rss_2.0Studia Historiae Oeconomicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Historiae Oeconomicae Historiae Oeconomicae 's Cover Policy from the Perspective of Contemporary Challenges in Economic History – Hopes, Concerns and Dilemmas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article, written on the basis of a critical review of the latest Polish and foreign-language literature, materials from websites and the author’s experience gained from previous research, is treated as a voice in the discussion on new challenges and the need for historical research on economic policy in its various dimensions and contexts, and on the possibilities in this field. The premises which determined the title, nature and scope of the study were highlighted in the introduction. The following three parts attempt to answer the following questions in sub-headings: why is the turn to the problems of economic policy particularly desirable now? What premises justify and enable intensification of historical research on economic policy problems? How to study the past of economic policy to participate in managing the present and creating the future?</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Migration Policy in the Area of Border Control and Migration of the Population in OECD Countries –Theoretical and Practical Aspects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to present the phenomenon of population migration and migration policy as part of the state’s economic policy based on the example of OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, with particular emphasis on the area of migration policy, which is border control and related illegal migration. The temporal scope of the empirical analysis covers the period 1990-2016. The article consists of four main parts. The discussion began with a presentation of the balance of migration, the scale and dynamics of population immigration in OECD countries. Furthermore, the significance, areas and process of shaping migration policy as a part of the economic policy of the country are presented. Then, it focused on the migration policy in the area of border control in OECD countries. The discussion was crowned with the conclusions that followed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00What was the Direction of the Reform of the PRL (Polish People’s Republic) Economy in the Eighties?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the 1980s, the communist authorities of Poland, forced by the dire economic and social situation, undertook a number of attempts to reform the centrally managed economy. By deciding on limited liberalization, they simultaneously secured the economic foundations of the government, which was dominated by the public sector. The Polish version of perestroika was, thus, implemented in order to balance the economy. However, like the Soviet model, it was a tactical move, essentially to consolidate the centrally managed economy. The economic hybrid that emerged from the partial reforms, contrary to the intentions of its creators, did not weaken, but rather strengthened deep crisis phenomena. Their inhibition became the main goal of the democratic government formed in 1989 and the radical economic reforms associated with the name of Leszek Balcerowicz. The departure from the reforms of the centrally managed economy and the undertaking of consistent market transformation resulted in measurable economic successes. They were particularly visible against the background of the economy of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, whose authorities had abandoned comprehensive and consistent market reforms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Women’s Employment Support Activities By Labor Offices Under the “AZ” Program in Years 1947-1950<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with mechanisms used for reducing unemployment among women in Poland after the World War II, the so-called “women productivisation.” I discussed women’s attitude to employment and the state’s standpoint as far as the problem of women’s unemployment is concerned, and analyzed women’s unemployment figures in the introductory part. Employment policy in the early days of the Polish People’s Republic was a combination of many factors, among which the most important were ideology, pre-war tradition, and war-related experiences. Women found employment in the industry since the beginning of industrialization of the Polish lands in 19th century. In the interwar period and the early days of the Polish People’s Republic, employment increased mainly out of economic reasons (necessity to support family and oneself). It was in keeping with the Marxist ideology in place after the World War II. The “new woman” was to be free from capitalist exploitation and on par with a man in terms of professional career. The role model of the woman was in particular a female-worker employed in industry. After the war, in 1940s, the number of women registered at labor offices was rising. According to labor offices’ figures, the number of job offers for women was insufficient or these were unattractive. Hence, the Ministry of Labor and Social Policy (Ministerstwo Pracy i Opieki Społecznej) conceived the idea of developing short-term training for women and employing them in the cottage industry - action “AZ”. It lasted from 1947 to 1950; it was evolved due to changing regulations. Undoubtedly, the action “AZ” contributed to the development of “female” cooperatives, but with time it was considered as ineffective and its scope was limited. My fundamental goal was to discuss the ‘AZ’ program, including its course, scope, and scale, as well as its evaluation. The subject matter in question has not been discussed in detail to date but only briefly addressed in the literature listed below.