rss_2.0Studia Historiae Oeconomicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Historiae Oeconomicae Historiae Oeconomicae 's Cover’s Employment Support Activities By Labor Offices Under the “AZ” Program in Years 1947-1950<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with mechanisms used for reducing unemployment among women in Poland after the World War II, the so-called “women productivisation.” I discussed women’s attitude to employment and the state’s standpoint as far as the problem of women’s unemployment is concerned, and analyzed women’s unemployment figures in the introductory part. Employment policy in the early days of the Polish People’s Republic was a combination of many factors, among which the most important were ideology, pre-war tradition, and war-related experiences. Women found employment in the industry since the beginning of industrialization of the Polish lands in 19th century. In the interwar period and the early days of the Polish People’s Republic, employment increased mainly out of economic reasons (necessity to support family and oneself). It was in keeping with the Marxist ideology in place after the World War II. The “new woman” was to be free from capitalist exploitation and on par with a man in terms of professional career. The role model of the woman was in particular a female-worker employed in industry. After the war, in 1940s, the number of women registered at labor offices was rising. According to labor offices’ figures, the number of job offers for women was insufficient or these were unattractive. Hence, the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (Ministerstwo Pracy i Opieki Społecznej) conceived the idea of developing short-term training for women and employing them in the cottage industry - action “AZ”. It lasted from 1947 to 1950; it was evolved due to changing regulations. Undoubtedly, the action “AZ” contributed to the development of “female” cooperatives, but with time it was considered as ineffective and its scope was limited. My fundamental goal was to discuss the ‘AZ’ program, including its course, scope, and scale, as well as its evaluation. The subject matter in question has not been discussed in detail to date but only briefly addressed in the literature listed below.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Content in the Narratives of Władysław I the Elbow-High’s Diplomas – Clichéd Form Records or a Symptom of Awareness of the Medieval Ruler?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes the economic content that appeared in the narratives of Władysław I the Elbow-high’s documents. References to the economic sphere occurring there were divided into two types. The first one contained information on the economic condition of an area, first and foremost about the destruction or war devastation that hit a given region or town. The second type justified ruler’s decisions, a desire to reform or to increase the benefits of the monarchy and his subjects. On the basis of the data obtained, an attempt was made to comment on the economic awareness of the ruler.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00British Land Policies in the Gold Coast and Her Relations with Asante<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Colonization successfully advanced various reforms in Africa that affected several practices on the continent. The various customs that have been affected include the land tenure system of British colonies in particular. An abundance of laws and policies were adopted with the sole aim of conserving the environment. These policies often clashed with indigenous interests and witnessed counter attacks as a result. Despite this, there is little information in the literature concerning how British land policies shaped their relations with the indigenous people, particularly the Asante. Based on a qualitative research approach, the current study uses Asante as a focal point of discourse in order to historically trace British land policies and how they, the British engaged with the people of Asante. From the discourse, it should be established that the colonial administration passed ordinances to mobilize revenue and not necessarily for the protection of the environment. In addition, the findings indicated that the boom in cash crops, such as cocoa and rubber, prompted Britain to reform the land tenure system. With the land policies, individuals and private organizations could acquire lands from local authorities for the cultivation of cash crops. We conclude that the quest to control land distribution caused the British to further annex Asante.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Between Progress and Backwardness. A Look at the Housing Policy of the Period of the People’s Republic of Poland from the Social and Economic Perspective After 1989<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article deals with the issue of the place, role and significance of the achievements of the housing policy of the Polish People’s Republic (PRL) and in the economy before and after 1989, observed from the contemporary social and economic point of view. In the period of systemic transformation, expert and opinion-makers were, in majority, critical of the achievements of the housing policy of the prior period. This led to the creation and subsequent consolidation in public discourse of the negative image of the housing construction of the PRL period. 