rss_2.0Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Reports on Geodesy and Geoinformatics on Geodesy and Geoinformatics 's Cover for 2-D building deformation monitoring using Kalman Filter<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Stereo photogrammetry has been used in this study to analyse and detect movements within the Lecture theater of School of Environmental Technology of Federal University of Technology Minna via the use of Kalman filter algorithm. The essential steps for implementation of this method are herein highlighted and results obtained indicate Ins. Mov.s (velocity) ranging from ±0.0000001 m/epoch to ±0.000007 m/epoch with greater movements noticed in the horizontal direction than in the vertical direction of the building. Because the observed movements were insignificant, the building has been classified as stable. However, a longer period of observation with a bi-monthly observational interval has been recommended to enable decision on the rate of rise/sink and deformation of the building.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-08-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of a UAV-based system for the semi-automatic estimation of the volume of earthworks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the challenges faced by surveyors in acquisition of accurate spatial data for mining applications is the risk involved in acquiring data in rugged terrains and difficult or inaccessible areas. With the advent of modern technology, accurate geospatial data can now be safely obtained for proper mining documentation periodically. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for data acquisition in mine surveying has been a viable means of obtaining reliable geospatial data rapidly and efficiently. The main goal of this study is to develop a semi-automatic UAV-based system for the acquisition of spatial data required for the estimation of the volume of earthworks. A DJI Phantom 4 quadcopter was used for the acquisition of image data of the project site, while the images were processed into a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Pix4Dmapper v2.0.1, which was then imported into the MATLAB-based system developed for the automatic estimation of the volume of earthworks. The volume obtained from the automated system was thus compared with the volume obtained directly from the Pix4Dmapper software, having specified a contour interval of 1 and an allowable error rate of ±3% as the standard error. While ±1.02% error was observed in the volume estimated using the Pix4Dmapper, the developed automated system yielded an estimated precision of ±0.81% in its volume estimation, which proves to be more robust for automatic volume estimation in terms of accuracy and precision.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Legal aspects of registration the time of cadastral data creation or modification<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Poland, the cadastre is the basic register which is the source of information on cadastral entities and their property. Therefore, it should constitute a reliable source of information in the scope of establishing the range of law, its nature, but also the subject of its ownership. However, it is necessary to be able to not only check the current information on the legal status and its scope, but also review past statuses or determine the rights that will influence real estate in the future. The cadastre and related rights are changing very dynamically over time, and each state has a very strict reference to the previous state. Therefore, in order to manage real estate in the most effective way, it is necessary to record temporal attributes of cadastre objects.</p> <p>The main objective of this paper is to define the legal issues related to the possibility of registration at the time of creation or modification of object in the Polish cadastre. This paper includes analyses of both Polish legal regulations and European standards and norms. Moreover, the article presents the results of comparative analyses concerning the data model of cadastre and INSPIRE and Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) data models for the theme cadastral parcel in terms of temporal aspect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring and forecasting spatio-temporal LULC for Akure rainforest habitat in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For several decades, Nigerian cities have been experiencing a decline in their biodiversity resulting from rapid land use land cover (LULC) changes. Anticipating short/long-term consequences, this study hypothesised the effects of LULC variables in Akure, a developing tropical rainforest city in south-west Nigeria. A differentiated trend of urban LULC was determined over a period covering 1999–2019. The study showed the net change for bare land, built-up area, cultivated land, forest cover and grassland over the two decades to be −292.68 km<sup>2</sup>, +325.79 km<sup>2</sup>, +88.65 km<sup>2</sup>, +8.62 km<sup>2</sup> and −131.38 km<sup>2</sup>, respectively. With a projected population increase of about 46.85%, the study identified that the built-up land cover increased from 1.98% to 48.61%. The change detection analysis revealed an upsurge in built area class. The expansion indicated a significant inverse correlation with the bare land class (50.97% to 8.66%) and grassland class (36.33% to 17.94%) over the study period. The study observed that the land consumption rate (in hectares) steadily increased by 0.00505, 0.00362 and 0.0687, in the year 1999, 2009 and 2019, respectively. This rate of increase is higher than studies conducted in more populated cities. The Cellular Automata (CA) Markovian analysis predicted a 