rss_2.0Quaestiones Geographicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Quaestiones Geographicae Geographicae 's Cover of Internal Variability of Climate System in Increase of Air Temperature in Wrocław (Poland) in the Years 1951–2018<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the course of analysing the annual air temperature in Wrocław (TWr), a rapid change of the thermal regime was found between 1987 and 1989. TWr increased by &gt;1°C, a strong, statistically significant positive trend emerged. The analysis of processes showed that strong warming in the cold season of the year (December–March) occurred as a result of an increase in the NAO intensity and warming in the warm season because of increased sunshine duration in Wrocław (ShWr). Multiple regression analysis has shown that the winter NAO Hurrell's index explains 15% of TWr variance, and the ShWr of the <italic>long-day</italic> (April–August) period 49%, whereas radiative forcing 5.9%. This indicates that the factors incidental to the internal variability of the climate system explain 64% of the TWr variability and the effect of increased CO<sub>2</sub> concentration only ~6%. The reason for this rapid change of the thermal regime was a radical change in macro-circulation conditions in the Atlantic-European circular sector, which took place between 1988 and 1989. The heat, which is the cause of warming in Wrocław, comes from an increase in solar energy inflow (April–August) and also is transported to Europe from the North Atlantic surface by atmospheric circulation (NAO). These results indicate that the role of CO<sub>2</sub> in shaping the contemporary temperature increase is overestimated, whereas the internal variability of the climate system is underestimated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00SALBEC – A Python Library and GUI Application to Calculate the Diurnal Variation of the Soil ALBEdo<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study presents the SALBEC – Soil ALBEdo Calculator – a Python library and Graphical User Interface designed to predict the diurnal variation of the clear-sky albedo based on the soil surface properties. Such predictions are becoming more and more necessary with the increasing role of remote measurements. The software uses the following input parameters: the soil spectrum, soil roughness, day of the year (DOY) and sample location. It returns the diurnal albedo variation and, as a unique feature, optimal observation time in the form of tables and graphs as outputs. Models created with the SALBEC were compared with the data acquired under near clear-sky conditions. The comparison shows that the differences between the models and measured data do not exceed the variation of input parameters. The software is directed towards scientists and professionals who require precise estimations of the albedo of soils for different field observation times. Our software is issued as free and open source software (FOSS) and is publicly available at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors of Influence on Evacuation Behaviour: Survey Results from the Riverine Floodplain Communities in Bangladesh<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>River floods are distinct because not all of them are destructive and typically affect the people who are living in riverine areas. Therefore, people often refuse to evacuate even when they face imminent danger. River floods are a recurrent phenomenon in Bangladesh. This research aims to analyse the flood evacuation behaviour of riverine people in Bangladesh. A total of 377 households were selected for the questionnaire survey and were interviewed from April 2019 to May 2019. Bivariate and multivariate statistics were employed to analyse riverine people's evacuation behaviour based on their socio-demographic and economic characteristics. This study found that although 82% of the households had received flood warning messages, only 40% had evacuated. Results from multivariate analysis suggested that the age of household heads, their education, whether they are disabled/chronically ill members, their income, the height of floodwater inside the house, and the type of warning messages they receive appear to be key determinants that influenced their decisions regarding evacuation. Elderly household heads had a lower likelihood to evacuate. The results showed a negative association between early warning messages and evacuation. Household with disabled/chronically ill member(s) was associated with a higher likelihood of evacuation. Similarly, higher water depth in the home was associated with evacuation. These findings will be helpful for policymakers to enhance awareness of riverine households.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Geospatial Tools in Morphometric Analysis and Prioritisation of Sub-catchments of the Soungrougrou (Casamance Basin)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The prioritisation of catchments, particularly in the context of catchment plans and management programmes, is part of water resources development. In fact, morphometric analysis assisted by geospatial technology is carried out by prioritising sub-catchments according to their natural resource availability characteristics. Information on the geomorphology and erosion factors of the study area is used in the area in the preparation of local models of ungauged sub-catchments, which otherwise lack an adequate hydrological database. The objective of this paper is to use geographic information systems (GISs) in morphometric analysis to prioritise sub-catchments of the Soungrougrou (a tributary of the Casamance River). In this respect, the integrated methodology involving morphometric aspects from geospatial technology is used. To carry out the geospatial research, basic mathematical equations used in a GIS environment were used to measure a series of aspects of hydrology such as flow length, flow length ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, drainage texture, flow frequency, elongation rate, circularity ratio, form factor, relief and relief ratio. The results divided the whole catchment into three priority areas, namely high, medium and low. The results are relevant for establishing soil and water conservation plans in the Soungrougrou basin, as well as adequate groundwater production and management. The high category (sub-basins 6, 8, 14, 17 and 18) is subject to maximum soil erosion, which requires immediate intervention to avoid possible natural hazards.