30 years after the collapse of communism, during which time the free market economy developed and Poland became a member of EU, this topic requires a more objective look and a more focused approach to the range of socio-demographic and economic changes that took place during that period. The current perception of the problem is also influenced by the lack of solutions to the housing issue by successive governments of the Third Republic of Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Migration Policy in the Area of Border Control and Migration of the Population in OECD Countries –Theoretical and Practical Aspects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to present the phenomenon of population migration and migration policy as part of the state’s economic policy based on the example of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, with particular emphasis on the area of migration policy, which is border control and related illegal migration. The temporal scope of the empirical analysis covers the period 1990-2016. The article consists of four main parts. The discussion began with a presentation of the balance of migration, the scale and dynamics of population immigration in OECD countries. Furthermore, the significance, areas and process of shaping migration policy as a part of the economic policy of the country are presented. Then, it focused on the migration policy in the area of border control in OECD countries. The discussion was crowned with the conclusions that followed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Policy from the Perspective of Contemporary Challenges in Economic History – Hopes, Concerns and Dilemmas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article, written on the basis of a critical review of the latest Polish and foreign-language literature, materials from websites and the author’s experience gained from previous research, is treated as a voice in the discussion on new challenges and the need for historical research on economic policy in its various dimensions and contexts, and on the possibilities in this field. The premises which determined the title, nature and scope of the study were highlighted in the introduction. The following three parts attempt to answer the following questions in sub-headings: why is the turn to the problems of economic policy particularly desirable now? What premises justify and enable intensification of historical research on economic policy problems? How to study the past of economic policy to participate in managing the present and creating the future?</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Congresses of Mining Industrialists of the South of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland as a form of Representing Entrepreneur’s Interests (End of the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes the process of creating and functioning of two representative organizations of entrepreneurs – the Congress of Mining Industrialists of the South of Russia (1874, Kharkiv) and the Congress of Mining Industrialists of the Kingdom of Poland (1882, Warsaw). Both institutions were a form of activity of the regional economic elites and represented their socio-economic interests. After a comparative analysis of associations of mining industrialists in Ukrainian and Polish territories, the article highlights common features, their structure, forms of activity and representative powers. Based on the research, it was found that, despite strict government control, they played an important role in defending local interests and developing the industry they represent, and the fruitful cooperation of the Miners’ Congresses of the South of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland allowed for the implementation of the agreed and, above all, effective pressure on the state authorities of the Russian Empire.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Agricultural Reform of 1981 and the Competition for Resources Between Peasant Farms and State-Owned Farms in the 1980s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the economy of the Polish People’s Republic in the field of agriculture, the key resources which were a subject of competition included: land; production assets (machines, devices, tools for agricultural production, fertilizers, plant protection chemicals) and people necessary to work on farms and for farms. The command economy of the times of the People’s Republic of Poland was an example of an economy of permanent shortages, which increased in times of crises of the entire system. The collapse of 1979-1982 was such a socio-economic crisis. The Trade Union of Independent Farmers’ “Solidarity”, which was part of the great social protest movement in 1980-1981, forced a change in the communist regime’s approach to the peasantry and, together with other pressure groups, contributed to the implementation of the agricultural reform covering the entire sphere of agriculture and not only its state farm segment. The reform of 1981, initiated by the Rzeszów-Ustrzyki agreements, gradually changed the living situation of farmers and, above all, led to changes in the profitability of agricultural production and the legalization of trade in meat products at marketplaces as well as the release of prices for food products in 1989. Peasant farms won the competition with state-owned farms for capital resources – new production factors, and they expanded their land acreage (land factor). Farmers, however, were losing competition for workers in confrontation with industry and services in cities and state-owned farms, where farm workers could count on very generous social benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in the Exposé of the Prime Ministers: From Tadeusz Mazowiecki to Mateusz Morawiecki<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Prime Minister’s program speech, called the exposé, attracts particular attention. Its essence comes down to presenting the government’s program. In a few key words, the Prime Minister often summarizes the framework proposals of his government in terms of economic policy, social policy, education, health care, the army as well as individual social and professional groups. The words spoken by the Prime Minister, asking for confidence in the government that has just been formed set the direction for the entire Council of Ministers for subsequent years. In this regard, there is a need to examine the economic policy of every Prime Minister in office since 1989 considering entrepreneurs. What offer did the heads of government make to entrepreneurs, what kind of support could this group count on, how were the institutions supporting the economy and political institutions evaluated? The aim of this article is to find answers to the presented problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00100 Years of Poznań Economic History was the Direction of the Reform of the PRL (Polish People’s Republic) Economy in the Eighties?