rss_2.0SEEU Review FeedSciendo RSS Feed for SEEU Review Review 's Cover Based and Non-Context Based Interpretation of English Compounds in Legal Discourse-A Case Study with ESP Law Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to new innovations and changes, every language needs new words simply because there is a need for new words to name new things. It is a common occurrence for a speaker to use some words in a way that has never been used before in order to communicate directly about certain facts or ideas. When new inventions and changes come into people’s lives, there is a need to name them and talk about them. If a new word is used by many speakers of the language, it will probably survive, and the same word will one day become an everyday word and enter the vocabulary of a language. This paper looks at compounding as one of the most productive word formation process in English. The term <italic>compounding</italic> refers to a process in which two or more lexemes are combined into one new word. When a word is formed by merging two or more words, each of which can be used separately, it is called a compound word. The term “word formation” has no universally accepted use. Word formation is sometimes defined as a process associated with changing the form of a word, for example, affixation, which is, in fact, the subject of morphology. In a broader sense, word formation covers the processes of creating new lexical items. In English, word formation is of great importance because this phenomenon affects the English dictionary, which in addition to borrowing from various other languages is enriched in this way. The aim of this paper was to investigate the context based vs. non-context interpretation of English compounds by EFL students in legal discourse. The findings from the test run-questionnaire showed that students of English as a foreign language found it more difficult to apply compound words in context rather than choosing an appropriate definition for them, with or without a given context. Furthermore, students scored lower when 50% of the compounds were given in context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Children as Victims of Domestic Violence – Deprivation of Parental Rights according to the Family Law Act of the Republic of North Macedonia and the Family Law Act of Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Domestic violence is one of the most serious forms of violation of basic human freedoms and rights regardless of ethnicity, gender, religion, and status. A reflection on many international statistics shows that women are the most frequent victims of domestic violence. Based on the definition of the phenomenon of domestic violence, the forms of abuse, the manner how violence is treated, the possibility of children, men, extramarital spouses, brothers, sisters, and old people living in an extended domestic community, of also being victims is not excluded. Since domestic violence is not only a national problem but a worldwide problem, international organizations have worked towards the eradication of this phenomenon by sanctioning it in various international conventions. Also, the legal systems of many countries prohibit and sanction domestic violence by special laws obliging the state authorities to act in all situations when there are indications that there are direct or indirect violent acts in a family. In this paper, the authors present only the domestic violence against children as an evident problem in families, but which is often unreported. The legal frameworks of the Republic of North Macedonia and Republic of Kosovo are presented in this paper with the aim to describe the material-legal and procedural-legal treatment of domestic violence by pointing out the failure of the state authorities in implementing the laws on protection and prevention of this phenomenon. The authors take the approach of only treating the legal consequences of child abuse by parents that in both legislations is deprivation of parental rights for the violent parent. They conclude that the state authorities should intensify their work in taking control measures towards all the families where there are suspicions that the parental rights are neglected, and the child is abused. Because many cases of abuse have not been detected or reported, and in both countries a special study especially on domestic violence against children does not exist, the possibility that the number for this type of child abuse is great.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Data Mining Approach Improving Decision-Making Competency along the Business Digital Transformation Journey: A Case Study – Home Appliances after Sales Service<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Data mining, as an essential part of artificial intelligence, is a powerful digital technology, which makes businesses predict future trends and alleviate the process of decision-making and enhancing customer experience along their digital transformation journey. This research provides a practical implication – a case study - to provide guidance on analyzing information and predicting repairs in home appliances after sales services business.</p> <p>The main benefit of this practical comparative study of various classification algorithms, by using the Weka tool, is the analysis of information and the prediction of repairs in the home appliances after sales services business. The comparison of algorithms is performed considering different parameters, such as the mean absolute error, root mean square error, relative absolute error and root relative squared error, receiver operating characteristic area, accuracy, Matthews’s correlation coefficient, precision-recall curve, precision, F-measure, recall and statistical criteria. Five classification algorithms such as the Naive Bayes, J48, random forest, K-Nearest Neighbor, and logistic regression were implemented in the dataset. J48 has proved to provide the best accuracy and the lowest error among the other examined algorithms applied to a home appliances after sales services dataset to predict repairs based on product guarantee period.