rss_2.0Studia Anglica Posnaniensia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Anglica Posnaniensia Anglica Posnaniensia 's Cover Article of Children’s Speech in Frank Schaeffer’s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The theme of the article is a research into the issue of translation of children’s speech. The analysis will be conducted based on three excerpts from a novel – <italic>Portofino</italic> – written by a contemporary American writer Frank Schaeffer and translated into Polish by the author of the article, early in her career as a translator. First, the results of text typology investigation by Anna Trosborg (1997b), Paul Kussmaul (1995, 1997) and Christiane Nord (2018) regarding cognitive structuring, text structures, and general style conventions will be highlighted. Then the outcomes of the translation process research (TPR) on cohesive aspects and structuring by Michael Carl, Srinivas Bangalore &amp; Moritz Schaeffer (2016) will be summarised. This will be followed by the discussion of findings of Paul Thompson &amp; Alison Sealey (2007), Gillian Lathey (2011), and Anna Čermáková (2018) regarding the issue of repetition and the aspects of point of view. Subsequently, the notion of style in a work of fiction will be introduced and followed by the description of stylistic and linguistic means used to achieve it. This will include the discussion of speech and thought presentation (STP) scales proposed first by Geoffrey Leech &amp; Mick Short (2007) and then developed by Mick Short in cooperation with Elena Semino (2004). Next, the stylistic features of children’s speech and its linguistic exponents will be outlined. The translation analysis will focus on stylistic and linguistic devices used by the author to imitate children’s speech in the source text and their rendering by the translator in the target text. The achieved effect and translation equivalence will be evaluated, possible reasons behind any loss in meaning will become identified and some final recommendations for translators will get defined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00John Lydgate’s and Fifteenth-Century Emotions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article argues that John Lydgate’s <italic>Guy of Warwick</italic> is an innovative version of the Guy of Warwick legend as it emphasizes the feelings of its characters. Furthermore, it also openly intends to evoke emotions in its audience. The poem requires to be read in light of the newly emerged field of the history of medieval emotions since the social context of Lydgate’s <italic>Guy</italic> is more visible from this perspective. The poem offers an admixture of religious and secular feelings. As a result, the final scenes of bidding farewell to Guy by Felice and by the community have to be seen as related both to Guy as a hero and as a saint.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Developing Intercultural Identity on a Sojourn Abroad: A Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article reports on a longitudinal case study and gives first-hand accounts of the lived experiences of five Erasmus+ students from Turkey during their sojourn at a university in Poland and its impact on the students’ individual identities. The research aimed to investigate students’ learning experience at the host institution and intercultural adaptation, focusing on the transformative outcomes that the sojourn brought about in them. The framework used as a theoretical basis for the study was Kim’s integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. The theory claims that cultural adjustment is a function of an individual’s development of social and personal communication competence in their respective environments. As a result of frequent meaningful interactions with cultural others, through meeting and overcoming multiple intercultural challenges, people are likely to develop intercultural personhood, going through three consecutive stages, i.e., stress-adaptation-growth (Kim 2008). The study outcomes show sojourning abroad as a rather positively valenced experience, contributing to participants’ gaining knowledge about diverse cultures, the skills to cope with diversity and an increased willingness to interact with people from different ethnic backgrounds. The data revealed that the participants underwent, to a moderate degree, a cultural identity shift toward becoming more mindful, open-minded, self-other oriented, and inclusive toward diversity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00‘A Dismal Howling’: Formulaic Density and the Gothic Tableau<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Scant attention has been paid by critics to the formulaic diction that pervades the Gothic genre. This article continues an extended experiment aiming to analyse formulaicity in one of the less-known Gothic novels. Peter Teuthold’s 1794 <italic>The Necromancer</italic> exhibits massive co-occurrence: textual units (lexemes, sounds, and both phrase and clause formations) regularly gravitate around other textual units, effectively clustering into <italic>fields</italic>. A field is defined as an open paradigm of items related by functional equivalence; the novel handles its components not as independent units but only in accordance with a ‘fielding’ principle, that is, only as paradigmatic elements which can be exchanged for or combined with other elements.