rss_2.0Studia Humana FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Humanahttps://sciendo.com/journal/SHhttps://www.sciendo.comStudia Humana 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60f0c9fc4ba4892561d13791/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220516T173222Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220516%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=19b120c08732873378f41e8edef3de12ea257d1849e7c473605b037061ae9c47200300Sustaining Resources for : The Potential Application of Synthetic Biology for the Settlement of Marshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recent success of the Mars 2020 project and the high quality images relayed back to Earth have provided further impetus and expectations for human missions to Mars. To support space agency and private enterprise plans to establish a sustainable colony on Mars in the 2030s, synthetic biology may play a vital role to enable astronaut self-sufficiency. In this review, we describe some aspects of where synthetic biology may inform and guide <italic>in situ</italic> resource utilisation strategies. We address the nature of Martian regolith and describe methods by which it may be rendered fit for purpose to support growth and yield of bioengineered crops. Lastly, we illustrate some examples of innate human adaptation which may confer characteristics desirable in the selection of colonists and with a future looking lens, offer potential targets for human enhancement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00On Liberty and Cruelty: A Reply to Walter Blockhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A standard argument for ethical vegetarianism contends that factory farming – the source of nearly all animal products – is morally wrong due to its extreme cruelty, and that it is wrong to buy products produced in an extremely immoral manner. This article defends this argument against objections based on appeal to libertarian political philosophy, the supposed benefit to animals of being raised for food, and nonhuman animals’ supposed lack of rights.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Back to the Future: The Rise of Human Enhancement and Potential Applications for Space Missionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rapid advances in biology, electronics, computer and data science have turned invention into products, changing the lives and lifestyles of millions of people around the world. This mini-review will describe some remarkable progress made over the last 10 years which serves both healthy individuals and patients alike. With a forward looking lens towards long term space missions and the potential colonisation of the Moon and Mars, we discuss three technologies under development. We conclude with a distant looking perspective on the prospect of gene mediated human enhancement and highlight the importance of aligning benefit for people on Earth with goals for future space missions and the need to establish regulatory and ethical guidelines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Predictions and Possible Solutions for the Sustainability of Mars Settlementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the end of the Cold War, political and ideological competition has decreased as a stated reason for space exploration. The possibility of establishing a settlement on Mars is being seriously evaluated by state and commercial space agencies, which includes objectives to expand human civilization and ensure the continuity of the human species. The technological challenges associated with space settlement continue to receive significant attention, but the success of space settlement will also depend on other human factors. This study presents a high-level overview of some potential issues that could arise with the development of a permanent populationand a space economyon Mars. This study highlights some of the anticipated problems of overnance, trade, production, and proliferation that will need pragmatic solutions to ensure the sustainability of a martian settlement. This paper is intended to instigate further discussion and research regarding human and economic factors that could enable or constrain future settlements on Mars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0028<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Hindu Spirituality: How to Grasp the Divine?https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0029ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Christianity, the Free Market, and Libertarianismhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0025<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In recent centuries Christians of various denominations have endorsed many different political philosophies that they see as being truly biblical in their approach. Over this time there has been an increasing hostility, by some Christians, towards free markets and political philosophies that hold human liberty as the highest goal such as libertarianism and classical liberalism. This criticism is unwarranted and misplaced as libertarianism and free markets are not only compatible with Christianity, they are also the most biblically sound of all economics systems and political philosophies endorsed by Christians today. Therefore, this paper will argue that Christians of all denominations should endorse free markets and libertarianism if they wish to create a world that follows biblical principles and the teachings of Jesus.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review “Religion Explained? The Cognitive Science of Religion after Twenty-Five Years”https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0030<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>I review the book “Religion Explained? The Cognitive Science of Religion after Twenty-Five Years.” I discuss all the papers in the book and highlight some recurrent issues.