37.92% growth of the study area will be the built-up area in the next two decades (2039). The 20-year prediction for Akure built-up area is within range when compared to CA Markov prediction for other cities across the globe. The findings of this study will guide future planning for rational LULC evaluation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Gauss-Markov model with random parameters to adjust results of surveys of geodetic control networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alignment of an engineering object project in the field is always conducted at the points of the geodetic control network, the coordinates of which are determined on the basis of the results of its elements survey and with connection to the national spatial reference system. The points of the national spatial reference system determined on the basis of previous surveys have specified coordinates with adequate accuracy, which is included in their covariance matrix. The coordinates of the geodetic control network points are determined more accurately than the points of the national spatial reference system and this means that the results of surveys of the geodetic control network have to be adequately incorporated into the coordinates of the reference points. In order to perform this incorporation, it may be assumed that the coordinates of the reference points are random, that is, they have a covariance matrix, which should be used in the process of adjusting the results of the geodetic control network observation. This research paper presents the principles for the estimation of the Gauss-Markov model parameters applied in case of those geodetic control networks in which the coordinates of the reference points have random character. On the basis of the observation equations δ + <bold>AX</bold> = <bold>L</bold> for the geodetic control network and using the weighting matrix <bold>P</bold> and the matrix of conditional covariances (<bold>P</bold><sup>−1</sup> + <bold>AC</bold><sub><italic>X</italic></sub><bold>A</bold><sup><italic>T</italic></sup>) for the observation vector <bold>L</bold>, the parameter vector <bold>X</bold> is estimated in the form of the derived formula <inline-formula> <alternatives> <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="graphic/j_rgg-2021-0001_ieq_001.png"/> <mml:math xmlns:mml="" display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:mover accent="true"><mml:mtext mathvariant="bold">X</mml:mtext><mml:mo>^</mml:mo></mml:mover><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:msup><mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:mo>(</mml:mo><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mtext mathvariant="bold">C</mml:mtext><mml:mi>X</mml:mi><mml:mrow><mml:mo>−</mml:mo><mml:mn>1</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:msubsup><mml:mo>+</mml:mo><mml:msup><mml:mtext mathvariant="bold">A</mml:mtext><mml:mi>T</mml:mi></mml:msup><mml:mtext mathvariant="bold">PA</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mo>)</mml:mo></mml:mrow></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:mo>−</mml:mo><mml:mn>1</mml:mn></mml:mrow></mml:msup><mml:msup><mml:mtext mathvariant="bold">A</mml:mtext><mml:mi>T</mml:mi></mml:msup><mml:mtext mathvariant="bold">P</mml:mtext><mml:mo>⋅</mml:mo><mml:mtext mathvariant="bold">L</mml:mtext></mml:mrow></mml:math> <tex-math>{\bf{\hat X}} = {\left( {{\bf{C}}_X^{ - 1} + {{\bf{A}}^T}{\bf{PA}}} \right)^{ - 1}}{{\bf{A}}^T}{\bf{P}} \cdot {\bf{L}}</tex-math> </alternatives> </inline-formula> . The verification of these estimation principles has been illustrated by the example of a fragment of a levelling geodetic control network consisting of three geodetic control points and two reference points of the national spatial reference system.</p> <p>The novel feature of the proposed solution is the application of covariance matrices of the reference point coordinates to adjust the results of the survey of geodetic control networks and to determine limit standard deviations for the estimated coordinates of geodetic control network points.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence analysis of criteria of comparables’ selection on the accuracy of the property value estimation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the considerations presented in the article is the question of the criteria according to which the comparables, in the market value estimating process, should be selected. As the most important in the selection of comparative properties, the factor of similarity in relation to the subject property (measured by the Euclidean distance) was considered. As the key issue, the similarity assessment criterion and the influence of the adopted critical value of this criterion on the accuracy of estimates were chosen. The analysis of the above was carried out with taking into account the role of the significance of independent variables (measured by their correlation with the vector of the dependent variable). The results of the simulation tests carried out in the variants set by the criteria adopted were presented. On this basis, it has been shown that there is a potential most relevant solution in the collection of obtainable estimation results. This solution corresponds with the smallest sum of the differences of model prices (accepted as known) and corresponding estimates. The found minimum occurs for a specific layout of the above criterion values only.