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysing (In)Justice in the Interplay of Urbanisation and Transport: The Case of Agrarian Extractivism in the Region of Urabá in Colombia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Infrastructural design, transport and mobility policies are strong instruments for interpreting historical urban and regional transformation processes. The paper addresses the intercausalities between both of them. To do so, it briefly sketches debates on the causalities of transport infrastructure and urbanisation and the theory of technological politics, drawing attention to the relationship between transport infrastructure and politics, and how infrastructures and their techno-political frames include means of power and authority. From there, the paper moves to the debate on the relationship between social justice and transport, showing how transport systems embody social processes and social (in)injustice. The history of agrarian extractivism in the region of Urabá in Colombia serves as a case study. The paper shows how existing transport networks of the region of Urabá have supported the expansion of agrarian extractivist industries and more specifically the production of transport (in)justice. It explores the development of the infrastructural network, transport systems and urbanisation of this region from the early 1900s onwards. Results show how the actual agrarian extractivist industries of the region are causing huge challenges related to the overlapping of transport scales, congestion and risks of accidents in urban areas, and how actual transport dynamics in the region are affecting urban development, generating a high segregation characterised by uneven distributions of public services and transport infrastructures. The paper reveals that the existing transport developments in the region of Urabá have no support for local development and are mainly thought for the efficiency of agrarian extractivist industries over local economic development. Agrarian extractivism has been a consistent factor in the economic, political and social spheres, and since colonial times the appropriation of natural resources and the dispossession of territories has been omnipresent. This paper explores the historical role of transport in agrarian extractivism, the long-term impact of the prolongation of old mechanisms, and the interrelations of the latter with current urbanisation and development. It concludes that infrastructural developments in this region have supported agrarian extractivist industries, first in colonial times, but also more recently, showing the deep embeddedness of the relation between mobility and urbanity in the (agrarian extractivist) development history of this region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Water Scarcity, Mountain Deforestation and the Economic Value of Water in a Small-Scale Irrigation System: A Case Study in East Java, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to identify the willingness of farmers to pay for small-scale irrigation (SSI) and its determinants. Additionally, this study analysed the physical water availability in the study area using 16 years’ (2004–2019) historical data of streamflow, rainfall and forest cover change. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data from 100 farmers. A contingent valuation method was employed to elicit farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for irrigation water. The results show that the average WTP of farmers is US$ 215.84/ha/year. It accounts for 20% of farm revenue and is almost 20 times the water fee in large-scale irrigation systems. The study area experienced significant deforestation in the last two decades suffering a decrease of 11.72% of forest cover. It decreases the amount of stored rainwater and decreases the streamflow causing water scarcity during the dry season. Farm size, farmer income, distance to a small dam and usage of water-pump are the significant determinants. The results indicate that water scarcity caused by poor infrastructure increases the economic value of water in a SSI system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Natural Resources, Urbanisation, Economic Growth and the Ecological Footprint in South Africa: The Moderating Role of Human Capital<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>South Africa is the largest emitter of CO<sub>2</sub> and arguably the most developed and urbanised country in Africa. The country currently harbours an ecological deficit territory which could be the outcome of economic expansion, urban explosion, unsustainable resource exploration and a low level of human development. After all, environmental distortions are mainly the outcome of human activities. This study is a maiden attempt to examine the linkage between urbanisation, human capital, natural resources (NR) and the ecological footprint (EF) in South Africa. Unlike previous studies, this study employs positivist and relevant environmental indicators that accommodate built-up land, forest land, carbon footprint, ocean, grazing land and cropland. Findings from the long-run results suggest that urbanisation, economic growth and NR increase the EF, whereas human capital ensures environmental sustainability. The interaction between urbanisation and human capital mitigates environmental degradation by reducing the EF. The canonical cointegrating regression (CCR), dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) and the fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) results further confirm the nature of the relationships and linkages existing with respect to NR, urbanisation, economic growth and the EF. A bidirectional causality exists between human capital, economic growth and the EF. Policies related to NR and urban sustainability, the limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Nature-Based Tourism Motivations and Visit Profiles of Domestic and International Segments to a Japanese National Park<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid post-millennial internationalisation of Japan's tourism sector and the influx of international visitors have quickly increased visitor motivations’ heterogeneity, thereby posing challenges for management. Given the lack of prior research, we aimed to identify nature-based tourism (NBT) push-factor motivation domains of visitors in a Japanese national park and segment domestic and international visitors based on their