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Between Progress and Backwardness. A Look at the Housing Policy of the Period of the People’s Republic of Poland from the Social and Economic Perspective After 1989<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article deals with the issue of the place, role and significance of the achievements of the housing policy of the Polish People’s Republic (PRL) and in the economy before and after 1989, observed from the contemporary social and economic point of view. In the period of systemic transformation, expert and opinion-makers were, in majority, critical of the achievements of the housing policy of the prior period. This led to the creation and subsequent consolidation in public discourse of the negative image of the housing construction of the PRL period. 30 years after the collapse of communism, during which time the free market economy developed and Poland became a member of EU, this topic requires a more objective look and a more focused approach to the range of socio-demographic and economic changes that took place during that period. The current perception of the problem is also influenced by the lack of solutions to the housing issue by successive governments of the Third Republic of Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00100 Years of Poznań Economic History Land Policies in the Gold Coast and Her Relations with Asante<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Colonization successfully advanced various reforms in Africa that affected several practices on the continent. The various customs that have been affected include the land tenure system of British colonies in particular. An abundance of laws and policies were adopted with the sole aim of conserving the environment. These policies often clashed with indigenous interests and witnessed counter attacks as a result. Despite this, there is little information in the literature concerning how British land policies shaped their relations with the indigenous people, particularly the Asante. Based on a qualitative research approach, the current study uses Asante as a focal point of discourse in order to historically trace British land policies and how they, the British engaged with the people of Asante. From the discourse, it should be established that the colonial administration passed ordinances to mobilize revenue and not necessarily for the protection of the environment. In addition, the findings indicated that the boom in cash crops, such as cocoa and rubber, prompted Britain to reform the land tenure system. With the land policies, individuals and private organizations could acquire lands from local authorities for the cultivation of cash crops. We conclude that the quest to control land distribution caused the British to further annex Asante.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Content in the Narratives of Władysław I the Elbow-High’s Diplomas – Clichéd Form Records or a Symptom of Awareness of the Medieval Ruler?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes the economic content that appeared in the narratives of Władysław I the Elbow-high’s documents. References to the economic sphere occurring there were divided into two types. The first one contained information on the economic condition of an area, first and foremost about the destruction or war devastation that hit a given region or town. The second type justified ruler’s decisions, a desire to reform or to increase the benefits of the monarchy and his subjects. On the basis of the data obtained, an attempt was made to comment on the economic awareness of the ruler.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Congresses of Mining Industrialists of the South of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland as a form of Representing Entrepreneur’s Interests (End of the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes the process of creating and functioning of two representative organizations of entrepreneurs – the Congress of Mining Industrialists of the South of Russia (1874, Kharkiv) and the Congress of Mining Industrialists of the Kingdom of Poland (1882, Warsaw). Both institutions were a form of activity of the regional economic elites and represented their socio-economic interests. After a comparative analysis of associations of mining industrialists in Ukrainian and Polish territories, the article highlights common features, their structure, forms of activity and representative powers. Based on the research, it was found that, despite strict government control, they played an important role in defending local interests and developing the industry they represent, and the fruitful cooperation of the Miners’ Congresses of the South of Russia and the Kingdom of Poland allowed for the implementation of the agreed and, above all, effective pressure on the state authorities of the Russian Empire.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in the Exposé of the Prime Ministers: From Tadeusz Mazowiecki to Mateusz Morawiecki<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Prime Minister’s program speech, called the exposé, attracts particular attention. Its essence comes down to presenting the government’s program. In a few key words, the Prime Minister often summarizes the framework proposals of his government in terms of economic policy, social policy, education, health care, the army as well as individual social and professional groups. The words spoken by the Prime Minister, asking for confidence in the government that has just been formed set the direction for the entire Council of Ministers for subsequent years. In this regard, there is a need to examine the economic policy of every Prime Minister in office since 1989 considering entrepreneurs. What offer did the heads of government make to entrepreneurs, what kind of support could this group count on, how were the institutions supporting the economy and political institutions evaluated? The aim of this article is to find answers to the presented problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Agricultural Reform of 1981 and the Competition for Resources Between Peasant Farms and State-Owned Farms in the 1980s<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the economy of the Polish People’s Republic in the field of agriculture, the key resources which were a subject of competition included: land; production assets (machines, devices, tools