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of a precise local quasigeoid model for the city of Krakow – QuasigeoidKR2019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A geoid or quasigeoid model allows the integration of satellite measurements with ground levelling measurements in valid height systems. A precise quasigeoid model has been developed for the city of Krakow. One of the goals of the model construction was to provide a more detailed quasigeoid course than the one offered by the national model PL-geoid2011. Only four measurement points in the area of Kraków were used to build a national quasigeoid model. It can be assumed that due to the small number of points and their uneven distribution over the city area, the quasigeoid can be determined less accurately. It became the reason for developing a local quasigeoid model based on a larger number of evenly distributed points. The quasigeoid model was based on 66 evenly distributed points (from 2.5 km to 5.0 km apart) in the study area. The process of modelling the quasigeoid used height anomalies determined at these points on the basis of normal heights derived through levelling and ellipsoidal heights derived through GNSS surveys. Height anomalies coming from the global geopotential model EGM2008 served as a long-wavelength trend in those derived from surveys. Analyses showed that the developed height anomaly model fits the empirical data at the level of single millimetres – mean absolute difference 0.005 m. The developed local model QuasigeoidKR2019, similar to the national model PL-geoid2011, are models closely related to the reference and height systems in Poland. Such models are used to integrate GNSS and levelling observations. A comparison of the local QuasigeoidKR2019 and national PL-geoid2011 model was made for the reference frame PL-ETRF2000 and height datum PL-KRON86-NH. The comparison of the two models with respect to GNSS/levelling height anomalies shows a triple reduction in the values of individual quartiles and a mean absolute difference for the developed local model. These summary statistics clearly indicate that the accuracy of the local model for the city of Krakow is significantly higher than that of the national one.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The conversion of heights of the benchmarks of the detailed vertical reference network into the PL-EVRF2007-NH frame<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper describes the problem of conversion of heights to the European Vertical Reference Frame 2007 for Poland (PL-EVRF2007-NH). The subject of the study is height data, and especially the detailed vertical reference network. The aim of the article is to present an alternative method of conversion to the one recommended by the Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. The proposed approach is characterised by a low implementation cost while maintaining the required accuracy.</p> <p>The publication is illustrated by the case of Kętrzyn district (in the north-east part of Poland). The local reference network was converted from Kronstad’60 to PL-EVRF2007-NH in 2017.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-01-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Considerations about the quality of UML and GML application schemas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Exchange of and access to spatial data is the principal goal of any Spatial Data Infrastructure, therefore, one of the key concepts of SDI is interoperability, especially semantic and syntactic. Whereas application schemas and quality issues are one of the aspects that have to be considered to ensure a successful data interchange in SDI.</p> <p>Two types of application schema are widely used in the European SDI as well as in the Polish SDI. They cover both semantic and syntactic interoperability and are an integral parts of spatial data specifications and relevant regulations in the form of data models. However, working out accurate and correct application schemas may be a challenge.</p> <p>Additionally, faulty or too complex application schemas can influence the ability for valid data interchange, and consequently, prevent achieving interoperability within SDI. Therefore, the capability to examine and estimate the UML and GML application schemas quality seems to be a worthwhile and important issue in the context of semantic and syntactic interoperability in SDI.</p> <p>The main subject of this article it to set out the context of performed studies, among others, the role of application schema in the interoperable data exchange, issues related to the concept of quality and its measures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00MarQR technology for measuring relative displacements of building structure elements with regard to joints and cracks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents an original optical system to measure displacements across joints or cracks in building structures. It describes the concept of system operation, algorithms to be followed and results of practical tests that have been performed.</p> <p>The proposed solution is based on digital photos taken with a non-metric digital camera, modified by defining its internal orientation elements and correction of lens distortion during calibration, constituting the measurement instrument registering the pictures of markers. QR (Quick Response) codes are proposed to be the markers. Being digitally processed, a set of registered images allow visualising the measured size of occurred displacements.</p> <p>Owing to this solution, it is possible to obtain data on a mutual position of two or more QR codes in the form of translation elements in 3D space and appropriate three orientation angles. Appointed elements are unequivocal in spatial interpretation and not limited by dimension.