rss_2.0Environmental and Climate Technologies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Environmental and Climate Technologies and Climate Technologies 's Cover Food Wastage: The Net Impact of Activities. A Carbon Footprint Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food wastage is a complex global issue. Its solution requires a multi-pronged effort and the use of diversified strategies. Since the impacts are on an environmental, social and economic level, solutions can take shape in one of these areas, knowing that there are often trade-offs between one and the other. This paper aims to evaluate the net environmental effects in terms of Carbon footprint of the activities of the Lithuanian Food Bank (<italic>Maisto Bankas</italic>). Food banks are charities that work to reduce the negative social effects associated with food waste and food insecurity. They work on the food recovery, avoiding the transformation of food surplus in food waste. The present paper assessed the positive impact generated by the Lithuanian Food Bank thanks to its activities as the non-impact of recovered food and the non-disposal of food in landfills. At the same time, also the negative impact in term of emission due to the management of all its activities has been estimated. The net impact has been derived by the comparison of the two flows. The results of the study proved that, behind the social benefit, the Food Banks, as <italic>Maisto Bankas</italic>, produce also a net positive environmental impact.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimal Energy Management in a Smart Micro Grid with Demand Side Participation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The energy management in energy systems is the main solution for energy companies in order to provide minimization of the energy generation costs and emission polluting. In this work, a multi-criteria optimization model is implemented for minimizing the generation cost and emission in a smart micro grid (SMG) at day-ahead planning. In this modelling, the demand side participates in optimal energy management through two strategies such as demand shifting and onsite generation by the energy storage system (ESS). The optimal participation of demand side is modelled based on energy price in energy market. Implementation of the proposed approach in GAMS software is done, and weight sum method (WSM) is employed for solving multi-criteria optimization. The desired optimal solution of multi-criteria objectives is found via the max-min fuzzy procedure. Finally, confirmation of the proposed approach is analysed by numerical simulation in two case studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A Study on a Recuperative Suspension as an Alternative Energy Source<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper describes the problem of using the vehicle’s suspension as a source of an alternative energy. One of the best ways to improve the vehicle efficiency and its smooth ride is to make some rational changes in the vehicle design, one of which is to convert the mechanical energy accumulated in the vehicle’s suspension into electricity. The shock absorber in the suspension has been replaced with two different-type new recuperative devices, which replace the shock absorber and convert into electricity the loads coming from the road irregularities to pavement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-02T00:00:00.000+00:00A New Method for the Rapid Synthesis of Gas Hydrates for their Storage and Transportation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This presents the analysis of the main reasons for a significant decrease in the intensity of diffusion processes during formation of gas hydrates; solutions to this problem are proposed in a new process flow diagram for the continuous synthesis of gas hydrates. The physical processes, occurring at corresponding stages of the process flow are described in detail. In the proposed device, gas hydrate is formed at the boundary of gas bubbles immersed in cooled water. The dynamic effects arising at the bubble boundary contribute to destruction of a forming gas hydrate structure, making it possible to renew the contact surface and ensure efficient heat removal from the reaction zone. The article proposes an assessment technique for the main process parameters of the synthesis of gas hydrates based on the criterion of thermodynamic parameters optimization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment and Accuracy Improvement of Pyroelectric Sensors (Eco-Counter) Based on Visitors Count in National Park. The Case: Monitoring System of Tourist Traffic in Stołowe Mountains National Park, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The monitoring of tourist traffic helps to manage tourism in national parks. Today park managers and researchers use many different devices and technologies that facilitate data collection. Among these often used devices is the pyroelectric sensor. Despite its high degree of usefulness, this type of sensor can miscalculate. Therefore, there is a need to assess the magnitude of errors and the circumstances in which they occur. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pyroelectric sensor counting errors in relation to different visitor flow levels and time intervals between visitors. The study was based on a field experiment and on-site observations using pyroelectric sensors, part of the Monitoring System of tourist traffic (MSTT) in Stołowe Mountains National Park in Poland. The outcome of the assessment was the errors sizes and types and calibration formula. Pyroelectric sensors more often overcount than undercount. Errors occur in larger than 6-visitor groups and time intervals between visitors shorter than 3 seconds. Finally, the analysis of the causes of errors gave the ground to generate the typology of error circumstances. The calibration formula was generated based on a field experiment and on-site observation. The average error size was reduced from ±13 % to ±6 %. The calibration formula provided in the study is simple and universal and can be applied to other data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Trend Investigation of Thermal Comfort in Different Climates of Iran in Past Decades<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Regarding climatic diversity in Iran and the dependence of many outdoor activities (occupational, recreational, tourism attraction, etc.) on climatic conditions, this study conducted aiming to evaluate thermal comfort fluctuations in Iran. Thermal comfort fluctuations in different climates of Iran were investigated