</p> <p>The extracted information and results of an after sales services business by using data mining techniques prove to alleviate the process of streamlining decision-making and provide reliable predictions, especially for the customers, as well as increase businesses’ efficiency along their digital transformation journey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Controversy between Niklas Luhmann and Jűrgen Habermas Related to Sociological Approach to Law<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to present a brief insight into the significant works and views of the German sociologists Niklas Luhmann and Jűrgen Habermas on the role of law in regulating human relations in society. Educated as a lawyer, Niklas Luhmann in the late academic career was under the influence of the American sociologist Talcott Parsons. Niklas Luhmann later, under the influence of the American sociologist Talcott Parsons, he built a sociological theoretical system called the systems theory. On the other side, Jűrgen Habermas was a philosopher and sociologist, highly influenced by the Frankfurt school of sociology. According to Luhmann‘s systems theory, the social reality and the separate aspects of the social life are part of a deeper system called society, and in relation to the same they are set as subsystems. Social systems are divided into allopoietic and autopoietic. One of the significant axioms of Luhmann’s theory is that the largest number of systems tends to simplify due to the pressure of the environment for greater efficiency. Law in Luhman’s systems theory enjoys the status of an autonomous system for regulating society, rather than an instrumental contribution to politics. This brief review exposed a big clash between two influential German thinkers. In this paper we are going to use historical method and analysing of the content of different materials and previous authors that are dealing with the work of Niklas Luhmann and Jűrgen Habermas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Analysis of Local Community Protection Mechanisms in Kosovo and North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of local community protection mechanisms in Kosovo and North Macedonia. The intention is to comparatively analyze the community protection mechanism’s differences and similarities and their establishment in both countries. Requirements on community protection mechanisms as tools for ensuring community rights will be elaborated with two institutional settings and succinct legal infrastructure. The establishment of the community-led mechanisms debate has been increasingly conductive to Kosovo and North Macedonia since the inter-ethnic conflicts that these two states were involved in. For that particular reason, Kosovo and North Macedonia have initiated the design of community protection mechanisms to foster inter-community communication, tension easing, and serving as a means and tool for communities’ inclusiveness in local and central institutional affairs.</p> <p>In doing this analysis, two primary legal documents in Kosovo and North Macedonia, the proposed plan settlement of the former United Nations special envoy Martii Ahtisaari in Kosovo and the Ohrid Framework Agreement in North Macedonia, will lead to conclusive comparative findings. Further, the comparative analysis will extend to elaborating Kosovo’s and North Macedonia’s legislative framework, such as their constitutions, community protection laws, and local governance legislation.</p> <p>The importance of the paper also extends to comparing the community protection mechanisms between two countries in finding potential differences and parities between the community protection mechanisms in Kosovo and North Macedonia.</p> <p>Finally, the analysis will provide a theoretical understanding of the local community protection mechanisms framework, focusing on establishing community protection mechanisms, legal requirements, and successes these mechanisms have brought to both countries’ institutional settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Characteristics of Juvenile Delinquency with Special Emphasis on Juveniles as Child Sexual Abusers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is composed of two parts. The first part covers juvenile delinquency with all its characteristics. When analyzing the delinquency, we gave a special place to the socio-pathological phenomena which is more and more present and the rate is higher from year to year. Social pathology is a huge issue that requires special commitment, first, for its detection and then prevention. Within the delinquency, we also cover the most common crimes committed by juveniles.</p> <p>In the second part of this paper, the authors deal in more details with a specific form of crime which can also be committed by juveniles: child sexual abuse and pedophilia. First, the difference between child sexual abuse and pedophilia will be discussed, a difference that is of particular importance in cases where minors are abusers. Furthermore, the main characteristics of cases when both perpetrators and victims of sexual abuse are minors will be addressed. Although these criminal offenses are rarer in practice unlike the criminal offenses and deviant behaviors treated in the first part, however, knowing the main characteristics and specifics of such cases is of particular importance for the legal-criminal treatment of the perpetrators of these criminal offenses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Preface Procedure on Securing a Claim in the Republic of Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the paper is to create a concept of what securing the claim is, based on the positive legislation of Kosovo’s law, comparing its regulation with laws of somewhat similar legislations of neighbouring regions, understanding its implementation in practice, to achieve conclusions and remarks based on law, facts, practice, and the comparative aspect. The Civil Procedure Law in the Republic of Kosovo is regulated with contested, non-contested or enforcement procedure. Securing the claim is an institute expressively regulated by the “Law on Contested Procedure of the Republic of Kosovo” on its XXI Chapter that defines its means and types.</p> <p>Considering securing the claim measures are present in civil law to prevent any possible threat of protected rights until the final verdict is given, this paper tends to achieve a realization of how these measures practically succeed in actual cases, if they meet the criteria set in the law, or if securing the claim proposal is approved by the court, if they unintentionally restrain the respondent from using their rights. Moving forward, how one distinguishes claim security and interim measures from one-another although they describe the main concept, is strictly reviewed under this article, to finally achieve conclusions and remarks based on questions raised as above.