rss_2.0Technical Transactions FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Technical Transactionshttps://sciendo.com/journal/TECHTRANShttps://www.sciendo.comTechnical Transactions 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/600861ddf9eaaf7ec46fecab/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210614T113800Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210614%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=a68f7a42542c38656621caf905c9e32a050fb2256b409c98f2e8ca20e462c788200300A Short Historical Overview of Wind Characteristics and Wind Pressure for Design in Romaniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.109.11033<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper provides an overview of wind observations in Romania with historical data, particularly after the establishment of the national meteorological network in 1884. Data on wind directions and velocities is presented, focusing on a sample of fourteen cities including the capital Bucharest. The historical evolution of national zonation maps for wind pressure is shown. A statistical description of the maximum annual wind velocity data is also presented.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Issue of Integration of Elevated Transport Routes in the Areas of Historic Polish Cities. Example of the Modernization of a Cross-City Railway Line in the Śródmieście District of Krakówhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.106.11030<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the article includes presentation and interdisciplinary analysis of design solutions proposed in the works awarded in the international urban architecture competition entitled “New life between flyovers” and concerning the area around the cross-city railway line, currently under modernization, running through the Śródmieście district in Kraków, from the area of Miodowa Street to the PKP Kraków Główny station. In the applications, possible scenarios of flyovers space development and the possibilities of integrating the transport route into the historic district have been assessed, taking into account historical urban relations and contemporary technical conditions. The analyses were aimed at optimising future investments so that they can become a starting point for public consultations, drafting a land development plan and determination of the development strategy for the studied area. The applied method may be helpful in determining the directions of a spatial policy aimed at the protection of cultural landscape endangered by overground transport routes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Urban Sozology Assumption in the Planning of Housing Areashttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.105.11029<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sozology is a newly discovered direction in urban planning stem from the growing threats to the natural environment. A contemporary man pursues close and positive relations with the environment and focuses on the premises of human ecology that directly impact the process of planning and composing urban spaces. The article presents the influence of climatic conditions on the shaping of housing areas. The problem was presented on the basis of an analysis of a specific example. The assessment included the shading of the buildings by neighbouring buildings, the shading of the common spaces and the issue of ventilation. These phenomena connected with the structure of the buildings, their scale and intensity have a significant impact on the conditions of the residence. Other factors also affect the housing environment. Their rational use with the help of teams of experts from complementary fields can contribute to raising the standards of the housing environment even at the planning stage, and later to optimising land use by the community of its inhabitants.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Design and Analysis of a Monolithic Gripper Mechanism for Microscopic Testshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.111.11035<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper presents the design and results of mechanism research. A lever mechanism for a gripper was made using monolith technology with constrictions in which the deformations correspond to limited rotation of the links. Unidirectional movement of the drive link is reduced and simultaneously converted into movement of the jaw clamp. Temporary centres of rotation were used to obtain the symmetrical and perpendicular movement of the two ends of the clamp in relation to its axis of symmetry. Computer simulations and tests were performed on a prototype of the gripper mechanism, confirming the adopted predictions of the device’s operation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Multi-Family Residential Development in the Landscape of the Small Cityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.108.11032<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The small city is a relatively well examined and widely described subject in literature. Usually, the urban structure of the small city is considered in relation to its original and historical spatial layout with juxtaposition of all subsequent developments in relation to the historical core of given settlement. The article attempts to identify various systems of urban structures in which one of the elements is a group or a single multi-family residential building, examine internal and external scenic relations and determine their impact on the landscape of the small city.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Architectural Transformation of the Von Wentzky Family’s Baroque Palace at Rychnów near Namysłówhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.107.11031<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper presents the results of research work that has been performed on the von Wentzky family’s palace at Rychnów. Firstly, the architecture of the palace is discussed and written sources concerning the village and the von Wentzky family are reviewed. Based on the architectural studies and the analysis of the details, the most important phases of the place’s transformation were defined. The recognition of the wall construction chronology contributed to the identification of two construction and transformation stages. The original Baroque palace, with its modest architecture was erected on a classic three crosswise-section plan by Ernst Fryderyk von Wenzky in 1781. The building had survived without major changes up until the beginning of the twentieth century, when it was transformed in the years 1906–1907. An extension was added to the west elevation as were a loggia and a porch on the avant-corpses. The research work enabled the author to identify the reach of the palace’s Baroque foundations, and it formed the grounds for generating recommendations to conservators concerning repairs and restoration work.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00“As Masterly as Very Few Others are…” – The Polish Gardens of Peter Joseph Lenné. An Example of Polish-German Study into the History and Maintenance of Historical Gardenhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.104.11028<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In 2016, on the sesquicentennial anniversary of the death of Peter Joseph Lenné, an exhibition, entitled <italic>“Mistrzowskie jak rzadko które…”. Ogrody Petera Josepha Lenné w Polsce</italic>, was presented. It constituted the conclusion of a joint Polish and German academic project. As a part of the research project, a comprehensive review of garden and park layouts was performed and the degree to which Lenné himself and his associates had been involved in the design of the gardens was verified. It was also determined whether the projects had been carried out in accordance with the original assumptions of their authors. The projects were assessed on the basis of surviving garden plans and drawings from the collection of the Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten (SPSG), as well as data obtained during a query of archival materials and field studies carried out in the years 2014–2015.