between 1985 and 2014 using recorded meteorological data in 40 synoptic stations. The Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s Slope were used to analyse the changing trends of the Humidex and to determine the actual slope of a trend over time, respectively. In overall, the southern areas of Iran have the longest period with unfavourable and extremely unfavourable climatic conditions in this study. Conversely, in the northern half of Iran, especially in North West areas, the appropriate summer season provides the best climatic conditions for outdoor activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessments under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals: A Bibliometric Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The United Nations announced its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development worldwide in 2015. Comprehensive assessments of member states’ performance towards achieving the related UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have since become a major challenge for national and subnational governments. This article presents a bibliometric analysis on the assessment of SDGs, at both the general and specific levels, based on 418 publications obtained from Scopus. The general level of analysis includes the number, types, and subject areas of documents published each year, as well as considerations such as the most-cited publications and the leading authors, journals, countries, institutional affiliations, and funders. The specific level of analysis includes a study of the relevant concepts in the publications and their relationships, allowing for the identification of predominant assessments under the 2030 Agenda, and of the most-often evaluated SDGs. Results indicated a focus on measuring impacts and risks, with SDGs 3, 6, 13, 7, 8, and 4 having been assessed the most often among the 17 SDGs, which is consistent with findings in prevalent subject areas such as environmental sciences, social sciences, medicine, and energy. Future works should address assessments under the 2030 Agenda more comprehensively, including analyses on trade-offs among the SDGs and on the transversal nature of some of these goals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental and Economic Advantages of Disposal of Phosphoric Industry Waste<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the types and classification of waste from the phosphorus industry of the Zhambyl region of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Waste is classified by its use as recyclable materials for construction materials. The results of a comparative assessment of the physical, chemical and structural properties of the phosphorus industry waste are presented. The article shows that all studied types of waste have astringent properties and can be used as building materials. In this work, a study of the properties of large-tonnage wastes of the phosphorus industry was carried out: 1) electrothermophosphoric granular slag (granulated slag); 2) phosphogypsum; 3) overburden. A technology has been developed for producing non-fired binders from waste of the phosphorus industry and a methodology for designing the composition of raw mixtures of multicomponent building composites has been proposed.</p> <p>Pilot tests and calculation of technical and economic indicators have been carried out, which have shown the economic feasibility of producing a non-firing binder for the construction industry from phosphorus production waste.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Automotive Hazardous Waste Management in Automotive Shops of Indonesia’s Metropolitan City. Case Study: Bandung City, West Java Province<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The number of vehicles in Bandung City continues to increase every year in line with the growth of motorized vehicle repair shops, thereby increasing the generation of hazardous waste from automotive shop activities. Based on Indonesia’s Governmental Decree 101 of 2014, vehicle maintenance and repair activities are one of the businesses that produce hazardous waste. This study focused on licensed and unlicensed automotive shops in Bandung City using stratified sampling methods by determining waste generation and composition, evaluating existing management systems, followed by developing management system alternatives. In determining the generation and composition of hazardous waste from automotive shop activities, a sampling of 42 unlicensed automotive shops and 11 unlicensed automotive shops in 3 areas of Bandung City was conducted. Sampling results of hazardous waste generation are 1.83 kg/vehicle/day for motorcycle automotive shops and 6.90 kg/vehicle/day for car automotive shops. The largest composition of hazardous waste produced in licensed shops is used oil with a proportion of 29.60 % and metal scrap component with a proportion of 35.83 % for unlicensed automotive shops. The projection results of hazardous waste generation in 2021 are around 774.26 tonnes/day. If the hazardous waste generated is not properly managed it can pose a risk to human health and the environment. An integrated management system for hazardous waste consists of packaging activity, storage activity, collection, transportation, and recycling activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Boundaries of Scientific Innovation in the EU Green Deal Context<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The dynamics of global energy and climate agenda progresses rapidly. The European Union has frequently taken an active role in international climate policy by developing relevant strategies in as early as the nineties the last century, and today promoting an ambitious EU Green Deal to become climate neutral by 2050. However, despite its ambition and recent success in meeting most 2020 goals, the EU does not have an easy schedule to progress on its climate and energy targets for 2030. Recognizing the transition, one of the scientific excellences European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) published the first environmental report in the beginning of 2020. Through a wide range of environmental activities and clearly disseminated targets, this organisation actually brought to the table a discourse on how scientific organisation can be part of EU Green Deal actions and how to perform research within the scope of the environmental context. This article focuses on two concepts to contribute to larger discussions in both the research and governance communities, how researchers should conduct their science, and what respective responsibilities of