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Legal and Trade Effect of the SAA between the Republic of Kosovo and the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Stabilization and Association Agreement with the Republic of Kosovo is a new chapter in the new institutional and social functioning because it has direct impact on the citizens’ life in our country. The effects of the agreement are not only in trading but those are multiple effects, since they do touch the political stability, the rule of law, democratic governance, economic development, trade exchange, regional economic cooperation, etc. and therefore the relevance of this agreement should not be seen from a single viewpoint, but rather from a wider perspective and we should dedicate more attention to the direct legal and trading issues. This agreement in the short term will create perspective and hope, in the middle term, it will create political stability, whereas in the long term, it will bring economic development, and genuinely trading exchange.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Protection of the Rights of Parties, Participants and Third Parties During Enforcement in Republic of North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the protection offered to parties, participants and third parties during enforcement, as one of the most important requirements of the enforcement procedure. Having in mind that bailiffs except for implementing enforcement, they are also competent to determine the means by which creditors’ claims will be fulfilled. The realization of the creditors’ claims does not mean use of any kind of measure or enforcement procedural activity. In this context the authors review ways in which debtors and their family members can be protected during enforcement actions, such as measures of exclusion and restriction of enforcement on the debtor’s items and income. Furthermore, the authors elaborate other legal and important ways for protection of parties, participants and third parties, such as opposition to illegality and complaints provided by the Law on Enforcement.</p> <p>In this regard, results of this research have shown that the RNM is making efforts to create a more effective enforcement system, which includes guarantees not only for the protection of the creditor and the debtor as a party, but also for the participants and third parties. From the enforcement experiences of citizens were reported dissatisfaction and complaints of citizens regarding the performance of bailiffs, namely taking the necessary means of subsistence form them. To avoid this situation Amendments on the Law on Enforcement in 2020 were brought, so the legal framework was clarified in terms of measures for exclusion and restriction of enforcement. This resulted in the prevention of economic damage of debtors and their family, because now no action can be taken if the debtor has an average salary or pension. Extraordinary legal remedies in enforcement proceeding are excluded, but there are other safeguards that are related to enforcement process but are not regulated by the Law on Enforcement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Fiscal Decentralization and Alternative Financial Sources for the Local Self-Government in Republic of North Macedonia - Overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Local governance in developing countries demonstrates many problems related to financial sources and good governance of their finances. Local Self-Government (LSG) units in the Republic of North Macedonia are very small which results in a lack of capabilities to raise enough funds to offer delegated services. The local government in the Republic of North Macedonia centralizes almost all public finance. Local budgets depend heavily on state transfers and donations from the central budget. The lack of funds remained a crucial problem even though there were some attempts for the decentralization process. Practically, governments in many of the local governments in North Macedonia could not secure their resources. In this way, they could come with specific charges, but all taxes are decided by the central government. The practice showed that local governments before borrowing needs to be approved by the Ministry of Finance.</p> <p>The Republic of North Macedonia as a potential candidate to join the European Union should make several changes regarding the legislation during the process of accession to benefit from being a small candidate country. The main aim of this paper is to investigate alternative financial sources such are <italic>Municipal Bonds, Partnership Sukuk securities, and PPP.</italic> Unfortunately, many financial alternatives have not been able to be implemented due to failures in reforms and good financial governance. But they remain an open opportunity for developing a local government in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Cybercrime: A Challenge to Law Enforcement<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>When comparing 100 years ago and today, we always mention the social, economic and political changes that have influenced the emergence and development of the opportunities that we have today, with special emphasis on technological changes. Technology has evolved so fast that it seems that in the blink of an eye something new has just hit the market. Whether we like it or not, technology has become part of us, part of our lives, where we upon spend a great deal of the day with at least one of our technological devices with which we perform many tasks.</p><p>Nowadays there are limitless possibilities of gathering information, business, shop, and almost anything through the internet.</p><p>Although it is a very easy to make payments online, it can be quite risky, because not every website offers the security and convenience for purchasing the product we want and we may have doubts whether the money we have paid has gone to the right place and for the specific service, which we have paid for. The Internet has many positive as well as negative aspects, since it also carries great danger because it is much easier to hind behind a false identity and commit illegal acts.</p><p>Cybercrime presents a new challenge to legal systems, considering that the more individuals use computer, and the Internet, the more the interest of hackers and perpetrators to commit these types of crimes increases.