</p> <p>As the tests performed by the authors show, the results are more than satisfactory. The proposed measurement technology is an objective system of data acquisition, suitable for automating the whole monitoring process of displacements of building structure elements concerning joints and cracks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Prospects of Metrological Provision Linear Geodetic of Measurements on the Geodetic Test Field<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper gives brief information on existing metrological support for the Yavoriv of scientific of the geodetic of test field (SGTF) for testing of modern of surveying equipment (rangefinders, electronic total stations and GNSS receivers). Analyzed ways to improve the fundamental geodetic network and the standard linear of basis, as working standards for testing, in accordance, GNSS receivers and a rangefinders, as well as for study an accuracy technology of GNSS leveling.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Rhumb-Line Sailing by Computation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Proposals of algorithms for solving Navigation faculty’s problems regarding navigation along rhumb line (loxodrome), for officer trainees and civil students of Faculty of Navigation and Naval Weapons and for deck seamen on operational level, are presented in this paper. Proposals of calculation algorithms given in the article cover simple mathematical totting based on plane sailing (navigational) triangle and Mercator triangle (Mercator sailing). The algorithms refer to traditional methods of solving problems and they do not cover solutions applicable in automated (integrated) navigational systems. </p><p>The formulas enable to solve the tasks with a use of electronic calculator and application of traditional methods on plane and sphere, and they also take the Earth’s ellipsoidal shape into consideration.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00New Method for Determination of Adjustment Corrections for Crane Rail Axes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Electronic tacheometers are currently a standard instrument used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. One of the many applications of tacheometers in engineering geodesy are 3D control measurements of crane rail axes. This paper proposes a new method of computing adjustment corrections for crane rail axes based on 3D polar measurements performed with an electronic tacheometer. The intermediary method with conditions on parameters was used in the solution of the problem. The theoretical discussion was complemented with an example application on simulated results of observations. The obtained results confirmed the theoretical assumptions and encourage the verification of the presented proposal on practical examples.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Inclinometer Measurements for Relative Horizontal Displacement Investigations on Landslide Grounds<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> One of the basic criterion for safety evaluation of structures erected on embankment or sliding slopes is relative horizontal displacement at different elevations. Relative horizontal displacements beneath ground surfaces are performed with inclinometer measurements. This report presents results on horizontal relative ground displacements with the probe SISGEO S242SV30. Investigations were performed with two inclinometer columns 14m height embedded in Warsaw Bank Slope. Mean square error of single observation was determined and mean relative errors of relative displacements in relation to column height. On the basis measurement results several relevant recommendations and practical hints were formulated allowing to avoid survey blunders and discrepancies in measuring procedures often encountered. Detailed inclinometer horizontal displacement measurements results at Warsaw hillside St Ana’s Church grounds were listed and presented.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring the Dynamic Deformation of the Bridge Structures by Accelerometers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper presents current trends in determining the dynamic deformations of bridge structures through the exploitation of geodetic measurements by accelerometers. The main aim of the paper is to demonstrate the practical application of these measurements on the cycling bridge over the river Morava in Devínska Nová Ves. Possibilities for the processing and analysis of accelerometer measurements by spectral analysis are described. An evaluation of the results is realized based on the modal characteristics from a numerical model designed by the finite element method.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Review Article: Professor Lazzarini’s Concepts in Displacement Measurements and Analysis Still Valid and Inspiring of the Relative Precision in Local Network with Use of the Trimble Geo XR GNSS Receivers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper deal with testing of different GNSS measurement methods in highly accurate network for the objectives of engineering surveying. The test is comprised of a set of measurement acquired by particular GNSS methods with different observation length. For purposes of the test, an appropriate network of five points in local system was created and accurately trigonometrically measured. The result of testing is a comparison of individual methods in position using two dimensional congruent transformation and in height using one dimensional congruent transformation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-10-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Intended Use of a Building in Terms of Updating the Cadastral Database and Harmonizing the Data with other Public Records<p> According to the original wording of the Regulation on the register of land and buildings of 2001, in the real estate cadastre there was one attribute associated with the use