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Kennan and the Neglected Variable in Post-Socialist Societies: The Loss of Honest Dialogue and the Need for Empathyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0027<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper analyzes the symbolism of George Kennan’s famous “X” article relative to the challenges of contemporary post-socialist and post-conflict transitions. It unpacks recent developments in the field of contemporary political discourse, discussing the critical application of practices such as thinking with your heart, parrhesis, and pathos, as well as Kennan’s suggestion of the significance of uncertainty and reflection for global relations. The central question is: What would Kennan write in an X Article to the societies and states in transition? While various definitions of the term “parrhesis” exist, this paper employs both the definition suggested by Michel Foucault who understood it as “fearless speech” and Eric Voegelin who closely follows Plato’s meaning linking it with “heart”, i.e. vision of the spiritual, an existential (dis)order of representatives of a society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00The Quest to Solve Problems That Don’t Exist: Thought Artifacts in Contemporary Ontologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0026<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Questions about the nature of reality and consciousness remain unresolved in philosophy today, but not for lack of hypotheses. Ontologies as varied as physicalism, microexperientialism and cosmopsychism enrich the philosophical menu. Each of these ontologies faces a seemingly fundamental problem: under physicalism, for instance, we have the ‘hard problem of consciousness,’ whereas under microexperientialism we have the ‘subject combination problem.’ I argue that these problems are thought artifacts, having no grounding in empirical reality. In a manner akin to semantic paradoxes, they exist only in the internal logico-conceptual structure of their respective ontologies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Existence and Predication in Free Logicshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0023<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper presents a fundamental difference between negative semantics for free logics and positive ones regarding the logical relations between existence and predication. We conclude that this difference is the key to understand why negative free logics are stronger, i.e., they prove more, than positive free logics.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploring Perceptions of Religion and Science among Turkish Academicshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The religiosity of academics has been studied for over a decade. With few exceptions, this research has been conducted on American “elite” scientists, and data from non-Western countries is lacking. Drawing from psychological and sociological literature, the present exploratory study investigates the religiosity of Turkish academics (N = 361) and their perceptions on the relationship between religion and science, and associated variables such as interpretation of the Quran, and belief in evolution and creationism. Moreover, we address criticism directed at previous research by probing for different God concepts among believing academics. Although cultural differences can be identified, the results generally support the idea that academics are less religious with 54% identifying as “less religious” or “not religious,” compared to 24.2% self-identifying as “religious” or “extremely religious.”</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Reconciling the Irreconcilable: A Property Rights Approach to Resolving the Animal Rights Debatehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Libertarianism is understood to be a “deontological theory of law” that purportedly applies exclusively to humans. According to some libertarians, however, “one of the greatest weaknesses of libertarian theory” is that there are no provisions outlawing the abuse and torture of animals even though this seems to be one of “the most heinous acts it is possible to do”. Moreover, a few of these libertarians go even further and claim that this legal philosophy of non-aggression should actually be extended to include other animals. The purpose of this paper is to reconcile this seemingly irreconcilable situation by arguing that it is a “continuum problem” and offering a principled, libertarian compromise that resolves the animal rights debate using the non-aggression principle (NAP) and private property rights.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Rejoinder to Huemer on Animal Rightshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heumer and I debate animal rights, utilitarianism, libertarianism, morality and philosophy. We agree that suffering is a problem, and diverge, widely, on how to deal with it. I maintain that this author’s reputation as a libertarian, let alone an intellectual leader of this movement, is problematic. Why? That is because libertarianism, properly understood, is a theory of intra-human rights; this philosophy says nothing about right from an extra-human perspective, Heumer to the contrary notwithstanding. That is to say, he is improperly importing into the freedom philosophy considerations extraneous to it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00A Praxeological Approach to Intentional Actionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/sh-2017-0024<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The concept of Intentional Action is at the core of Praxeology, as developed by the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises. Under this unique approach, defined as the science of human action and designed to study the field of the social sciences, Mises create “action axiom”: the contention that every acting man more satisfactory state of affairs for a Austrian scholar is able to derive the fundament human action; such as value, scale of value, scarcity, abundance, profit, loss, uncertainty and causality, among others. This paper intends to present the praxeological perspective on intentional action and its epistemologic implications; it also attempts to answer objections to this thesis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Unbound: Ethics, Law, Sustainability, and the New Space Racehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We are witnessing a new space race. A half century after the last Moon landing, and after a decade during which the United States could not launch its own astronauts to Earth orbit, there