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The United Nations’ Reso Lution 2325 “Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” and Its Role in Preventing Terrestrial-Based WMD Utilization Toward Orbiting Space Objects<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The 2016 United Nations’ Resolution 2325 “Non-proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” manifests one of the greatest challenges for humankind in relation to preventing a global catastrophe, where it reaffirms that the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, as well as their means of delivery, constitutes a threat to international peace and security. However, regarding the continuous technological developments of terrestrial-based WMD aimed at orbiting space objects in near-Earth orbit, it is crucial to analyze whether, and if so, how 2325 prevents their proliferation and utilization. Another relevant argument addresses the terminological factuality that, while treaty and customary law do provide some guidance on the legality of weaponization, the concept of a “space weapon” is still not clearly defined. Moreover, even though the Outer Space Treaty prohibits the placement of nuclear weapons and WMD in near-Earth orbit, installing them on the Moon or any other celestial body, or to otherwise station them in outer space, it simultaneously excludes terrestrial-based anti-satellite weapons, thus creating a legal loophole. National representatives of superpowers, particularly of space-faring nations, are aware of the existing issue and often express their concerns toward comprehensive ASAT development and utilization. Nevertheless, the potential weaponization of outer space will not be actively recognized and accepted as an official occurrence within the international community until our current space systems are eventually utilized in order to destroy or damage another State’s space object.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Problems with Pronunciation Among Students of English Language and Literature-Seeu<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Everybody who has learned English as a second or foreign language knows that for reaching intermediate levels, English is an easy language regarding grammar and vocabulary; however, when reaching advanced levels, the learners are faced with complex forms of morphology, syntax, and most obviously, they are faced with the difficulties that pronunciation presents. These are mainly the problems that occur with the English students whose native language is other than English. An experienced teacher of non-native speakers of English can easily recognize the causes of mispronunciation, which in most cases are lack of vocabulary, lack of practice, bad teaching experiences, lack of direct contact with the language, and lack of self-confidence. There are quite a lot of words in English, which are often mispronounced. Those who have just started to learn English as a foreign language, students at primary schools, adults using English as a means of communication and as a working tool, such as businessmen, politicians, administrators, doctors, accountants, and those studying English for teaching purposes, even the teachers of English are faced with the problems of proper pronunciation of words in English.</p><p>The aim of this research is to identify the problems that the students in the Department of English Language and Literature in the Faculty of Languages, Cultures and Communication face with when they deal with pronunciation of lexical words.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Pictures on Second Language Acquisition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The need for worldwide communication has made people learn as many foreign languages as they can in order to be able to send and receive information from all over the world. Realizing this situation, researchers and linguists have carried out a large number of studies in order to find out the best ways for teaching and learning English as a second or foreign language. The terms language learning and language acquisition are not new since in many earlier researches language acquisition is compared to the process of learning the mother tongue whereas language learning is compared to the process when a child learns a second or foreign language. This paper aims to showcase that teaching/learning new vocabulary using pictures is much more effective than the other methods of vocabulary learning. The research also puts emphasis on the language level of learners. It demonstrates that the method of using pictures and illustrations works well with all levels of proficiency and as such, it has brought very useful results. It was carried out at the South East European University (SEEU) in North Macedonia and participants were thirty (30) students from all five Faculties, divided in three different groups based on their language proficiency. Each group consisted of ten (10) students, aged 18 to 22 years. They were of elementary, pre-intermediate and intermediate level of English. The research lasted for six weeks, because the students had to be introduced to six different vocabulary topics. Since the experiment was carried out in a real classroom environment, the target vocabulary topics used for this purpose were chosen from their students’ book. Data were collected in three phases. During the first phase, students were asked to complete a questionnaire, consisting of questions regarding the vocabulary learning methods, mainly vocabulary associated with pictures. In the second phase, they were engaged in real activities in a traditional classroom setting, while in the last phase, at the end of the last session, participants took a quiz that was supposed to provide evidence and additional data about participants’ achievements. It is expected that the findings from this experiment will be useful to current and prospective teachers as they show that the method of pictures and illustrations associating the target vocabulary functions well with different levels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00ERRATUM for: Adrianit Ibrahimi, Besa Arifi. December 2020. Defending the rights of the victims of corruption in the Republic of Kosovo: with a special focus to the pandemic Covid-19 SEEU Review, Volume 15 Issue 1. Communication, Creative Use of Media and the Process of EU Integration of North Macedonia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The human history relates to the history of communication, which has also been a co-driver of human development. Communication integrates the knowledge, organization and power of a society.