 60,000 in group A (higher socioeconomic group) and 122,000 in group B (lower), about 82% of the drops associated with immediate cessation (73,000 in A and 148,000 in B). With more gradual conversion, the drops were 26,648 in A and 53,000 in B, about 35% of those from cessation. The drops in deaths and life-years saved were about 2 and 1.5 times higher in group B, respectively, associated with its greater numbers, older age, and higher smoking prevalence. The estimated reductions would increase upon considering more diseases, a wider age range, or longer follow-up. Methodological limitations would not affect the conclusion that introducing these products in 1995 in Germany could have substantially reduced deaths and life-years lost in both groups, more so in B.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Although cessation is optimal for reducing mortality, switching to reduced-risk products also provides substantial health gains. A public health approach encouraging lower socioeconomic group smokers to switch to reduced-risk products could diminish smoking-related health inequalities relative to continued smoking.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detectionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD) was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC) using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV) was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY) and Oriental (ORI) respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key-components among cultivars of tobacco leaves, and was expected to additionally expand coverage that metabolomics study has ensured. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 60-73]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Type and Amount of Carbon in Cigarette Filters on Smokers’ Mouth Level Exposure to “Tar”, Nicotine, 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Isoprene, and Acrylonitrilehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Activated carbons are effective adsorbents for many volatile organic compounds and are used in cigarette filters to remove selected smoke toxicants. Polymer-derived carbon is more effective in removing many vapour phase toxicants found in cigarette smoke than coconut-shell-derived carbon. We compared mouth-level exposure to “tar”, nicotine and five vapour phase constituents (1,3- butadiene, benzene, toluene, isoprene, acrylonitrile) in two groups of Romanian smokers of 4-mg or 8-mg International Organization for Standardization (ISO) “tar” bands. Test cigarettes with 4 and 8 mg ISO “tar” were manufactured for the study with two target levels of polymer-derived carbon (30 mg and 56 mg), along with control cigarettes containing a target level of 56 mg of coconut-shell-derived carbon in both “tar” bands. No significant differences were found between mouth-level exposure to “tar” or nicotine yields obtained from control and test products (p &gt; 0.05) in either ISO “tar” band. Mouth-level exposure to each of the five vapour phase constituents was significantly lower from the test products with polymer-derived carbon (p &lt; 0.0001) than from control cigarettes with coconut-shell-derived carbon, by an average of 25% with 30 mg polymer-derived carbon and around 50% with 56 mg. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 40-53]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Nicotine Analysis in Several Non-Tobacco Plant Materialshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Present study describes the determination of nicotine in various plant samples with a low content of this compound. Nicotine is found naturally in plants from the Solanaceae family. The plants from Nicotiana genus contain large levels of nicotine. However, only low levels are present in plants from Solanum genus including potato, tomato, eggplant, and from Capsicum genus, which are used as food. Because the levels of nicotine in these materials are in the range of parts per billion, the measurements are difficult and the results are very different from study to study. The present study evaluated the level of nicotine in a number of plants (fruits, roots, leaves, tubers) from Solanaceae family (not including Nicotiana genus) and from several other vegetables commonly used as food. The analysis consisted of the treatment of plant material with an aqueous solution 5% NaOH at 70°C for 30 min, followed by extraction with TBME containing d<sub>3</sub>-nicotine as an internal standard. The TBME organic layer was analyzed on a 7890B/7000C GC-MS/MS system with a 30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film CAM column. The MS/MS system worked in MRM positive ionization mode monitoring the transition 162 - 84 for nicotine and 165 - 87 for d<sub>3</sub>-nicotine. Particular attention was given to the preservation of the intact levels of nicotine in the plant material. The plant material was analyzed as is, without drying and with minimal exposure to contaminations. Separately, the moisture of the plant material was measured in order to report the nicotine level on a dry-basis. Levels of nicotine around 180 ng/g dry material were obtained for tomatoes and eggplant (fruit) and lower levels were obtained for green pepper and potato. Similar levels to that in the tomato fruit were detected in tomato leaves. Materials from other plant families also showed traces of nicotine. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 54-59]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Cross-Sectional Relations Between Slim Cigarettes and Smoking Prevalencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2016-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Slim cigarettes were defined in the 2012 draft European Union-Tobacco Product Directive (EU-TPD) as cigarettes with a diameter of less than 7.5mm. Allegations that slim cigarettes may negatively impact tobacco control efforts led the European Commission to propose a ban on them in 2012, which was ultimately rejected. This study investigated whether there is any association between slim cigarettes and smoking prevalence rates, in order to see if these allegations are justified. Data was compiled on the market share of slim cigarettes and smoking prevalence rates from the years 2012, 2006 and 1996. The core 2012 sample (once data limitations were accounted for) consisted of 95 countries. Raw correlations between market shares of slim cigarettes and smoking prevalence rates were first examined, followed by multivariate cross-country regressions where various factors were controlled for. This was done for overall smoking prevalence, as well as for male and female prevalence separately. </p> <p>Although raw correlations between the slim cigarette market share and smoking prevalence were sometimes positive and statistically significant, this result disappeared in all cases except for one when potential confounding factors were fully controlled for. The correlation between slim cigarette market share and smoking prevalence remained significant only for males in 2012 at levels of statistical significance of 10% or above when cultural and socio-economic factors were fully controlled for. Importantly, for females no positive statistically significant correlations between the slim cigarette market share and smoking prevalence were found for any year. The cross-country variation in smoking prevalence was substantially explained by a number of regional and cultural dummies, as well as socio-economic factors. </p> <p>This study has found no indication that a higher market share of slim cigarettes was associated with greater smoking prevalence among females, and has failed to find a strong indication among males, once confounding factors were controlled for. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016) 75-99]</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2016-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00An Experimental Analytical and Approach to Bridge Between Different Heated Tobacco Product Variantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Tobacco heating products (THPs) have reduced toxicant emissions relative to cigarettes. THPs are continually evolving, but safety and efficacy studies on each new variant involve considerable resources. As employed by the pharmaceutical industry, a “bridging” process could be used to demonstrate product equivalence.</p> <p>Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of a bridging approach by evaluating aerosol emissions and <italic>in vitro</italic> cytotoxicity of five variant THPs in relation to a base product. All products were compared to a reference cigarette and a commercial benchmark. Relative to smoke, chemical reductions in THP aerosols were comparable among the THPs at 94–97%. The aerosols showed similar cytotoxicity in human lung tissues exposed at the air-liquid interface (p = 0.8378) but were significantly less toxic than smoke (p = 0.04). Relative to the THP benchmark, variant THPs showed lower cytotoxicity (p = 0.0141). Emissions and cytotoxicity data demonstrated that the variant THPs were comparable to the base THP, irrespective of consumable format or flavour. This dataset demonstrates the feasibility of a bridging approach and can inform an evidence-based strategy in developing sufficient data to predict similarity against an already established dataset. Therefore, avoiding repetition of vast data generation could ease authorisation requirements of newer products. Finally, we propose that more work is required to understand chemical, biological (<italic>in vitro</italic>), human consumption, and clinical data before the equivalence of these products (and others) can be definitively demonstrated. Future studies maybe needed to assess additional chemical and biological outputs and all data will need to be contextualised against human consumption data in terms of a bridging framework.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the Level of NNK in Tobacco and Tobacco Products Depend on the Level of Pseudooxynicotine or of Nicotine-1′--Oxide?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>4-(<italic>N’</italic>-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potentially carcinogenic tobacco specific nitrosamine (TSNA) and an important compound in the Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents (HPHCs) list of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For this reason, significant effort is being made for an understanding of the formation of this compound and for the reduction of its level in tobacco products. Formation of NNK is assumed to be the result of nitrosation of 4-(methylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (pseudooxynicotine or PON). Present study evaluated the correlation between the levels of NNK and those of PON in a variety of tobaccos and tobacco products. Since nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide can be