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the 1980s, the communist authorities of Poland, forced by the dire economic and social situation, undertook a number of attempts to reform the centrally managed economy. By deciding on limited liberalization, they simultaneously secured the economic foundations of the government, which was dominated by the public sector. The Polish version of perestroika was, thus, implemented in order to balance the economy. However, like the Soviet model, it was a tactical move, essentially to consolidate the centrally managed economy. The economic hybrid that emerged from the partial reforms, contrary to the intentions of its creators, did not weaken, but rather strengthened deep crisis phenomena. Their inhibition became the main goal of the democratic government formed in 1989 and the radical economic reforms associated with the name of Leszek Balcerowicz. The departure from the reforms of the centrally managed economy and the undertaking of consistent market transformation resulted in measurable economic successes. They were particularly visible against the background of the economy of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, whose authorities had abandoned comprehensive and consistent market reforms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Suburbs, Immigrants and Ethnicity. Autobiographical Novels of Algerian Immigrants in France as an Attempt of Emancipation from Ethnic Discrimination Discourse<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The article applies to three autobiographical novels written in the 1980s and 1990s by citizens of France, second generation Algerian immigrants. The authors of these novels widely relate to their own experience of life in the suburbs of French cities. The protagonists are young people who on the one hand feel French and demand acceptance, and on the other experience acts of discrimination. Moreover, their relationship to traditional Algerian culture is also ambivalent. The place with which they identify themselves is not France, in spite of the citizenship, nor Algeria, in spite of the origin, but their own district, which is a place where they live their everyday life. The author of the article analyzes the chosen novels through the perspective of the republican model of integration which excludes recognition of ethnic origin of the citizens. The article, referring to M. Foucault’s theory of heterotopia, argues that although the novels in question sensitize French readers to the various social questions, they, paradoxically, support the typical thinking of the republican model.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Trade as a Socio-Economic Factor of Town Development. A Dynamic Perspective on the Example of Leszno<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of this study is to determine the current role of trade as a town developing factor. The analysis was made on the example of a middle-size town - Leszno. During only the last few years a lot of have taken place in Leszno concerning the quality and quantity of trade as well as location of it in the town space. This study contains the analysis and assessment of changes in Leszno retail trade in the years 2010-2012. The survey was the basis for the assessment of the town prestige as a subregional trade centre, appraisal of the trade system, the arrangement of trade points in the town, the appeal of the town and its centre as a result of building new shopping malls.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00City as a Potential Source of Stress<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This article will present an analysis of a psychological reaction which may occur in people living in big cities, the so-called urban stress. The paper will concentrate mainly on describing the influence of strong sensory input (e.g. noise and pollution), which is characteristic of a big city, as well as social issues on the cognitive, emotional and behavioural functioning of individuals. What is more, various consequences of the emergence of stress will be discussed. The summary of the article includes conclusions drawn from a review of research and theories.