</p><p>Today, there is an increasing debate over the importance of politicians' mutual communication, communication with voters and the media, the role of public relations in politics, and communication with the civil society. Thus, political communication and the creative use of the media remain the essential component of any individual involved in politics or even of a political group.</p><p>In this study, political communication in North Macedonia is presented in the context of political efforts into the integration process in European Union (EU), by observing all the stages within the process so far. From the content and the issues addressed, it is clear that policymakers face the challenges of communication (as is the case in many countries aspiring the European integration).</p><p>In this paper, the premises of genuinely political communication strategy are analyzed separately, assessing them in the context of the political communication theory. It will be shown that successful communication is an important tool for convincing citizens that EU provides a better quality of life and work.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Challenges of Guaranteeing Privacy in Pandemic Time<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The right of citizens to privacy in the Republic of Kosovo is guaranteed under the Law on Personal Data Protection. Moreover, this right is guaranteed by the Constitution (Official Gazette, 2008), which is the highest legal act.</p><p>The purpose of this academic paper goes beyond a superficial assessment of the level of implementation of this fundamental right of the citizen. The core of this paper focuses on highlighting the existing challenges and those that may persist in guaranteeing the privacy of each of us under the reign of the 'Covid 19' Virus in the geographical and psychological space of all citizens of Kosovo.</p><p>Despite the existence of an independent authority, mandated to oversee the implementation of this right in the public and private sector, its implementation is a permanent mission of this authority, which in our country is the Information and Privacy Agency, but also is subject to challenges, which are not always generated by human negligence.</p><p>To give the deserved physiognomy to this article, official accessible sources of the sole authority that oversees the implementation of this right in our country have been used. Statistical data presented within the trunk of the paper reinforce the thesis introduced in the introduction of the article, which is confirmed during its full elaboration, reinforcing the view that part of the main challenges for Information and Privacy Agency persists being the limited number of human professional resources, as a guarantee for establishing an unwavering trust among the citizens that their privacy is guaranteed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Qualitative Analysis of Students’ Evaluations – The Case of the South East European University (SEEU) in North Macedonia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The use of student evaluations of teaching (SET) has become a widespread practice in higher education despite inconclusive evidence reported in the literature around its validity. Not surprisingly, the question of the validity of SET continues to be a current debate in higher education, pointing to the need for more research in this area. This paper is a part of a larger scale study, which aims to contribute to broadening the knowledge and understanding of SET validity by analysing the process within the South East European University (SEEU) in North Macedonia in order to determine whether student evaluations are objective and critical. A likert scale questionnaire, containing 9 questions, was designed for the purpose of the analysis. The questionnaire was sent to all students from the five (5) Faculties: Business and Economics, Law, Contemporary Sciences and Technologies, Contemporary Social Sciences and Faculty of Languages, Cultures and Communications, in both campuses, Tetovo and Skopje. Three hundred and thirty three (333) students participated in the survey. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used for analysing the results. Findings revealed that the information students received about the reputation, experience and qualifications of the professors had the highest influence on their perceptions, which in turn influenced the evaluations. As an addition, the present paper also compares two methods on a data set of actual SET. For illustrative purposes, only data from one faculty have been analysed. It is shown that the traditional method of considering the average values can misrepresent a teacher’s performance as it can be highly sensitive to any extreme grades, being either very positive or very negative.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Decisions made so far by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany have always been characterized by their writing and content, even down to details, precision, accuracy, professional legal style of writing, always clear in the elaboration and adjudication of cases from its competence, but surprisingly, in our country, only a few have paid attention to the German Court in a scientific context, which can be seen from the only few materials we possess in the Albanian language. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this Court, so that the comparative aspects can be made, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages, in case of dictating the state need for reform of the Constitutional Courts. Those who have institutionalized this constitutional institution know its value in the system of constitutional justice, which performs it in terms of protection of constitutions, its principles and value, and most importantly in the protection of freedoms and rights of human beings and citizens. The Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, to this date, has conveyed the efficiency of the protection of the German legal order, the serious approach and law interpretation, for the protection of freedoms and human rights, which ranks this court into a high level among all other powers in the German law system. The author, in the following paper, gives an overview of this Court starting with its history, organization and functioning, which today undoubtedly constitutes one of the most important constitutional courts in the world.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1