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Threats of Flooding of Selected Mining Areas – Repair Measureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.110.11034<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Terrain surface subsidence observed in mining areas results in the flattening of riverbeds and their embankments. This leads to increasingly deep erosion and siltation of riverbeds and surface currents, which causes the emergence of permanent overflow lands. This paper presents hydro – engineering solutions applied in the areas of the mining activity of JSW S.A., which serve the purpose of repairing and eliminating mining damage in the existing infrastructure. The presented repair measures make it possible to eliminate the threat of flooding in mining areas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The Problems of Small Towns in Ukraine and Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737xct.19.103.11027<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The development of particular towns is a factor that determines the economical, social and spatial development of the country. Therefore we turn our attention to it with a critical eye. On 20<sup>th</sup> October 2015 the government in Poland accepted a bill connected with the Country Town Policy 2023, that is addressed to towns. Its main point is to strengthen towns in their sustainable development, betterment of standards of living and workplace creation. The socio-economical transformation that occurred in Poland in 1989 has caused a lot of changes in the country. In Ukraine it happened in 1991 and it appears that due to various reasons, its transformation seems to be a much longer process and the process has not finished yet. This article focuses on the development of small towns in Ukraine and Poland, which, in currently difficult times, find themselves in a hard and unstable socio-economic situation. This article analyzes the economic, demographic and spatial aspects of small towns in Ukraine and Poland.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Multiple-use performing arts hallshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.112.11328<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Performing arts halls are increasingly becoming multi-purpose halls. Purpose-built venues that serve purely as concert halls or opera houses are rather rare today. Multi-purpose halls, conversely, can be used for different types of stage presentations inside a single building, under one roof with proportionally lower costs; furthermore, they can also be used for activities which are not related to the performing arts. The paper discusses functional and spatial adaptability and flexibility in multiple-use halls, and presents possible forms and arrangements of the stage and the auditorium as well as their spatial interrelations. Attention is focused upon acoustics and their impact on the functioning of multi-purpose performance spaces. The paper also presents multi-use and multi-format facilities. The author attempts to determine the best possible conditions for various types of theatre arrangement.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The equivalent mortar volume method in the manufacturing of recycled aggregate concretehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.119.11335<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Many studies have observed that the mechanical properties of concrete made of recycled aggregate are worse than for concrete made of natural aggregate; this is mainly due to the mortar that is attached to the recycled aggregate. In literature, an equivalent mortar volume method in the manufacturing of recycled aggregate concrete has been proposed. This method treats the attached mortar as new mortar. The application of this method can reduce the use of natural materials while maintaining mechanical properties and eliminate the additional processes required for the production of recycled aggregates. The aim of this paper is to briefly describe the recent application of this method, present gaps in current research and anticipated directions for further research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The assessment of spatial changes in the size of the spa park in the Inowrocław spa town since the 19 centuryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.117.11333<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study was to document spatial changes in the size of the Spa Park in Inowrocław from the 19th century onwards based on archival maps as well as field research and observations of the current status. Towns providing a highly specialised health resort and spa services, such as Inowrocław, need large expanses of green areas as public spaces for outdoor therapy for spa town visitors and patients. In Inowrocław, this may not be limited only to the surroundings of the greatest asset of this spa town - its graduation towers. The fascinating history of the area and planning decisions concerning green areas over the years have brought many benefits to the town, which also extend outside the scope of health resort services. This article presents the multi-faceted changes and transformations of this area along with the plans and intended uses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The architecture of the town wall gates and towers in Bystrzyca Kłodzka between the fourteenth and twentieth centurieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.115.11331<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The results of research into two city gates, Kłodzka and Wodna (Water), and into the Rycerska (Knight’s) Tower in Bystrzyca Kłodzka are discussed in this paper. The research into the architecture of the three structures helped review the chronology of transformations they were subjected to between the beginning of the fourteenth century and the second half of the twentieth century. The city walls, together with the two gates and the tower, were probably erected by Alderman Jakub Rücker in the first half of the fourteenth century. All the towers were probably raised and converted in the fifteenth century and in around 1568, they were topped with masonry pyramid cupolas. The work performed in the nineteenth century was aimed at restoring the damaged elements and at introducing bells to the Rycerska (Knight’s) Tower. The conservation work conducted in the years 2013–2017 resulted in the restoration of the damaged details and in the enhancement of all of the structures’ features of historical value.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Jordanów – the town’s genesis, urban layout and heritage protection. Initial remarkshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.114.11330<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article discusses the history of the spatial development of the town of Jordanów, as well as the cultural heritage sites located inside the territory of this urban centre. Jordanów, currently located within the administrative area of the Lesser Poland Voivodship, in the district of Sucha, was founded as a private town in 1564 and issued a charter by the Krakow Voivod Spytek Jordan of Zakliczyn. The urban centre is an example of a town which was founded in cruda radice–i.e. on previously undepeveloped land–during the early modern period but whose model bears a similarity to traditional urban forms used in previous centuries.