is new energy in the space activity. China has huge ambitions to rival or eclipse America as the major space power, and other countries are developing space programs. However, perhaps the greatest excitement attaches to the entrepreneurs who are trying to create a new business model for space travel based initially on tourism, and eventually, on colonizing the Moon and Mars and harvesting resources from asteroids. This paper presents a snapshot of the new space race and the rich men behind it, and it looks at some of the ethical and legal issues raised by this activity. The methodology is to consider the stated ambitions of the men leading private space companies, compare and contrast the space endeavor with earlier episodes of exploration and transportation innovation, review the regulatory environment for outer space, and consider two divergent scenarios for the future. Opinions are divided on whether commercial space flight is an expensive indulgence or potentially a way to find sustainability solutions for our life on Earth. It is concluded that the new space race can be characterized as unbounded: in ambition, in terms of laws and regulations, and in terms of ethical constraints on the activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of the Bank in Meeting the Housing Needs of an Average Household – Evaluation of the Situation in 2018https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to determine the profile of an average Polish household and the possibility of satisfying average housing needs thereof as well as to indicate the role played by the bank in their implementation. The characteristics of an average household, the value of income and expenses thereof, the prices of residential properties and the data of the credit market were determined. statistical studies, The research material was obtained from reports and including data from the Statistics Poland, Eurostat, the database of residential property prices of the National Bank of Poland and the average offer prices of the rental market – for 2018, which reflects the current economic situation. The research was of a quantitative nature (statistical measures, housing availability index, credit simulations). The results indicate that as of 2018 an average household cannot afford to buy or rent a flat. The bank’s role in satisfying housing needs is not only important but rather necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Investments of Polish Family Businesseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper the authors address the issue of investments made by family businesses. Their study attempted to verify the level of investments made by Polish family businesses in comparison with the level of investments made by Polish non-family businesses. The study focused on the analysis of investment flows of Polish listed companies included in the WIG index for the years 2006-2018. A total of 233 companies were analyzed, including 177 non-family businesses and 56 family businesses. The results corroborated the argument that Polish listed non-family businesses invest much more money than family businesses. It was also observed that only a small percentage of companies in both groups invest their finances in research and development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Financial Condition of Knowledge Based Economy Entities – an Example of Polish Video Game Sectorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The video game producers are currently in spotlight of market information services. Successes and huge budgets of such companies attract many readers. However, scientific studies related to this sector do not share the same popularity. A reflection on the source of value in this sector shows that what generates revenues is not disclosed in the report. Great examples are customers’ relationships or the value of employees creating the game code and story of the game. Video games producers sector presents a good combination of business and culture that allows reflection on financial characteristics of knowledge based companies. Prior studies show that market’s valuation takes into account unrecognised assets but capital-intensive character of a production and intangibility of a product and its assets causes problems with exact valuation. In this paper the author asks about the impact of the characteristics on the assessment of a financial condition. The research question in this paper is whether it is possible to use and interpret correctly popular discriminant analysis model for knowledge based entities on the example of video game companies. Results are applicable by analysts and managers of this sector and help to determine the usefulness of this method, but it still depends on assumptions and accounting policies. The reflection presented also broadens the discussion on financialisation because analysed companies can oppose this trend in a specific way.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in End-Customer Power Prices Across the EU – Reasons and Challenges for the Futurehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sh-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many years have passed since the first liberalization processes in the electricity sectors the in European Union that were performed in order to establish a single market for electricity. In practice, convergence between neighbouring market areas was established mainly between the Member States in Central-Western Europe, while other countries have allowed for only limited levels of competition. As a consequence, many market areas remain illiquid and consumers pay relatively higher prices for the energy they consume. The final bill is further increased through financing the increasingly ambitious climate agenda, gradually leading to social opposition against ever-growing prices. The aim of this article is to provide examples of differences in market functioning in Member States, leading to discrepancies in average energy costs for end consumers. The consequences of different levels of market concentration, infrastructure investments and renewable generation subsidization are analysed using publicly available statistics. Careful literature review is also performed before the conclusions are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1