</p> <p>Previous work has established a distinction between the <italic>formula</italic> properly so called and the <italic>formulaic pattern</italic>, defined as a construct that attracts lexical, phonological, syntactic, and connotative fields into its orbit. The article argues that ‘fielding’ operates on at least one ‘higher’ level, the level where formulaic patterns combine to shape a charged moment in the narrative – a <italic>tableau</italic>. After selecting a fragment of text and illustrating the structure of a single formulaic pattern, the article isolates each phrase or clause segment in the fragment, outlines the pattern it belongs in, and shows that over seventy-five per cent of its textual matter is demonstrably formulaic. Analysis of several other excerpts suggests that formulaic density is not homogeneous but decreases or rises at different points in the novel. A rationale for high-density segments is then sought in the <italic>ritualising</italic> nature of the tableau itself.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Review and Theatricality in : The Rewriting of the Shakespearean Classic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the rewriting of <italic>King Lear</italic>, the Shakespearean classic, as it appears in Ivan Turgenev’s novella <italic>King Lear of the Steppes,</italic> published in 1870. In order to study this case of appropriation in Russian literature, which was received with skepticism by many of his contemporaries and forgotten for a long time, the focus is placed on two fundamental aspects: characterisation and theatricality. These two features connect Turgenev’s work with the source text and exemplify how adaptation and appropriation function within target cultural systems. Far from being a mere literary experiment, the appropriation of some of Shakespeare’s characters in Turgenev’s works and their use as literary archetypes was based on ideological reasons that would influence the evolution of nineteenth-century Russian thought. The present research highlights the importance of processes of rewriting, such as adaptation and appropriation, for the development of target cultural systems and, in order to do so, the perspective of adaptation studies is adopted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Review Stress Disorder in<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Tom Perrotta’s novel, <italic>The Leftovers</italic> (2011), and the TV series (2014–2017) based on the novel, 2% (140 million) of the world’s population vanish into thin air. The event constitutes a temporal rift that divides history into Before and After and inaugurates a new mode of temporality, marked by a break with a clock-time-based economy and a yearning for the ultimate end. This new mode of temporality is accompanied by the shattering of the individual sense of being-in-time. The essay focuses on the altered experience of time both on individual and collective levels, a condition that constitutes a kind of post-apocalyptic stress disorder. The characters’ reactions to the traumatic experience demonstrate that the inexplicability of the apocalyptic event and duration without closure are psychologically intolerable. As closure is impossible, they cannot work through the trauma, remaining trapped in the past event and the present anticipation of the ultimate annihilation while the future horizon becomes obliterated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00“Houses. Cats. Cars. Trees. Me”: Outward and Inward Journeys in Joe Brainard’s Collage Travelogues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article examines two brief travelogues by the American writer and visual artist Joe Brainard (1942–1994) as formally unique fusions of the travel journal and literary collage, in which the experience of travel becomes a catalyst for introspection. “Wednesday, July 7<sup>th</sup>, 1971 (A Greyhound Bus Trip)” is a record of a bus journey that Brainard made in the summer of 1971, from the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York City to Montpelier, Vermont, while “Washington D.C. Journal 1972” is a diary of a three-day car trip to the capital, taken with Brainard’s oldest friend (and future biographer), the New York School poet Ron Padgett and his wife and son. In both texts, a description of the particulars of the trip is combined with meditation about the author’s life and career. After introducing the structure of the travelogues, the article demonstrates their formal indebtedness to literary collage, which relies on fragmentation, heterogeneity, parataxis, and the use of appropriated content. What follows is an analysis of the texts’ oscillation between an account of external stimuli and a record of Brainard’s train of thought. It is argued that, gradually, the inward journey becomes more important than the outward, leading the author towards pushing the boundaries of his candour (in “Wednesday”) and towards an artistic self-assessment (in “Washington”). The article interprets those works as a manifestation of twentieth-century travel writing’s turn towards self-reflectiveness and concludes by considering the relationship between fragmentary, collage-like form and introspective content in the texts at hand, as well as in Brainard’s entire artistic output.