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The second life of a shooting range – the conservation and adaptation of the historic shooting range at Wola Justowska in Krakow for its new functionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.116.11332<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents the problem of the maintenance and adaptation of a historic shooting pavilion for new premises of the Museum of Photography in Krakow. The wooden pavilion used to be a part of the military shooting range development in Wola Justowska, established for the Austrian army in the 1880s. The adaptation of the pavilion for new functions has primarily enabled the protection of this historic and derelict building, which was entered into the Register of Historical Monuments in 1993. Conservation works have restored the shooting pavilion to it former splendour; there is also an effective display of preserved architectual elements, although these vary in their technical condition.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Churches from former factories – conversions and controversieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.118.11334<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper focuses on architectural transformations of some post-industrial objects into sacral functions. The discussed works mainly relate to churches, chapels and parish houses of various Christian denominations, mainly Protestant. Such transformations provoke questions about the limits of acceptance for adaptation works in the context of objects associated with a religious cult. The doubts that arise are connected primarily with the theological-liturgical dimension, that means the interpretation of the sacrum space. As far as conservation work is concerned, the analysed examples confirm the thesis of high architectural potential inherent in post-industrial objects. They also show a wide spectrum of possible interferences in a given structure during the conversion process.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00The cultural landscape of Nowy Wiśnicz – a study of visual exposure as a basis for the development and management of the surroundings of the castle hillhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.4467/2353737XCT.19.113.11329<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The landscape of Nowy Wiśnicz is a unique example of the preservation of Baroque cultural landscape. Changes in the manner in which the castle surroundings are used and a lack of care resulted in overgrown greenery which then began to interfere with precious spatial relations. The landscape currently requires intervention. Conservation has been protecting the site against investment plans. However, it must be integrated with active protection in the form of caring for the vast area in order to preserve the spatial meaning of the entire complex. A study of the exposure of the castle hill indicated further actions that are required for the landscape framework. With use of contemporary methods of a visual analysis, the main exposure links were identified. Two options of specific guidelines for land cover were then defined. These were considered with regard to the current state and then against the future state in the case of no intervention. These guidelines constitute the basis for further steps for the development and management of the surroundings of the castle hill.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00An evaluation of machine learning and latent semantic analysis in text sentiment classificationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.37705/TechTrans/e2020030<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper, we compare the following machine learning methods as classifiers for sentiment analysis: k – nearest neighbours (kNN), artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), random forest. We used a dataset containing 5,000 movie reviews in which 2,500 were marked as positive and 2,500 as negative. We chose 5,189 words which have an influence on sentence sentiment. The dataset was prepared using a term document matrix (TDM) and classical multidimensional scaling (MDS). This is the first time that TDM and MDS have been used to choose the characteristics of text in sentiment analysis. In this case, we decided to examine different indicators of the specific classifier, such as kernel type for SVM and neighbour count in kNN. All calculations were performed in the R language, in the program R Studio v 3.5.2. Our work can be reproduced because all of our data sets and source code are public.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00The selective treatment of municipal waste – a challenge for the architecthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.37705/TechTrans/e2020023<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Contemporary civilisation has an obsession for consuming more and more goods. This, combined with the packaging habbits of suppliers, results in the emergence of increasingly large amounts of waste in Poland. The collection, selection and utilisation of this waste are becoming more and more significant, expensive and logistically complicated problems. In Poland, municipal utilities enterprises are responsible for solving these problems. However, as the space occupied by the collection, storage and disposal of waste is becoming larger, architects and urban planners should also consider being involved in providing solutions. This article presents figures and legal regulations related to the subject of municipal waste management in Poland. They are correlated with the methods of selective waste collection in Polish housing estates. Scientific research that was performed in housing estates is also presented; this research was aimed at checking the quality of existing urban and architectural solutions for municipal waste collection points. The article moves on to present good practices – examples of beneficial solutions for selective waste collection in selected European countries, such as Sweden and Italy. In order to carry out preliminary analyses of how to solve the functional and aesthetic issues related to housing waste collection points as part of the didactic classes at the Faculty of Architecture, of SUT, research exercises were conducted on the subject of developing a concept for new containers in a housing estate. Based on the received work (65 drawings) elements can be noticed that students most often paid attention to. Based on the conducted research and analysis, conclusions were reached regarding the methods of aestheticisation of district selective waste collection points and fundamental problems related to their design.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00An Explanation of the Landauer bound and its ineffectiveness with regard to multivalued logichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.37705/TechTrans/e2020042<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We discuss, using recent results on the thermodynamics of multivalued logic, the difficulties and pitfalls of how to apply the Landauer’s principle to thermodynamic computer memory models. The presentation is based on Szilard’s version of Maxwell’s demon experiment and use of equilibrium Thermodynamics. Different versions of thermodynamic/mechanical memory are presented – a one-hot encoding version and an implementation based on a reversed Szilard’s experiment. The relationship of the Landauer’s principle to the Galois connection is explained in detail.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1