motivations, demographics and trip profiles. Primary data collection of 137 responses took place in November 2019 through an on-site self-administered questionnaire. From 11 push-factor statements, the principal component analysis yielded a four-factor solution: ‘enjoying nature with family or friends’, ‘improving physical health’, ‘discovering and learning’ and ‘escaping’. In addition, <italic>t</italic>-tests revealed significant differences between domestic and international visitors in three out of the four motivation dimensions. Underlying visitor profiles could explain some such differences. Despite the differences, both international and domestic visitors share similar motivations regarding ‘improving physical health’. These findings hint at the complexity of monitoring heterogeneous visitor segments within Japanese NBT. Despite increasing international visitors, there has been a lack of the necessary infrastructure and facilities to accommodate them. Thus, this study's implications might help diversify NBT management strategies to deal with current shortcomings in Japan's tourism sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Gendered and Gender-Neutral Character of Public Places in Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to determine whether Algerian public spaces are gendered or gender neutral and to deduce the place of women in this type of hedonistic aesthetic consumption space. A non-probability sample of 363 individuals allowed us to collect the necessary data on the basis of an experiential scale designed for Algerian public spaces. This scale offers us the possibility of measuring their spatial and phenomenal experiential tendency. In other words, it allows us to evaluate the potential of their sensorial, relational, emotional, cognitive, behavioural spaces, their urban environments and their spirits of the place. This scale has undergone the tests of reliability and validity laid down by Churchill. It has also undergone the latest generation confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) method. Due to the non-normality of the sample distribution, we applied non-parametric tests in our analysis. The Mann Whitney U tests were used to calculate and compare the indices of spatial and phenomenal segregation of public places. The results revealed the gendered or gender-neutral nature of the three public places with their respective mapping. In the end, on the basis of the cultural dimensions of Hofstede, we were able to get to know the populations of the cities in our case studies that require urgent awareness-raising action. This promotes gender equality and especially the right of women to use and occupy hedonic public spaces without any conditions or prejudice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Urban Theatricalities, A Communicational Claim. Reading of the Scenic Performances of the City of Jijel (Algeria)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to analyse and interpret the structures responsible for the urban theatricality with deep claims of the city of Jijel (Algeria). It is through scenic readings of public space that this study explores the latent expressions of users as stage directors. This will be done mainly with observation supported by research interviews that combine qualitative and quantitative studies. The urban theatricalities studied in this paper are those unconscious, spontaneous and continual experiences that the actors of the urban scene use to make an urban spectacle. It is about the spectacle of daily life and scenic transcriptions of experiences. The results of this scenic reading of urban script allow us to understand the hidden expressions responsible for communicational theatrical structures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Planning of the Interregional Tourist Route in the Urals<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to attract the attention of geographers to the development of technology for the design of tourist routes. The world and Russian experience of designing long interregional tourist routes is considered. The authors’ approaches to route design are illustrated by the example of the Urals. Interregional tourist routes in Russia are actively developed with the support of the government. They are initiated by interacting regions and especially federal districts. Interregional routes are tours covering several adjacent regions or regions that are close not territorially, but thematically in tourist aspects. Such routes are quite different, but they have mainly cultural and informative goals as well as an excursion, transport and sometimes cruise style. Among all the interregional routes, the ‘Golden Ring’ and the ‘Volga-Kama’ river cruises are exemplary, among which the ‘Moskovskaya krugosvetka’ stands out due to the uniqueness of the ring shape of the route. The geographic features of the Urals are at the heart of the logical decisions for the preparation of the interregional tourist project ’The Great Ural Route’. The Urals have attractive, image, logistic and other opportunities for organising a large tourist route. A route should be developed for residents of the country and foreign guests, which will introduce the most striking and characteristic objects of the macro region as a whole. Moreover, the annular shape of the route is most preferred. It is advisable to lay the route in most of the Ural regions. It should include the main cities, landscapes of different natural zones, the most significant excursion sites and distinctive territories. Geographic route design technologies make it possible to make them relevant for a long time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Coastal Regions of Russia: Migration Attractiveness and Innovation Performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coastalisation is a widely known concept that builds on the global urbanisation of the world's marine and ocean coasts. In this paper, the degree of coastalisation of the Russian regions is analysed using a variety of parameters, including population numbers and gross regional products, indicating the accumulation of human activity in the coastal regions against the less densely populated inland territories. This research shows that coastalisation is expected to continue, making coastal regions the most attractive for international and interregional migration, hence their high innovation performance. Based on the principles of human geography, we put forward the hypothesis that Russia's