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00In Memory of the Late Professor Jacek Fisiak, 1936–2019 Imagery in the Old English and its Hermeneutics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present article offers a critical reading of the Old English <italic>Exodus,</italic> a poem that is an Old English versified adaptation of an episode from the biblical story of Exodus that narrates Israelites’ passage across the Red Sea and the destruction of Pharaoh’s army. The aim of this article is to analyse the poem’s urban and exilic imagery that strongly relies on the metaphorical representation of the Israelites as a city, as they are actually in exile and on the way to Canaan, and of the metaphorical representation of the walls of the Red Sea as the walls of a hall that is destroyed along with the Egyptian army. The argument of the present article is that in <italic>Exodus</italic> the poet uses the imagery of a hall and exile, derived from heroic and secular verse, as a hermeneutic key to read the biblical exodus typologically, tropologically, and anagogically. The metaphor of the key that opens the Scripture, which the poet uses in <italic>Exodus,</italic> encourages the reader to unveil the hidden meaning of the narrative. The poet inverts the conventional imagery of the hall and exile in the poem to emphasise narrative moments that require the reader to explore the letter of the poem for additional layers or signification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Lexical Borrowing in the Light of Digital Resources: as a Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The mere appearance of a foreign word does not necessarily mark the birth of a loanword, which requires documented usage by the speech community. Relatively little research has been dedicated so far to the “prenatal” stage that would investigate the tentative infiltration of foreign-derived words. <italic>Nyet</italic>, a borrowing from Russian, is taken as a case in point. Although its first recorded instance in the <italic>Oxford English Dictionary</italic> (OED3) is dated to 1928, it had been increasingly recognized in English for several decades. This article focuses on textual attestations for <italic>nyet</italic> discovered in a range of digital resources, including British and American newspaper archives, and discusses their usefulness as potential antedatings for OED3’s entry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Discourse Markers in Peer Reviews of Academic Essays By Future Teachers of English as a Foreign Language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents and discusses a quantitative investigation of discourse markers (further – DMs) in the corpus of peer reviews of academic essays in didactics written by a group of future teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). In total, 12 future EFL teachers at an intermediate level of EFL proficiency (henceforth – participants) took part in the study. The participants were instructed to form dyads and write peer reviews of each other’s academic essays on a range of topics in EFL didactics. Two corpora were used in the study, the corpus of the participants’ academic essays in EFL didactics and the corpus of peer reviews thereof. The corpora were analysed using WordSmith (Scott 2008) in order to establish the frequencies of the use of DMs per 1000 words. The results of the quantitative analysis of the corpora indicated that the participants employed a repertoire of stylistically neutral DMs in their peer reviews that was quantitatively similar to that of the academic essays. These findings will be further discussed in the article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Ælfric’s Expressions for Shame and Guilt: A Study in Intra-Writer Conceptual Variation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research focuses on the analysis of onomasiological variation in Old English texts written by Ælfric; more specifically, I am interested in the study of the different motifs that shape the linguistic expressions of shame and guilt used by this Anglo-Saxon monk across different textual genres. Through the fine-grained analysis of the whole set of shame and guilt expressions recorded in the entire corpus of Ælfrician texts, a network of literal and figurative conceptualizations for each emotion is proposed here. Based on this network, I have reconstructed and analysed patterns of conceptual variation in Ælfric’s English in order to show the existing tension between literal, metonymic and metaphoric expressions for these two emotions. As shall be seen here, the introduction in Anglo-Saxon England of Augustinian psychology by Ælfric and other highly educated authors favoured (i) the progressive neglect of the Germanic concept of shame and guilt as instruments of social control, (ii) the dissemination of new shame-related values, and (iii) the growing use of a new set of embodied conceptualizations for the two emotions under scrutiny here, most of which have become common figurative expressions of shame and guilt in later varieties of English. The new expressions (e.g., SHAME IS SOMETHING COVERING A PERSON, GUILT IS A BURDEN) illustrate the shift towards a progressive embodiment of the new emotional standards brought by Christianization. According to these standards, rather than an external judgment or reproach, shame and guilt involve a negative evaluation of oneself.