for agricultural production, fertilizers, plant protection chemicals) and people necessary to work on farms and for farms. The command economy of the times of the People’s Republic of Poland was an example of an economy of permanent shortages, which increased in times of crises of the entire system. The collapse of 1979-1982 was such a socio-economic crisis. The Trade Union of Independent Farmers’ “Solidarity”, which was part of the great social protest movement in 1980-1981, forced a change in the communist regime’s approach to the peasantry and, together with other pressure groups, contributed to the implementation of the agricultural reform covering the entire sphere of agriculture and not only its state farm segment. The reform of 1981, initiated by the Rzeszów-Ustrzyki agreements, gradually changed the living situation of farmers and, above all, led to changes in the profitability of agricultural production and the legalization of trade in meat products at marketplaces as well as the release of prices for food products in 1989. Peasant farms won the competition with state-owned farms for capital resources – new production factors, and they expanded their land acreage (land factor). Farmers, however, were losing competition for workers in confrontation with industry and services in cities and state-owned farms, where farm workers could count on very generous social benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00 [Polish entrepreneurs’ cluster] (2018). Wydawnictwo Magam, Biblioteka Warsaw Enterprise Institute, Warszawa, pp. 192 of Family Benefits on Women’s Professional Activity. The cases of Poland, the United Kingdom, and France<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Women show greater and greater activity on the job market, they obtain better positions, salaries, etc. However, the statistics concerning their professional activity differ from those of men. We should take into consideration the fact that women are the ones who give birth to children and, in majority, take care of their upbringing, especially in the first years of child’s life. Policies of particular states are different in terms of the amount and availability of family benefits, and that can be reflected in women’s willingness to return to work.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Globalisation and Women’s Work in the Beedi Industry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present paper views globalisation and women’s work and exploitation in a micro enterprise in India, the beedi (indigenous cigarette) industry with a case study from one of the states in India. Rural occupational structures and employment patterns in India have undergone a transition in the last few decades due to globalisation. Newer forms of employment like construction work, domestic services and beedi making have become alternatives to agricultural labour for women. Beedi is an indigenous cigarette, in which tobacco is rolled in a <italic>tendu</italic> leaf and tied with a cotton thread. This is smaller and less expensive than a cigarette and in the popular imagination it stands for the working class. This work is done sitting at home and mostly women and girls do it. This is a very gendered industry, for only women and girls that too from low-income groups make beedis. There is a lot of exploitation in this industry and this has only increased with the advent of globalisation but this is generally ignored by data gathering systems, policy makers and administrators. There is an occupational health hazard too for many of these workers suffer from various health hazards not because they are smoking these beedis but because they are making them.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Professional Work of Women in State Agricultural Farms (1949–1989) — an Overview<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Women employed in State Agricultural Farms (SAF) were blue- and white-collar workers, the former group being more numerous. However, the blue-collar workers mainly worked seasonally, during the period of intensive field work. When it comes to fulltime work, it was usually related to animal production. The demand for this type of work decreased with the progress of mechanization. Meanwhile, the demand for white-collar workers, especially those with agricultural education and experience, increased. Since the 1960s, the SAFs increasingly employed women qualified in agronomy, animal production, and veterinary medicine. However, they were not always accepted in positions traditionally considered “masculine”. For most women, work in SAFs was not attractive due to difficult working conditions and low prestige. If a woman decided to work there, it was usually for economic reasons. Most women did not take up professional activity and performed the traditional roles of wives and mothers.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Women in the Polish Industry — Employment Numbers and Structure in the Years 1945-1956<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The first decade of the Polish People’s Republic (PPR) saw a radical increase in the number of workers employed in the industry. Many of the new workers were women, whose situation on the job market was much more dynamic than men’s. New staff was mainly recruited from the rural population. Workers were poorly educated and had little work experience, which begs a question regarding the economic rationale behind this process. Some of the new employees could actually be included in the category of “hidden unemployment”. Their marginal productivity equaled zero, which means that their work had no actual impact on the gross national income. Furthermore, such “unemployment at work” negatively impacts morale and work quality, leads to increased staff turnover, and essentially prevents workers from improving their financial situation. Considering the poorer socio-demographic characteristics of women compared to men, one can pose the thesis that the rate of needless employment was significantly higher among women than among men.