rss_2.0Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development 's Cover of Participants in on-the-Job Trainings in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most important fringe benefits for employers is education. Employees who have been trained are more attached to the company and their esteem increases. The survey interviewed 371 employees of enterprises participating in the GINOP (Economic Development and Innovation Operational Programme of Hungary) 6.1.5-17 “Support for on-the-job training for large enterprises” and GINOP-6.1.6-17 “Support for on-the-job training for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises”. The interviewees had different positions and educational qualifications. It could be shown that those who had been trained were able to use the new skills, some of them leading to an increase in income. The biggest risk of on-the-job training is that the workforce trained by the company is seduced by a competing company, resulting in a huge loss for the company.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Consequences of Covid-19 for Kosovo’s Implementation to V4<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to provide a micro- and macro-level of a problem definition focused on Coronavirus crisis impacts on the tourism industry in the V4 countries and the eventual Kosovo integration into the V4 as a part of the Western Balkan 6 (WB6) and Eastern Partnership (EaP) enlargement V4<sup>+</sup>. The analysis of the primary data and the search for results are based on the Delphi method providing a better explanation of economic, social and market integration processes which fully exploit the opportunities of the content analysis provided by the quantitative and qualitative secondary data. The article offers key guiding criteria for deepening the economic integration into the V4 Group, emphasizing key aspects such as the economic and regional convergence, and the incorporation of diverse social strata into the economic growth process. The article highlights the benefits derived from the full membership of the actual V4 Group in the European Community as well as identifies its powerful strength and stable frame for promoting growth and prosperity. The critical view of the political and economic integration process emphasizes the risks derived from the deepness of divergence across countries and regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Local Employment Development and Sustainable Labour Market in Northern Hungary Since the Regime Change<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The peripheral regions of Hungary, such as the Northern Hungarian region and its settlements, are facing a variety of problems and challenges, and in addition to economic difficulties, demographic and labour market challenges also demand increased attention and solutions. Since the change of regime, the region has been facing economic and labour market difficulties. The current labour market faces a combination of labour shortages, automation and robotisation, rapidly changing conditions and high unemployment. In most peripheral regions, the availability of labour resources to meet the needs of the primary labour market is very limited and local labour markets are completely depleted. The unemployed lack skills and experience. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of labour market developments in the Northern Hungarian region since the change of regime and to describe successful local developments. Addressing the situation requires local, municipal-level solutions, which is a real challenge, as there is no single recipe. Local development can and should be built on a toolbox of local development, as solutions based on local resources, local ‘heroes’, local control and local ideas can be successful. The paper describes such successful local development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Collaborative Destination Management of V4 Countries and Germany During the Covid-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tourism destinations need to develop a coordinated approach to the development of new tourism options. One possibility is to strengthen domestic tourism in the own country and to support local hotels and restaurants. However, rebuilding the destination requires a coordinated approach; for instance, collaborations with cross-border regions. Collaborative destination management is an approach to work with partner countries to jointly address the challenges of pandemics by establishing different types of tourism. Recommendations for action are identified from the PESTLE and SWOT analysis to ensure successful collaborative destination management of V4 countries and Germany during the Covid-19 pandemic. These analyses were performed because of brainstorming and the Delphi method with 4 experts from several fields of this study. Therefore, a strategy based on the TOWS Matrix reflects what a new collaborative destination management approach could look like during the current crisis for the Euroregions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Objective and Subjective Study of the Dynamic Development of the City of Gyöngyös (Hungary)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cities play a key role in EU regional policy, and to this end the Leipzig Charter called for the development of Integrated Urban Development Strategies (IVS) emphasizing an integrated approach in the 2007–2013 budget period, which was replaced in the period 2014–2020 by Integrated Settlement Development Strategies (ITS). We can find many experiments in the methodological elaboration of the measurement of regional and municipality development in the Hungarian and international literature. However, due to the complexity of the topic, no more widely accepted procedure has emerged, however, there is a common consensus that development is treated as a complex phenomenon. In the present study, we attempted to examine the development of the city of Gyöngyös through a complex system of indicators for the period 2010–2018. In addition, an important part of our research is to supplement the results obtained with statistical data and, if possible, to compare them to the subjective judgment of the residents. Our main goal was to answer how the changes of the indicator groups in the indicator system and their totality are perceived by the residents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Generational Differences in Adult Education Methodology – The Point of View of the Instructors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The methodology of adult learning has changed significantly. Today, it is no longer possible to consider it a homogeneous group of trainees with a significant age difference. Different methods and tools are available to acquire knowledge. Digital technology, changes in time