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00‘Alimentary Assemblages’ at Intersections: Food, (Queer) Bodies, and Intersectionality in Marusya Bociurkiw’s (2007)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Clearly devoted to the analysis of various issues of belonging, the work of Marusya Bociurkiw, a Ukrainian-Canadian queer writer, director, academic, and activist, examines culture, memory, history, and subjectivity in a fascinatingly unique way. Such a thematic composition is, however, not the only aspect that visibly marks and unities Bociurkiw’s multi-generic oeuvre; what clearly stands out as yet another distinguishing characteristic that Bociurkiw’s works have in common is the idea that seems to stand behind their creation – an impelling notion that “[t]o have one’s belonging lodged in a metaphor is voluptuous intrigue” (Brand 2001: 18). Consequently, what Bociurkiw’s works vividly portray is the writing-self “in search of its most resonant metaphor” (Brand 2001: 19). In one of her works, <italic>Comfort Food for Breakups: The Memoir of a Hungry Girl</italic> (2007), this metaphor is food as the art of food-making and the act of eating become here a crucial background against which the issues of belonging are played out. The aim of this article is thus to show how Bociurkiw finds her way of discussing various aspects of subjectivity by means of writing about food, whether about preparing it, tasting it, or recollecting its preparation and tastes. Ultimately, however, the article is to prove that food in Bociurkiw’s memoir not only reflects identity but is presented as a vital site of intersectionality. Thus, embedded in intersectionality discourse, and particularly instructed by Vivian May’s <italic>Pursuing Intersectionality, Unsettling Dominant Imaginaries</italic> (2015), the analysis of <italic>Comfort Food for Breakups</italic> is carried out from an interdisciplinary perspective because it is simultaneously grounded in food studies theory, i.e., the ideas developed by Elspeth Probyn in <italic>Carnal Appetites: FoodSexIdentities</italic> (2000), confirming, in this way, that vital connections can and should be made between the two, ostensibly unrelated, fields of study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Quo Vadis Polish-Canadian Writing? Reflections on Home, Language, Writing, and Memory in Recent Texts By Canadian Writers of Polish Origins<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to look at the recent publications by writers of Polish extraction living in Canada and writing in English in order to examine these texts in the context of their treatment of the concept of home, attitude to mother tongue and the usage of English, as well as the authors’ involvement in shaping the Canadian literary scene. The analysis will concentrate on selected texts published after 2014 to delineate the latest tendencies in Polish-Canadian writing. The discussion will include life writing genres such as memoirs, short stories, and novels. Since these writers have undertaken themes of (up)rootedness, identity, and memory and they have touched upon the creative redefinition of the figure of home, these aspects will also be examined from a theoretical perspective in the introductory part of the article. Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek through his concept of “in-between peripherality” (2010: 87) proposes to view Central and Eastern European literature as both peripheral and in-between its “own national cultural self-referentiality and the cultural influence and primacy of the major Western cultures” (2010: 87). Moreover, as diasporic studies are inspired by the search for transcultural, dynamic exchanges and hybridity (Agnew 2005), the analysis will also include discussions on hybridity understood as a transgression of borders, both literary and genealogical as well as thematic. That is why, the classic notion of hybridity known widely in postcolonial studies, is here understood, according to Moslund (2010), as having horizontal and vertical orientations, where the former designates transgression of borders and space and the latter is connected to the movement across time. This approach is particularly interesting in the context of Polish-Canadian migrant and diasporic literature as, according to Pieterse (2001), hybridity understood as movement and translocation can offer new perspectives on migrant literatures in multi-and transcultural worlds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-13T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1