coastal territories are highly heterogeneous in their development dynamics. This study aims to test the interdependence between migration figures and innovation values across 23 regions of Russia with access to the sea. The research design comprises three stages: calculation of innovation performance, evaluation of migration flows and the building up of a typology of coastal regions. The research results reveal an increased migration attractiveness of the country's coastal regions, with the St. Petersburg and Kaliningrad agglomerations and the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Krai (region) as the main attractors. Intensive innovation activity is characteristic of St. Petersburg, the northern capital of Russia, whereas peripheral regions where the extractive industries dominate (the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (district), Kamchatka, Krasnoyarsk and Magadan regions) demonstrate a much weaker trend towards combining innovation performance and migration attractiveness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable Tourism as a Driving Force in Regional Development of Remote Regions in Siberia: An Integrated Operational Framework<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Regional development based on sustainable tourism is one of the options of developing remote regions, which are usually disadvantaged due to their distance, but can have a certain competitive advantage based on their remoteness. The present paper offers in-depth analysis of the tourism potential in selected remote regions of Russia, the Altai Mountains and Lake Baikal with the aim to explore the specific features of their sustainable tourism development and to propose an integrated operational framework for sustainable tourism and regional development usable for similar regions across the world. The proposed integrated operational framework helps to achieve a tricky balance between economic resurrection of remote areas and environment conservation, which is possible only with the proper co-integration of tourists with the community, and local economic development with the environment. It presents a set of drivers and their mutual relations to achieve the successful sustainable tourism development in remote regions in Russia and across the world. The present research results contribute to a knowledge bank that could serve as a useful guide for academics and policymakers involved with sustainable development, geography or environmentally sensitive tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Migratory Outflow from Wrocław: Directions of Population Flows within the Framework of Internal Migration in the Period 2002–2018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the majority of large cities in Poland there is a migration outflow, resulting mainly from suburbanisation processes. However, it should be noted that the inhabitants of large cities do not move exclusively to the suburban zone. The study below focuses on the migratory outflow of Wrocław residents. The authors characterise it by presenting the directions of population movements and determining their sustainability. The authors conclude that the target area of immigrants from Wrocław is mostly a suburban area, but there are also permanent migration flows to other rural communities in the voivodeship and other large cities in the country. The area of emigration itself goes beyond the scope of the voivodeship of which Wrocław is the capital.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatial Evolution of the River Valleys under the Influence of Active Volcano: A Case of Merapi Volcanic Plain<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Merapi Volcano in Central Java, Indonesia, has a high eruption intensity that triggers landscape changes in the form of a river channel evolution. In this paper, the spatial change of river valleys under the influence of sediments deposition in the fluvio-volcanic system is investigated. The data were collected by employing observation, remote sensing image interpretation, literature study and documentation of data from several agencies. The data were analysed using the spatial approach supported by geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing. The results show that there are many palaeochannels related to fluvio-volcanic processes from the southern to the western sectors of the Merapi volcanic foot. Palaeochannels are mainly distributed next to the main river valleys. This condition correlates with the contributions of the Merapi eruptions. The palaeochannel distribution patterns cluster radially following the distribution pattern of the river valleys. The process that plays the most important role in the evolution of palaeochannels is the deposition of lahar. In sum, this research shows that volcanic activities over a long period of time have provided great and important contributions that have driven the landform evolution. The various changes that occur also reveal the unique morphological characteristics, showing the influence of the volcanic processes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatiotemporal Variation of Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Tropical Urban Area (Case Study in Surakarta District, Indonesia)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The value of terrestrial carbon sequestration in urban areas, due to lack of vegetation as a carbon sink, is rarely studied. In fact, urban areas have high carbon emission values, which must be minimised. On the other hand, the value of carbon sequestration in urban areas is very dynamic due to natural factors from the environment and non-natural factors from anthropogenic activities. The main objectives of this study are to identify the carbon dioxide sequestration in urban areas, especially in tropical climates, and to determine the dynamics of carbon sequestration in urban areas for a year. The results show that carbon sequestration in tropical urban areas has a significant value compared with urban areas in temperate climates. This condition happens because there are still green open spaces in gardens and agricultural lands. The value of carbon sequestration in this tropical urban area experiences monthly dynamics caused by rainfall variation and anthropogenic activities, such as land conversion and plant type conversion in agricultural lands.