management, and changes in the way information is processed require new methods in adult learning. The acquisition of knowledge is necessary to enable workers to contribute to the digitization of the operating characteristics of production equipment and machinery in the context of Industry 4.0 and, on the other hand, to enable the combination of robotic and human skills to be launched in the 21<sup>st</sup> century through Industry 5.0. In our research, we examine the perspectives of adult education institutions, adult education professionals, and the people involved in adult education to ameliorate the use of digital technology in adult education as effectively as possible. We looked at the readiness and openness of institutions and trainers and the digital competencies and expectations of adult learning users of different generations. With our research, we got to know the situation of adult education enterprises operating in Hungary, in the Békés County, the needs and learning habits of different generations, and determined the directions of digital competence development in adult education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Innovation on Small and Medium Enterprises: A Bibliometric Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Innovation plays great role in organizational competitiveness and sustainable business processes and it should be a key success policy for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) all over the world. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive understanding of the scientific studies made on the field of innovation and its effect on small and medium enterprises performance. A bibliometric study was used to analyze articles published between 1976 and 2020 and create an illustrative map of innovation in small and medium enterprises; a sample of papers gathered through Web of Science Core Collection database. Accordingly, there were found 2219 documents which were published in 332 sources. VOS viewer was employed to portray network analysis of, authorship, keywords visualization, citations, and countries dealing with the subject. SCIMAT software was also used to do longitudinal thematic analysis. Even though many countries, universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and authors contributed for the growth of this field of study, almost all are from developed nations. This study is one amongst the very few studies made using bibliometric analysis in this field. Moreover, the thematic network diagram reveals two other new themes in the subject, which are taken as knowledge seed, and have high potential for a future study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Tax Policy on the Business Economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Taxation and tax policy are relatively much-discussed topics within every society, and this has been so in the past, it is today, and it will be in the future. This is mainly due to the fact that no person or company is too fond of having to pay a certain part from their funds to the state in the form of taxes. Each state chooses its own tax policy and its own tax system so that the specified tax policy does not impede economy and economic development, but on the contrary, supports the business and economic growth. After the accession of the Slovak Republic to the European Union, Slovakia had to accept a certain state of tax regulations and rules that was valid in the European Union. This was mainly in order to use the common European market. The Slovak Republic has created its tax system in accordance with the rules of the European Union and has been trying to find a compromise between the amount of taxes necessary for the fulfilment of the state budget and the amount of taxes that would be most acceptable for the business sector and for people. Within the tax system, the Slovak Republic divides taxes into direct and indirect taxes, direct taxes imposed on labour, income and property, and taxes on consumption by indirect taxes. Recently, the prevailing opinion is that taxation should gradually shift from direct taxes to indirect taxes, to motivate people and businesses to achieve the best possible results, and subsequently raise the necessary funds based on the increased consumption. Recently, both in Slovakia and in the European Union, new excise taxes have been increasingly introduced. Traditional excise taxes such as taxes on mineral oils and fuels, tobacco and alcoholic beverages are complemented by energy, environmental, and electronic taxes. Slovakia and the European Union want to reduce the burden on the environment through these taxes on the one hand, and on the other hand, they must respond to the new challenges of globalization, information, and communication.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Examination of Food Waste Behaviour in Hungarian Households<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Our current existence on the Earth raises a number of contradictions such as our relation to food. According to the FAO, a third of the food produced does not reach consumers; according to calculations by the World Resources Institute, even if we reduced losses by a quarter, 795 million people would have enough food to feed. This controversial situation gives topicality to the topic, which will only grow as the Earth’s population grows by about 80 million people a year and our resources for nourishment are finite. In our research we focused on households within the topic area of food waste generated in the supply chain. This focus of research is considered a difficult one because results could be found only with data logging and this method has several limitations which could distort the results. In our research, 20 households in Kaposvár were asked to log the amount of their food waste for 14 days. We set up five hypotheses before our research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of Adult Education Participants in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study presents adult education institutions and participants in adult education at the national level, highlighting the Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. It shows the decrease in the number of tasks and the change in the types of maintainers, the decreasing trend of the number of privately maintained institutions and the number of students. Thanks to public interventions, private-run institutions have completely shrunk in the last 7 years due to support for training. Private institutions receive little or no state support for the teaching of the professions listed in the National Training Register, which means that students can only study in private schools for a fee. This decision resulted in the dissolution of most privately maintained institutions, their merging into local Vocational Training Centres or church institutions. The