researchers, their institutes, have in terms of European environmental policy. Literature was reviewed to find a theoretical approach to the environment, responsible innovation and science diplomacy. The research was developed through literature study to identify and describe the respective indicators as well as through an analysis of secondary sources whereby a previous attempt to collect and analyse other sources had been conducted by scholars in respect to the relationship between innovation and the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Possibilities of Balancing Buildings Energy Demand for Increasing Energy Efficiency in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays national and international directives have focused on improving energy efficiency in the building sector. According to them, energy consumption and emissions of buildings must be reduced. This can be achieved by balancing energy demand in buildings. In this context, this paper proposes a buildings’ energy demand balancing method using the building energy consumption simulation program IDA ICE and real measurements. A 3D model of the building was developed, energy consumption and indoor climate of the building was monitored throughout the year, the behaviour of the occupants (a survey was conducted) was analysed, dynamic change of the weather was studied and all data were integrated into IDA ICE simulation. In order to increase the energy efficiency of buildings, the possibilities of optimization of heat production equipment and heating devices, as well as inspecting and optimization of ventilation and cooling equipment were considered. By adjusting the parameters of the heating system of the researched object, the energy consumption of the auto centre decreased to 39.3 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> per year. One of the most popular methods of balancing energy demand in recent years – the creation of smart grids – is also considered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance Analysis of An Automated Biodiesel Processor<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The extraction of Biodiesel from vegetable oil is time-consuming and requires human involvement to perform and keep track of chemical titration, stirring, and washing the product for each batch of production. A well-designed system can significantly eliminate human interaction and expedite the whole process. The construction of an inexpensive automated biodiesel plant can help produce Biodiesel on a large scale and make a breakthrough in Bangladesh’s economy as no such effort has been undertaken so far. To achieve the desired aim, this paper focuses on implementing the construction of a cheap, compact, and automatic system that will exhaustively reduce human interactions and the processing time and increase biodiesel yield. For this purpose, an automated biodiesel processor was designed and constructed in conjunction with pumps, solenoid valves, level sensors, temperature sensors, etc., using a programmable logic controller (PLC). Upon completing a full cycle, the plant delivers certified Biodiesel and the leftover by-products are collected for further recycling. Different batches of Biodiesel were produced. A comparative study of the physical properties of the fuel and the diesel engine’s performance characteristics by these fuel samples was analysed and showed satisfactory results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Education for Advancing the Implementation of the Green Deal Goals for Bioeconomy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Evolving complex concepts, such as bioeconomy, in the most effective way, can be applied through the education of students and professionals. In recent years changes in the education system can be observed with the development of knowledge-based learning. Competence-based learning will also be used more and more in higher education. Higher education plays a crucial role in achieving the goals of the Green Deal and the bioeconomy. The main emphasis is on creating new and innovative technologies and methods to achieve these goals. A new master’s study program, ‘Environmental Engineering’, has been established at the Institute of Energy Systems and Environment of Riga Technical University. One of the study directions is ‘Bioeconomy’. Considering the developed direction ‘Bioeconomy’, the importance of this sector is visible. Attention should also be paid to the goals of the Green Deal. This study summarised research on education, bioeconomy and Green Deal topics and analysed the interrelationships between these studies using the <italic>VOSviewer</italic> tool. During the analysis, it is possible to conclude the main keywords that characterise these studies. The obtained keywords should indicate the development trends of future research, which is in line with education, the ‘Green Deal’, and bioeconomy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Trends in Environmental Management Systems Research. A Content Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental Management Systems (EMS) represent a solid opportunity for companies that voluntarily undertake a path towards the adoption of environmental protection policies. Many studies investigated the link between EMS and improvement of environmental performance, demonstrating how the adoption of an international standard as ISO 14000 or EMAS guarantees the company an improvement in its performance and an increase in transparency towards stakeholders. However, scientific research in this field reflects the strong variability due to the breadth and diversity of sectors in which the two international standards can be adopted. The aim of this work is to analyse, through textual statistics and text mining methods, the trends that characterize scientific production, highlighting most debated topics useful for developing new research perspectives in this research field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Healthcare Waste and Resource Potential Assessment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among other sectors prioritized in delivering the circular economy targets, such a major sector as health care should also be highlighted. According to World Bank data, current health expenditure is still rising, reaching globally 10.02 % in 2016 compared to 8.56 % in 2000. To ensure protection of public health, the management of health care waste should be based on the waste management hierarchy. Besides the preventive measures (waste minimization, green procurement, sustainable planning, environmental management systems), treatment methods