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Setbacks to the Implementation of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Case Studies of the Namas of Ethiopia, Georgia and Indonesia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The lack of implementation of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) of the non-Annexe I Parties registered in the NAMA Registry of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a worrying situation in the sense that it is limiting the contributions these NAMA projects would have made towards mitigating global climate change. There is however little research on the reasons behind the lack of implementation of these NAMAs projects and this is the knowledge gap that this paper seeks to fill based on a critical overview of the NAMAs of Ethiopia, Indonesia and Georgia. The source of data for this paper is mainly from the focal persons for the NAMAs of the countries under study, which was obtained via telephone and Skype interviews with the respondents. Our findings show that lack of funding, complicated financial mechanisms, lack of technical expertise, fringe conditions to donor support and policy issues according to the findings of this study are the main hindrances to the implementation of NAMAs. International organisations, donor partners, developed countries and local governments alike are therefore encouraged to channel some of the funds meant for fighting global climate change into sponsoring the NAMAs of poorer countries, as this will see to the successful implementations of these NAMAs and their subsequent impacts on mitigating global climate change. The paper is also timely considering the scarcity of literature on NAMAs related issues.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Identifying the Most Effective Geosite Evaluation Models in Iran Using Delphi and Analytic Hierarchy Process Methods<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Despite the large amount of information, including books, articles and pristine images of geotourism, there exists no comprehensive study on the collection and classification of them in Iran yet. In this research, for the modelling of geosite watersheds, 1000 articles were surveyed through library research and the models with the highest frequency of use were identified and analysed among a statistical sample of 451 local papers using the Meta-Analysis method, and then the most efficient ones were identified using Delphi and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods. The results of this study showed that while the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), Pralong, Reynard, AHP and Pereira models are in the first to fifth-ranked models with the highest frequency, however, Pralong, SWOT, Reynard, Perira and Comanescu models were considered as the most efficient ones in geosite modelling in Iran.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Landscapes, Settlements and Traditional Housing in Samtskhe-Javakheti, Georgia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A change in livelihood and folk architecture is an indicator of cultural landscape transformation, which is often the result of changes occurring in the natural and socio-political realms. The diversity of architectural types of buildings as an element of landscape diversity distinguishes our research region. The presented study deals with a long-term change of housing and architectural types of settlements. Our goal was to identify, geolocalise, and classify the vernacular architecture of Samtskhe-Javakheti within the different types of natural landscapes. For this purpose, we used the HGIS (Historical Geoinformation System) approach, which comprises the application of both historic sources and GIS technologies. We identified seven types of buildings in the study area, the characteristics of which depended on the natural landscape features. The following factors had been determining the geography of the construction: geology, seismicity, terrain, climate, access to building materials and defence. Dominant architectural types of buildings in the study region were as follows: fortress Rabat with stone houses, stone houses, semi-underground houses mixed with stone houses, semi-underground houses, terraced semi-underground houses, cave dwellings and wooden log houses. In modern times, it is quite rare to come across these kinds of architectural buildings, and there is a tendency of their disappearance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing Youth Engagement in the Preservation and Promotion of Culture Heritage: A Case Study in Korça City, Albania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The engagement of young people is already considered essential for preservation and promotion of culture heritage. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), the European Commission, national governments and numerous organisations have undertaken a series of initiatives and projects that are aimed at engaging young people in the preservation and promotion of cultural values from the international level to the local ones. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the role of youth in cultural heritage preservation and promotion in a local area, after considering the importance of their engagement. The research has been conducted on the basis of quantitative and qualitative data, which has been collected from primary and secondary sources. A survey is conducted in a local urban area (the city of Korça) that is rich in cultural heritage. This city is located in the south-eastern part of Albania. The data gathered through the questionnaire was later coded and analysed using SPSS v. 20 software. Based on the results of the research, the engagement of youth, especially students, in maintenance of archaeological sites, museums and libraries, training culture programs, guide walk tourist itineraries and participation in local heritage projects, enhance not only their awareness concerning heritage values, but also contributes towards their preservation and promotion. It is observed from the survey that the level of awareness of young people interviewed is higher among those who have been engaged in projects and cultural activities for preservation and promotion of heritage values. In terms of willingness expressed by young people, it is important to emphasise the role that education system, youth and heritage organisations and national and local government ought to play in encouraging the initiatives that involve more young people in heritage activities and projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1