involved in the formation of PON, the correlation of the levels of this compound with the levels of NNK was also evaluated. Two original methods were developed for the quantitation of PON in tobacco and tobacco products and a well-established method has been used for the analysis of NNK. The correlation between the levels of NNK with that of PON was proven to be very poor. The same result was obtained for the correlation between NNK levels and nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide. This indicated that a higher level of PON or of nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide in tobacco or tobacco products does not lead to a higher level of NNK. The study does not prove that NNK in tobacco or tobacco products is not generated via PON, but it demonstrated that the limiting factor in the formation of NNK in tobacco and tobacco products is not the level of PON or that of nicotine-1′-<italic>N</italic>-oxide, and other factors are responsible for the effectiveness of NNK formation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Nicotine and Inflammatory Disease in Humans: A Systematic Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Previous studies have shown that nicotine interacts in inflammatory pathways and may have both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of publications investigating the inflammatory effects of nicotine in models of human disease.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklists were followed during the design and implementation of this study. Searches were carried out across PubMed, Science Direct, and the Cochrane Library. Articles were included if they were published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, reported an effect of nicotine in the treatment of a clinical condition, experimental studies or clinical trials which investigated an effect of nicotine administration in patients with a clinical condition or epidemiological studies which investigated an effect of nicotine administration in patients with a clinical condition.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Thirty-eight studies were identified and categorized into disease areas before systematic review. Nineteen studies were related to digestive diseases (primarily Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), six to atherosclerosis, five to skin and healing, four to pain and infection, three to pulmonary sarcoidosis, and three to multiple sclerosis (one study reported data on three disease areas). Risk of bias assessment was not carried out, but the general quality of the studies was low, mostly offering preliminary data in small numbers of participants. No consistent effects of nicotine treatment (primarily through use of transdermal nicotine patches or nicotine chewing gums) were reported across any of the disease models.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>No reliable evidence of a pro- or anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine was observed in patients with any of the diseases included in this study.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Chiral-Gas Chromatograpy-Selected Ion Monitoring-Mass Selective Detection Analysis of Secondary Alkaloids in Tobacco and Tobacco Smokehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2013-0665<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Chiral gas chromatography-mass selective detection has been successfully employed in the analysis of secondary alkaloids in selected tobacco materials and cigarette smoke condensate. No extensive sample preparation is involved. A lower detection limit of ~2 % d-nornicotine, d-anabasine and d-anatabine in a mixture of l and d-isomers was achieved. The levels and the enantiomeric ratios of nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine varied in different tobacco types. The enantiomeric ratios of nicotine, anabasine and anatabine in mainstream cigarette condensate also varied but were generally representative of the enantiomeric ratios for the alkaloids found in the leaf. The enantiomeric ratio for nornicotine in mainstream cigarette condensate also varied and was not representative of the enantiomeric ratios for the alkaloids found in the leaf. Preferential decomposition or racemization may account for the differences seen in the yields of isomers of nornicotine transferred to the mainstream smoke condensate. An experiment was conducted to determine if the d-nornicotine present in tobacco contributed to the yield of d-nicotine in mainstream smoke condensate. The results of that experiment indicated that the yield of d-nicotine transferred to mainstream smoke did not change significantly when either large levels of endogenous nornicotine were present in the leaf or when large levels of exogenous levels of d-, l-nornicotine were applied to the tobacco rod prior to smoking. The limiting factor in the production of d-nicotine in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate may be the concentration of methyl radicals present to react. Further work must be conducted to unravel the mechanism involved in the production of d-nicotine in cigarette smoke condensate.