should also be viewed in the context of the waste management hierarchy. To analyse the possibility to apply circular economy principles into health care waste management, evaluation of resource recovery alternatives as well as its multi-dimensional assessment was done. In the article quantitative and qualitative assessment was conducted through multicriteria decision analysis with a goal to do a quantitative and qualitative assessment of healthcare waste and resource potential assessment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-14T00:00:00.000+00:00First Results on the Removal of Emerging Micropollutants from Municipal Centrate by Microalgae<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The results of a first campaign of sampling and analyses of emerging micropollutants in the influent (municipal centrate) and effluent of a pilot MBP raceway are reported. The algal population was chiefly made of <italic>Chlorella</italic> spp. and the pilot worked satisfactorily for the removal of nitrogen. 14 emerging micropollutants were analysed. Average removal efficiencies exceeding 80 % were observed for diclofenac, lamotrigine, ketoprofene, clarithromycin. For such compounds the variability of removal efficiency was also reduced, with respect to the other tested molecules, and was particularly low for diclofenac and lamotrigine. Removal efficiencies over 50 % were measured for azithromycin, metoprolol and irbesartan but with strong variability. Lower removal efficiencies were observed for amisulpride and 5-methylbenzotriazole, while for the remaining compounds the concentrations in the effluent were higher than in the influent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Agricultural Co-Product Management: An LCA Perspective on the Use of Safflower Oilcake from Bio-Oil Production in Umbria Region, Italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work evaluates the impact of cultivating Safflower (<italic>Carthamus tinctorius L.</italic>) in marginal lands of the Umbrian territory (Italy) to produce oil. The analysis considers the entire production process, aiming to understand which are the most impacting factors. In particular, the work assesses the environmental savings deriving from the reuse of the main by-product of the oil extraction process, i.e. the cake, for animal feed purposes. The evaluation was carried out by means of a cradle-to-gate LCA. The results show that the greatest impacts are due to the crop fertilization. However, such an impact is almost completely compensated by the use of the cake in feed production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Climate Change on Wind Potential in Lithuania Territory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wind energy is one of the most important ways to implement green energy in Lithuania. The development of wind energy infrastructure by state funding is directly related to wind energy resources. Changes in wind energy resources induced by ongoing climate change have not been well analyzed either in Lithuania or in Europe or worldwide. This article analyses data taken from long-term wind observations and IPCC projections. It was found that during the last decades (1980–2019), the wind speed in Lithuania decreased up to 0.69 m/s in the coastal region and up to 0.24 m/s in the central part of Lithuania. The decrease in wind speed caused a decrease in generated energy by 15.6 % and 17.8 % in the coastal and the central parts of Lithuania. Analysis of wind speed projections for the period 2010–2100, according to the RCP4.5 scenario, has shown that the average annual wind speed would decrease by 7.3 % in Lithuanian’s coastal region and 8.8 % the central region by the end of the century. The change in wind speed will cause up to a 25 % reduction in wind potential. As the average lifetime of wind turbines is about 25 years, the amount of electricity generated during this period will be up to 20 % lower than planned at the design stage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00 Evaluation of Large Electricity Consumer Policy Measures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>All European Union (EU) member states till 2020 had an obligatory target for energy efficiency. One of instruments for countries to achieve national energy efficiency goals is obligation for large companies (LC) and large electricity consumers (LEC) to implement certified energy management system or perform energy audit. In this study the Latvian case study of obligation for LC and LEC where examined. The analysis was carried out using a theory-based policy analysis method combined with evaluation criteria from the EU legislative assessment guidelines The Better Regulation Agenda – efficiency, effectiveness, relevance, coherence, added value, validity, complementarity, coordination, equality, sustainability and acceptability. To evaluate energy efficiency policy measures, it is also important to understand energy efficiency measures that will realistically meet the set company and national targets. AHP and TOPSIS analyzes were performed to evaluate these measures not only from energy efficiency but also from environmental, climate, engineering-technical, economic, and social aspects. The results allow us to assess the fate of existing policies and to draw conclusions on the improvements needed to meet energy efficiency and climate goals in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling the Combined Heat and Power Plants with Steam Turbines in the Study of Energy Security Problems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper considers the development of mathematical models of combined heat and power plants that are to be used while modelling the fuel and energy complex. Consideration is given to three methods of combined heat and power plant (CHP) modelling: The first method provides for the simplified modelling based on CHP aggregation in one energy zone; the second method is based on modelling the individual CHP using the accurate parameters of their equipment operation; the third method is based on the use of standard regime diagrams for modelling individual CHP. Analysis of the presented methods of CHP modelling revealed that the third method out of the three methods proposed is most appropriate for mathematical models of fuel and energy complex for studying the fuel and power supply reliability. The experimental part of the paper describes the process of deriving the analytical dependencies of electricity and heat generation versus fuel used by CHP that is obtained by the third method proposed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1