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Housing Demand in the Polish Peoples’ Republic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Although historians and social scientists devoted considerable attention to issues related to housing in the Polish Peoples’ Republic era, many problems still need further research. The crucial problem of the paper is to find an answer to the question: what did Poles have to do in the period between 1944/45 and 1989 in order to obtain housing? The answer given is the effect of several years of primary source research which encompassed archival material of assorted types and origins</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Lay-Out and Spatial Development of Towns from Great Poland in the 13th Century – Preliminary Research<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper deals with the problem of shaping landscape. The examples of towns of Great Poland from the 13th century were implemented and used. Their layout was not accidental. Towns were created with a substantial dose of accuracy. A market square was precisely laid out; roads were turned straight to the nearby towns, and plots were created for townsmen. It tended to be the final product of human thought and idea. The comparison of towns’ sizes shows that the same measures and similar schemes were used. In a medieval town each and every aspect was carefully planned and wellthought- out, but sometimes it was modified due to the terrain. Subsequent generations interpreted landscape on their own and occasionally changed the layout of a town. The contemporary appearance of towns is a product of thought materialisation in the living space. That is why the landscape of towns can be analysed and read.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The Location (And Founding) of a Town of Poznań in Light of the Earliest Documents and Narrative Sources<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper addresses the issue of the origins of the town of Poznań founded in mid-13th century under German law. The birth of the charter town on the left bank of the Warta river is illustrated first and foremost by sources: documents from the mid-13th century, particularly a location charter of 1253, and narrative sources, e.g. The Wielkopolska Chronicle and yearly records written in Wielkopolska. The town was the work of Przemysł I, the duke of Wielkopolska, who sorted out property issues on the left bank of the Warta, made grants and granted privileges, erected his new castle next to the new town, and together with his brother Bolesław issued a location charter in 1253. The duke’s action resulted in the rise of one of the most important urban centers in medieval Poland.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Ethnic Structure of St Petersburg – Petrograd – Leningrad in the Period of 1703-1991<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This article presents a multinational and multireligious character of St. Petersburg since the founding of the city to the collapse of the Soviet Union. An ethnic and cultural mosaic was also an important feature in other centers of Russia, including Moscow and Odessa, as well as forming part of the national capital of the Russian Empire in Warsaw, Riga and Tallinn. St. Petersburg is a city but of a symbolic and unique character. It is the subject of literary impressions and creative inspiration for generations of artists. In addition, St. Petersburg - Petrograd - Leningrad was the capital of a multinational and multireligious Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and since 1918, it was the second most important city of the Soviet Union. The author’s intention is also to present the history of St. Petersburg - Petrograd - Leningrad, as seen through the prism of the history of national minorities living in it.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00New Urbanization of the Steppe. Astana: A Capital Called the Capital<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Relocating the capital of Kazakhstan from Almaty to Akmola (then renamed Astana) in 1997 has been the subject of an intense debate, particularly within media. The process of creating the new capital of Kazakhstan should consider the broader perspective of historical, political and ideological, social, climatic and geographical factors, and finally to put the matter in terms of architecture and urban planning. The author considers this very broad perspective, finally expressing the hope that the project of “the city of the future” analyzed in the article, will become a permanent part of the Kazakh reality.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00To Regulate or to Liberate? Business Development and the Dilemmas of the Authorities Regarding the Shape of Economic Policy in the Years 1989–1995<p> In the history of Poland, it is very clear that the year 1989 is one of the most distinctive turning points - a final break with the political, social, and economic system built in the period of the Polish People’s Republic, and reinstatement of democracy and free market economy upon the will of the nation. The world had never witnessed a transformation process as large as the one that occurred in Poland after the year 1989. Importantly, this transformation could not be programmed. Therefore, economic policy implemented by governments of the time was constantly amended as problems arose. The course of ownership transformation was monitored. It was observed that the so-called Privatization Act of July 13, 1990 lacked regulations concerning environment protection. Freedom to establish truck transport companies resulted with many anomalies, as it enabled, for instance, the use of trucks in poor technical condition. New regulations in insurance law, which lifted mandatory insurance of production assets against damage from natural disasters, meant that many entrepreneurs decided not to have this insurance. Such was the shape of the economic reality in the first years of the transition, between 1989 and 1995. The state did not want to regulate all aspects of economic life. However, as time went by, politicians and MPs received information from the free market, indicating a need for solutions regulating some sectors of the economy. This article discusses the three aspects of economic life mentioned above, and points out how the governmental and parliamentary strategies towards these aspects of economic life changed in the first years of transformation (1989-1995).</p>ARTICLE2018-03-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1