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Conference Report - Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR): A Meeting Organized by the Pesticide Group of the Society of the Chemical Industry, March 10, 1998, London, UKhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2013-0667<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Conference Report Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR): a meeting organized by the pesticide group of the society of the chemical industry, march 10, 1998, London, UK</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Letters to the Editor - Tobacco smoke componentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2013-0668ARTICLE2015-01-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Chiral-Gas Chromatography-Selected Ion Monitoring-Mass Selective Detection Analysis of Tobacco Materials and Tobacco Smokehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2013-0664<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A novel method for the detection, separation, and quantification of the optical isomers of nicotine has been developed. The method has been applied to analyse extracts of tobacco seeds, processed tobacco suspensions, reconstituted tobacco sheet materials, individual tobacco varieties, blends of tobaccos, and cigarette smoke condensate. The methodology does not involve any further sample preparation other than that which is normally used to analyse tobacco alkaloids by the modified method of Gordon et al. (73), or the standard FTC smoke analysis routinely performed by most tobacco and smoke analysis laboratories. Near baseline resolution was obtained for enantiomers, yielding a lower detection limit of approximately 2 % d-nicotine in a mixture of d-and l-nicotine. There was essentially no d-nicotine found in any of the tobacco samples. Detectable levels of d-nicotine were found in most of the samples of cigarette smoke condensate when the cigarettes were smoke by the FTC method. The presence of Oriental tobacco in the cigarette appeared to be related to whether d-nicotine was generated in the mainstream cigarette smoke condensate. When the same cigarettes were smoked under a more stressful puffing regime the level of d-nicotine in the smoke did not increase and in some cases the level of d-nicotine decreased. This work supports prior literature that detected and quantified the presence of d-nicotine in cigarette smoke condensate.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Seminars in Tobacco Science - Particulate Matter, ‘TAR’, Condensatehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2013-0669ARTICLE2015-01-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Variability of A. - An Isoenzyme Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cttr-2013-0663<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The variability of <italic>P. tabacina</italic> A. populations was studied by using the isoenzymes of peroxidase (PO), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as molecular markers. <italic>P. tabacina</italic> conidia/conidiophores from <italic>N. tabacum</italic> crops cultivated in distant areas of Europe (France and Bulgaria) were investigated during a long period of time (1978-1992). It was found that no variations of <italic>P. tabacina</italic> as a function of space and time occurred. The data point to the genetical stability of the presently spread strain of the pathogen and the lack of processes of new strain formation. However, a significant variability of <italic>P. tabacina</italic> as a function of host plant was established. Suspension of conidia/conidiophores of <italic>P. tabacina</italic> originating from <italic>N. tabacum</italic> (P 48 cv.) was used to inoculate the wild species <italic>N. repanda</italic>. First conidia/conidiophores of <italic>P. tabacina</italic> produced on the new host plant (designated as Pt/Nr) as well as those from the “classical” host, <italic>N. tabacum</italic> (designated as Pt/Nt) were analysed. Thus, two types of <italic>P. tabacina</italic> (according to their origin) were compared. It was shown that one MDH and most PO isoenzymes present in Pt/Nt were not observed in Pt/Nr; these isoenzymes repressed following the transfer were common for Pt/Nt and its <italic>N. tabacum</italic> host. Moreover, in conidia/conidiophores of Pt/Nr new isoenzymes appeared, namely one major PO, one MDH and a block of three SOD isoenzyme components. These isoenzymes were common for Pt/Nr and the new host, <italic>N. repanda</italic>. It is noteworthy that all fungus specific isoenzymes present in Pt/Nt (one PO, five MDH and seven SOD components) were conserved in Pt/Nr. The results reveal molecular mechanisms underlying relationships between host plants and obligatory fungal pathogens, such as <italic>P. tabacina</italic>. They could be used in blue mold epidemiology research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Triethyl Citrate to Filters in Virginia Type Cigarettes*https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2015-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Triethyl citrate (TEC) was applied in the preparation of cigarette filter rods by two approaches. One was to utilize TEC as a plasticizer sprayed onto the surface of cellulose acetate (CA) fibers. The other was to apply TEC as an additive coated onto the cellulosic paper of acetate-paper dual filters. Three types of cigarette filter rods, namely, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate (TEC-CA) filter rods, triethyl citrate-cellulose acetate-paper (TEC-CA-paper) dual filter rods and cellulose acetate-paper-triethyl citrate (CA-paper-TEC) dual filter rods, were manufactured. In order to promote the curing of CA rods, high-frequency radiation was introduced into the procedure of filter manufacture. Then Virginia type cigarettes, combined with the three kinds of prepared filter rods were manufactured and the removal efficiency of phenols from the cigarette mainstream smoke was investigated. The results revealed that no matter where the triethyl citrate was applied as plasticizer or coating additive, the content of phenol, <italic>o</italic>-, <italic>m</italic>-and <italic>p</italic>-cresol in cigarette mainstream smoke could be greatly reduced. The optimal removal efficiency for phenol was 50% compared with the control. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 176-182]</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Dr. DeWitt T. Gooden III, Recipient of the 2013 Tobacco Science Research Conference Lifetime Achievement Awardhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2015-0002ARTICLE2015-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Particle Size Distribution of E-Cigarette Aerosols and the Relationship to Cambridge Filter Pad Collection Efficiencyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2015-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The relatively volatile nature of the particulate matter fraction of e-cigarette aerosols presents an experimental challenge with regard to particle size distribution measure-ments. This is particularly true for instruments requiring a high degree of aerosol dilution. This was illustrated in a previous study, where average particle diameters in the 10-50 nm range were determined by a high-dilution, electrical mobility method. Total particulate matter (TPM) masses calculated based on those diameters were orders of magnitude smaller than gravimetrically determined TPM. This discrepancy was believed to result from almost complete particle evaporation at the dilution levels of the electrical mobility analysis. The same study described a spectral transmission measurement of e-cigarette particle size in an undiluted state, and reported particles from 210-380 nm count median diameter. Observed particle number concentrations were in the 10<sup>9</sup> particles/cm<sup>3</sup> range. Additional particle size measurements described here also found e-cigarette particle size to be in the 260-320 nm count median diameter range. Cambridge filter pads have been used for decades to determine TPM yields of tobacco burning cigarettes, and collection of e-cigarette TPM by fibrous filters is predicted to be a highly efficient process over a wide range of filtration flow rates. The results presented in this work provide support for this hypothesis.</p><p>Described here is a study in which e-cigarette aerosols were collected on Cambridge filters with adsorbent traps placed downstream in an effort to capture any material passing through the filter. Amounts of glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine, and water were quantified on the filter and downstream trap. Glycerin, propylene glycol, and nicotine were effciently captured (&gt; 98%) by the upstream Cambridge filter, and a correlation was observed between filtration efficiency and the partial vapor pressure of each component. The present analysis was largely inconclusive with regard to filter efficiency and particle-vapor partitioning of water. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 183-190]</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Machine Smoking Intensity and Filter Ventilation Level on Gas-Phase Temperature Distribution Inside a Burning Cigarettehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/cttr-2015-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Accurate measurements of cigarette coal temperature are essential to understand the thermophysical and thermo-chemical processes in a burning cigarette. The last system-atic studies of cigarette burning temperature measurements were conducted in the mid-1970s. Contemporary cigarettes have evolved in design features and multiple standard machine-smoking regimes have also become available, hence there is a need to re-examine cigarette combustion. In this work, we performed systematic measurements on gas-phase temperature of burning cigarettes using an improved fine thermocouple technique. The effects of machine-smoking parameters (puff volume and puff duration) and filter ventilation levels were studied with high spatial and time resolutions during single puffs. The experimental results were presented in a number of differ-ent ways to highlight the dynamic and complex thermal processes inside a burning coal. A mathematical distribution equation was used to fit the experimental temperature data. Extracting and plotting the distribution parameters against puffing time revealed complex temperature profiles under different coal volume as a function of puffing intensities or filter ventilation levels. By dividing the coal volume prior to puffing into three temperature ranges (low-temperature from 200 to 400 °C, medium-temperature from 400 to 600 °C, and high-temperature volume above 600 °C) by following their development at different smoking regimes, useful mechanistic details were obtained. Finally, direct visualisation of the gas-phase temperature through detailed temperature and temperature gradient contour maps provided further insights into the complex thermo-physics of the burning coal. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26 (2014) 191-203]</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1