of a building structure - its intended use, which was applicable until the amendment to the Regulation was introduced in 2013. Then, additional attributes were added, i.e. the type of the building according to the Classification of Fixed Assets (KST), the class of the building according to the Polish Classification of Types of Constructions (PKOB) and, at the same time, the main functional use and other functions of the building remained in the Regulation as well. The record data on buildings are captured for the real estate cadastre from other data sets, for example those maintained by architectural and construction authorities. At the same time, the data contained in the cadastre, after they have been entered or changed in the database, are transferred to other registers, such as tax records, or land and mortgage court registers. This study is the result of the analysis of the laws applicable to the specific units and registers. A list of discrepancies in the attributes occurring in the different registers was prepared. The practical part of the study paid particular attention to the legal bases and procedures for entering the function of a building in the real estate cadastre, which is extremely significant, as it is the attribute determining the property tax basis.</p>ARTICLE2017-08-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Integrated Precipitable Water from GPS Observations and CIMEL Sunphotometer Measurements at CGO Belsk<p> This paper describes results of integrated precipitable water co-located measurements from two techniques: GPS solution and CIMEL-318 sunphotometer. Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) is an important meteorological parameter and is derived from GPS tropospheric solutions for GPS station at Central Geophysical Observatory (CGO), Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS), Belsk and compared with sunphotometer (CIMEL-318 device by Cimel Electronique) data provided by Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Two dedicated and independent GPS solutions: network solution in the sub-network of European Permanent Network (EPN) and precise point positioning solution have been made to obtain tropospheric delays. The quality of dedicated tropospheric solutions has been verified by comparison with EPN tropospheric combined product. Several IPW comparisons and analyses revealed systematic difference between techniques (difference RMS is over 1 mm). IPW bias changes with season: annual close to 1 mm IPW (and semi-annual term also present). IPW bias is a function of atmospheric temperature. Probable cause of this systematic deficiency in solar photometry as IPW retrieval technique is a change of optical filter characteristics in CIMEL.</p>ARTICLE2017-08-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Accuracy Investigation of Creating Orthophotomaps Based on Images Obtained by Applying Trimble-UX5 UAV<p> The main purpose of this work is to confirm the possibility of making largescale orthophotomaps applying unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Trimble- UX5. A planned altitude reference of the studying territory was carried out before to the aerial surveying. The studying territory has been marked with distinctive checkpoints in the form of triangles (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.2 m). The checkpoints used to precise the accuracy of orthophotomap have been marked with similar triangles. To determine marked reference point coordinates and check-points method of GNSS in real-time kinematics (RTK) measuring has been applied. Projecting of aerial surveying has been done with the help of installed Trimble Access Aerial Imaging, having been used to run out the UX5. Aerial survey out of the Trimble UX5 UAV has been done with the help of the digital camera SONY NEX-5R from 200m and 300 m altitude. These aerial surveying data have been calculated applying special photogrammetric software Pix 4D. The orthophotomap of the surveying objects has been made with its help. To determine the precise accuracy of the got results of aerial surveying the checkpoint coordinates according to the orthophotomap have been set. The average square error has been calculated according to the set coordinates applying GNSS measurements. A-priori accuracy estimation of spatial coordinates of the studying territory using the aerial surveying data have been calculated: m<sub>x</sub>=0.11 m, m<sub>y</sub>=0.15 m, m<sub>z</sub>=0.23 m in the village of Remeniv and m<sub>x</sub>=0.26 m, m<sub>y</sub>=0.38 m, m<sub>z</sub>=0.43 m in the town of Vynnyky. The accuracy of determining checkpoint coordinates has been investigated using images obtained out of UAV and the average square error of the reference points. Based on comparative analysis of the got results of the accuracy estimation of the made orthophotomap it can be concluded that the value the average square error does not exceed a-priori accuracy estimation. The possibility of applying Trimble UX5 UAV for making large-scale orthophotomaps has been investigated. The aerial surveying output data using UAV can be applied for monitoring potentially dangerous for people objects, the state border controlling, checking out the plots of settlements. Thus, it is important to control the accuracy the got results. Having based on the done analysis and experimental researches it can be concluded that applying UAV gives the possibility to find data more efficiently in comparison with the land surveying methods. As the result, the Trimble UX5 UAV gives the possibility to survey built-up territories with the required accuracy for making orthophotomaps with the following scales 1: 2000, 1: 1000, 1: 500. </p>ARTICLE2017-08-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1