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Feminization of Higher Education in Poland in 1918-2018<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The text is devoted to women’s presence in the Polish higher education in 1918-2018. Its history is presented in chronological-thematic order, including information about the beginnings of women’s studies at universities as well as their basic political, economic and cultural conditioning. Although during the discussed period, basis of political system in Poland changed three times, there was a constant development of the size of higher education, as well as an increase of women’s participation among students and academic faculty. The beginnings were very modest. However, today women constitute already the majority of students of higher education and almost a half of academic employees. Women, during their fight for equality in access to studies and academic career, had to overcome many legal obstacles, also informal ones, resulting from vitality of the image of traditional social role of women. Even though, the formal equality was gradually earned, it is still more difficult for women than for men to undertake studies at some faculties, and to get higher degrees and academic positions as fast as men.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Women in Polish banking during the Second Polish Republic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper aims to analyse the employment of women in banking during the Second Polish Republic (i.e. interwar Poland). The banking sector was small in terms of employment. The number of people associated with this sector was 18.1 thousand in 1921 and 31.2 thousand in 1931, which accounted for 0.5-0.6% of all professionally active workers outside the agricultural sector. The banking community was dominated by men, the number of women working in banks was about 6.1 thousand in 1921 and 8.5 thousand in 1931 (30% of all human resources). This paper presents the nature of jobs performed by women, their positions and earnings. The presentation takes a number of forms: according to bank types, groups of voivodeships, size of the town and according to headquarters and branches. In all cases, the activities and earnings of women and men were compared.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Socks at War: American Hand Knitters and Military Footwear Production for the World Wars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In both World Wars, combatant nations, including the United States, Britain, and Germany, learned that inadequate or poorly-maintained footwear produced costly and preventable casualties from trench foot and frostbite. While provision of shoes and boots to troops were major issues in earlier conflicts, no nation before World War I had fully appreciated the significance of warm, dry, well-fitting socks to the effectiveness of soldiers in the field. The large numbers of trench foot casualties in World War I, especially among the French and British, convinced policymakers that this vital commodity must receive a higher priority in military production planning, but few nations in wartime could shift production to knitting mills rapidly enough to make a difference. Thus, in Britain and the U.S, the best policy option proved to be recruiting women and children civilians to knit socks by hand for the military in the first war, and for refugees, prisoners and civilians in the second. This paper discusses the economic and military importance of this effort, including the numbers of pairs produced, and the program’s role in supplementing industrial production. The production of this low-technology but crucial item of military apparel is typical of detail-oriented tasks performed by women under conditions of full mobilization for war, in that they have a high impact on battlefield and home front performance and morale, but very low visibility as significant contributions to national defense. Often, both during and after the emergency, these efforts are ridiculed as trivial and/or wasteful. Unlike women pilots or industrial workers, handcrafters of essential supplies are regarded as performing extensions of their domestic roles as makers and caretakers of clothing and food. This was especially true in the U.S. in and after World War II, a wealthy industrialized nation that took pride in its modern - and thoroughly masculinist - military industrial complex.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00”You Must Swear [...] That Care for the Well-Being and Health of Women in Labor and Their Infants Shall Be the Only Objective of Your Work.” Midwives in the Galician Autonomy — Statistical and Geographical Analysis by Counties<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study analyses the number of midwives in the counties of Eastern and Western Galicia in census years 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910, and the ratios per cadastral commune, 10,000 square kilometers, 10,000 civilians and 10,000 women in a county. The analysis was based on Austrian and Galician statistical reports. The results of the study confirmed that Eastern Galicia outnumbered Western Galicia in terms of midwives. However, it was in Western Galicia where the rate of growth was higher, and the effects of the 1910 collapse more moderate. This could have been due to an amendment to the 1897 midwifery regulations. The position of individual counties changed, depending on the year and the specific measure. In Eastern Galicia, Lisko county ranked the worst and Horodenka, Śniatyń, Tarnopol, Trembowla, and Brzozów counties ranked the best. In Western Galicia, Limanowa county ranked the worst, while Brzesko, Kraków, Łańcut, Wadowice, Przeworsk, and Podgórze counties ranked the best. There is a strong positive correlation between the rank and natural conditions (water, soil, climate), type of crops, agricultural development and processing, transport system (road and rail), population, and stimulating function of large urban centers. Favorable conditions were correlated with higher values in measures of the number of midwives.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1