main goal of the research was to get a realistic picture of the causes of institutional change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Renewable Energy Investments from Public Financial Institutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Renewable energy sources have become a compelling investment proposition, and investment into renewable power has grown in the recent years. Scale up renewable energy investment is critical to accelerate the global energy transformation and reap its many benefits, while achieving climate and development targets. Public finance institutions provide public money to support public and private sector projects as well as policies and programmes that serve the public good with economic, environmental, or social benefits. Several such institutions have been established and resourced with the aim of supporting renewable energy investments such as: international financial institutions, development finance institutions, local financial institutions, export credit agencies, and climate finance institutions. The main aim of this paper was to analyze the investments provided by this type of institutions in the renewable energy sector in the world with a specific focus on European Union member states in 2009–2016.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Directions for Ensuring the Equivalence of Exchange in Agri-Food Chains in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article examines the issues of intersectoral price relations in agri-food chains in Ukraine. It is proved that the imbalance of relations between different spheres of the agro-industrial complex due to price disparity causes the withdrawal of financial resources from one industry to another, without creating conditions for expanded reproduction. The factors influencing prices in agri-food chains are systematized: inflation, disparity, currency fluctuations, sales channels, etc. It is confirmed that the subjects of entrepreneurial activity of the agricultural sector of economy operated in conditions of price disparity during 2000–2019, which led to a relatively low value of their profitability. At the level of a participant in the chain of food industry entities, the price index for food industry products has been exceeded over the agricultural level, but there is a very low level of profitability – 1.4% in 2019. Analytically proved existence of a disparity between retail prices for food and agricultural products provides a profitability of wholesale and retail trade at 15.8–23.3%. Violation of the equivalence of exchange in supply chains at the level of wholesale and retail trade leads to the entry of agricultural enterprises into vertically integrated associations of the holding type. It is substantiated that ensuring the equivalence of exchange in agri-food chains requires the introduction of a set of value-added tools in the agricultural sector of antitrust regulation, market infrastructure development, rural cooperation and integration, and support for the development of small producers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Food Security in the Era of Sustainable Organic Farming: A Comparison Between the Visegrad Group and India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The agriculture industry has undergone many developments that embraced automation, agro-chemical fertilizers, genetically modified organisms etc that brought exponential growth in productivity post industrial revolution. This growth resolved the food availability issues on a global scale, but rapid climate change has brought about a shift in production practices to more sustainable organic farming techniques from the conventional methods. The climate change effects and increase in greenhouse gas emissions adversely affected the overall agricultural output. The widespread perception is that adoption of organic farming can reduce the harmful greenhouse emissions and be less damaging to the environment, although expecting the same level of productivity as conventional farming is challenging. This gradual shift can cause future food security problems such as availability and affordability of food in developing countries. This article compares and analyses such trend in the Visegrad group (V4) and India. The comparison between a group of developed nations and a developing nation is of exploratory interest because V4 countries are regarded as high-income countries and they are leaders in organic cultivation practices since the 1980s, whereas India as a developing country has seen substantial conversion of agriculture land area from conventional to organic farming in the past decade.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Biogas Production Potential within the Slovak Spirits Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Slovak spirits industry has a stable position within the alcoholic beverages industry in the Slovak Republic. However, its production process causes significant environmental stress on nature. The industry can use roughly only 10% of the raw materials. This means a significant amount of waste is produced during the distillation process. We investigated the biogas production potential within the Slovak distilleries producing spirits for final consumption when we compared the production of spirits between the years 2010 and 2019. Biogas production potential is calculated as an ideal situation when all spent wash from spirits producing distilleries is used for biogas production. The potential energy gain is also calculated in kWh based on the already available research in the field of biogas production. We conducted that the total biogas potential of the Slovak spirits industry could reach 15,886,053 kWh in terms of electricity and 22,946,177 kWh in terms of heat energy if we calculate energy potential according to the spirits production in the year 2019. The total combined energy potential generated during the reuse of waste from distilleries could reach 38,832,230 kWh. The biogas production in these facilities has also a positive side effect. If distilleries use the heat energy for the distillation process, the amount of greenhouse emissions will also be declining.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Regional Disparities in the European Union from the Perspective of Environmental Context Indicators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The agricultural sector is one of the most important sectors of the countries’ economies and agricultural production has a huge socio-economic importance. In the current conditions of globalization and diversification of production, agriculture tries to achieve continuous development, realization of the potential, growth of the quantity and quality of the agricultural production, ensuring food security of the country. The quantitative and qualitative development of the agricultural sector takes place within a certain system, which is created under the influence of economic, social, and environmental factors based on innovations associated with transformation. These components of the current development of the agricultural sector are undergoing constant transformations, leading to the imbalances and the emergence of destructive processes within the complex system of the agricultural sector. Exploring regional disparities in terms of environmental and economic context indicators of CAP is strategically important for the stable rural and regional development of countries, increasing the competitiveness of agriculture, and sustainable and integrated development of regions. Based on the results of the calculations, we confirmed the effect of catching up between poorer and richer EU countries and identified the future trends in the occurrence and reduction of regional disparities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Soil as an Irreplaceable Production Factor Under Conditions of Slovak Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The economic theory distinguishes mainly three production factors, namely labour, soil, and capital. Soil, as a product of nature, is not a free good – its amount is not unlimited. It can be used for agricultural purposes, as energy and non-energy source, and for minerals. Soil is one of the factors of production and at the same time the most important natural resource. We have used three indicators, namely the degree of plowing, the degree of agricultural use and area of agricultural and arable land per capita. The result of the work was the finding that in the observed period (10 years), the area of agricultural and arable land in Slovakia is decreasing. To improve the situation in agriculture, the following could be done: merging fragmented land into larger units, changes in the system of inheritance or a change in allocation of subsidies. Especially the inhabitants of the territory should support the state buy buying on the domestic market and supporting domestic production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Case Study of Canvas Model of Rubber Tire Recycling in Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, problems related to waste tires are increasing. The worn-out vehicle tires are abundant, together with worthless waste. Besides, it causes environmental pollution and it harms human health. Nowadays, too many car tires are being produced and the old tires are beginning to become a problem. The old tires can be decomposed or burned to get energy or heat. One of the most effective ways to get rid of these problems is to recycle the waste tires and use them in a different area. In this paper, the study was based on basic information about the waste tires and its recycling technologies. Based on this study, the canvas model has been created to show how to run a business with recycling the worn-out tires.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental Awareness in Different European Cultures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 28 countries of the European Union represent a rather heterogeneous group regarding their geography, history, and national cultures. Their response to the current global challenges depends on their way of viewing the world, and that is largely influenced by their national values and beliefs. The research compares the environmental awareness in distinct country groups and identifies the components of national culture, which, by their different approaches to the environmental sustainability, influence the most. The time span of the analysis is seven years from 2012 to 2018. National culture is defined by Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, and the environmental awareness data were collected from the Eurobarometer surveys of the EU. The main findings show that the environmental awareness in the EU increases with time and is higher in indulgent, more individualistic, and more long-term oriented countries, while the level of masculinity and uncertainty avoidance or power distance did not matter. The Scandinavian countries are remarkably environmentally aware, while the other groups of countries do not differ in this respect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Investment Support for Sustainable Development of Agricultural Enterprises in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article proves the need to intensify investment activities in agricultural enterprises, which is the main condition for the implementation of the principles of sustainable development. Factors that hinder investment processes and the reasons for their manifestation have been identified. The tendencies in realization of capital investments in the fixed capital of agriculture which have positive dynamics are defined, however, their insignificant reduction in 2019 was observed. The structure of sources of financing the activities of agricultural enterprises in 2019 is determined: own funds – 71.1%, loans – 14.1%, foreign investments – 14.4%, state budget funds – only 0.4% and highlights the obstacles to the formation of external and internal sources of investment. According to the results of the survey, the directions of investment activity of agricultural enterprises, restraining factors, and financial opportunities in the implementation of investment projects are determined. It is established that today, 52.7% of enterprises did not make investments that would be environmentally friendly, and only 28.2% invested in the development of social infrastructure and human capital. The main measures to intensify investment activities of agricultural enterprises are substantiated, which include: formation of elements of investment infrastructure in the region, improvement of depreciation policy at enterprises, development of public-private partnership, introduction of state programs for rural development, improvement of agricultural land lease and others.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Development Status in EU Biofuels Market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper provides development status in the EU biofuel market by giving a comprehensive picture of production, consumption and production capacity of the first generation biofuels – biodiesel and bioethanol, while giving also insights into issues related to biofuel feedstocks such as crop production and harvested area. Development of crop production and harvested area for the crop products, used as a feedstock in the production of biofuels, have shown the changes in agriculture due to the growing trend of the biofuel sector. Additionally, the increasing production and consumption of biofuels may also affect the prices of agricultural commodities used as a feedstock for bioenergy production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1