rss_2.0Poznań Theological Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Poznań Theological Studieshttps://sciendo.com/journal/PSThttps://www.sciendo.comPoznań Theological Studies 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6077da3935ffba54c4e51609/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210727T021930Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210727%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=26af14e35641ee9759128bbca58f9cb1e0fe9b3a9933446b5ba3a450153c0ed7200300Children’s Positive Attitudes in the New Testament Epistleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.02<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The subject of the article is the attitudes and characteristics of children, which the authors of the New Testament epistles evaluate directly or indirectly as positive and recommend to their addressees in their relation to God, Christ, the Gospel, other people and values. Such attitudes include: service (Phil 2:22), obedience (Eph 6:1–3; Col 3:20; 1 Pet 1:14–16), modesty and innocence (1 Thess 2:7), receiving discipline (Heb 12:4–11), the desire for healthy mother’s milk (1 Pet 2:1–3). Besides, Semitic expressions such as ‘children of Abraham’ or ‘children of obedience’ emphasize the child’s origin and dependence on parents and participation in their goods. While in familiar phrases such as ‘my children’ or ‘my babies’ the cordiality, trust and devotion characteristic for children come to the fore. By recommending children’s attitudes to adult Christians, the authors of the letters do not want to lead them to infantilism, but to preserve the child’s soul. Although they do not refer to the positive statements of the Lord Jesus about children, their view of children is similar. They only pay more often attention to the negative attitudes of small persons.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00With Marcello Veneziani on gods and the longing for themhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.09<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This review article is an attempt to introduce the Polish reader to the most important aspects of Marcello Veneziani’s book <italic>Nostalgia degli dei. Una visione del mondo in dieci idee</italic> (<italic>The longing for gods: Vision of the world in ten ideas</italic>), published in 2019. The Italian author, philosopher, journalist, writer and TV commentator, addresses the problem of diseases plaguing contemporary Western civilization that threaten its further existence. The book is a proposal to return to metaphysical thinking, but in a way akin to a contemporary pop version, and Veneziani’s gods, close to Platonism, are metaphors and ‘penultimate deities’: <italic>Civilisation</italic>, <italic>Homeland</italic>, <italic>Family</italic>, <italic>Community</italic>, <italic>Tradition</italic>, <italic>Myth</italic>, <italic>Fate</italic>, <italic>Soul</italic>, <italic>God</italic> and <italic>Return</italic>.</p> <p>The article provides a subjective review of the content of Veneziani’s book and juxtaposes it with Joseph Ratzinger’s famous proposal addressed to contemporary non-believers, that is, ‘to live as if God existed’ (<italic>veluti si Deus daretur</italic>).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Learning and Revealing the Thoughts of the Holy Scriptures through the Preachers as Perceived by Rev. Zygmunt Pilch (1888–1962)https://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.05<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The text of the article is an analysis of selected issues from the teaching of Rev. Zygmunt Pilch (1888–1962) PhD, who directed his thoughts not only to students of preaching but also to preachers. His teaching is still relevant today. The homiletics lecturer appealed to the preachers of the Word of God that they were obliged to communicate the Word of Salvation to the world. The text of the Holy Scriptures, according to the homiletics teacher, is a natural source of preaching, as it is the Spirit of God Himself who speaks through it, through the teaching Church. From the inspired text, the preacher should draw content, spirit, anointing, life and grace. A preacher reading the Scriptures is bound to grasp the meaning of God’s speech. By reading the text, he looks for thoughts and meanings, wanting to capture the inner content of the text. The primary concern in reading the Bible is to know its literal meaning, which is directly apparent from the words of the text. There is also a typical sense in the holy books. The preacher’s task is to convince the faithful to live by faith, according to the Lord’s thought contained in types. Reading the Word of God requires appropriate methods that understand its symbolic meaning, revealed in allegories. Christ often made use of parables as the means of visual teaching, drawing images from everyday life. Devoted completely to preaching, Z. Pilch reminded that the Holy Scriptures, being the treasury of the revealed truth, were the main literature for every preacher. The teaching of the prelate Zygmunt Pilch seems to be still relevant and is still an undiscovered treasury.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Pneumatological Ecclesiology and Its Relationship with Permanent Ecclesiogenesis. Selected Aspectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.03<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The Christological-pneumatological character of post-conciliar ecclesiology, which appreciates the personal-communal (relational), as well as historico-redemptive and eschatological character of the Church, and restores institutional-social dimension of the Church to its proper place in ecclesiology, opens the possibility of extending the traditional approach to the establishment of the Church as a historico-redemptive set of Christ’s actions.</p> <p>Deepened theological reflection on the pneumatological-personal (<italic>communio</italic>) character of the Church allows us to speak of its permanent personal-pneumahagic process of constant birth in the baptized ones and in the community of faith. Constant presence and influence of the Spirit in the community of the Church and its activities include its offices, evangelizing mission and means of sanctification, but also various gifts (charisms) of the Holy Spirit, as well as development or renewal of the faith life of individual Christians and the community. Aspects of permanent ecclesiogenesis can vary in intensity and form, but they all derive from the influence of the Spirit sent by Christ to His disciples, and are based on the personal, communal, event-oriented (historical) and processual character of faith as <italic>communio</italic> with Christ and brothers. The forms of permanent ecclesiogenesis can be seen in eschatological Church-directing tension dynamism between ‘already’ and ‘not yet’ of the Kingdom of God, in event-donative nature of faith as a communion with Jesus and its processual character, in life-giving character and fruitfulness of faith, in generating new ecclesial realities, clearly beyond human possibilities, in moving towards the missionary future, theological openness, and universality of the Church.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The Protestant Homiletics Approach toward Preaching on the Internethttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.04<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The presence of the sermon in cyberspace requires an in-depth theological interpretation and an appropriate classification. Evangelicals maintain that traditional homiletics is not able to meet this new technological challenge, thereby they call for creating a new homiletics, i.e. the one crafted for the Internet. This article outlines the proposal of such homiletics and discusses it thoroughly. This new approach toward Gospel preaching stems from the paradigm which perceives the sermon as an ‘open work of art’, adopted from Gerhard M. Martin’s aesthetic homiletics. Its supporters claim that the current situation allows for considering the Internet not only as a medium, but also a place where the Church is realized. Thus, the community gathered online around the sermon is treated as an ecclesial community. However, the Catholic Church does not accept such an understanding of both the Church and the sermon. In their view, in a virtual space the authentic preaching of the Church cannot be performed. Therefore, all forms of preaching on the Internet should not be researched by homiletics, but media theology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Andrzej Megger, , Wydawnictwo Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego, Lublin 2018, ss. 308https://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.10<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Due to the progress and globalization the contemporary world more and more differs from Christ and the teaching of the Church. Therefore, there is a need to look again at the essential though often discounted aspect of the sacraments of initiation and their role in pastoral and liturgical life of a parish.</p> <p>The aim of the review of fr. Andrzej Megger’s monograph entitled <italic>Sacraments of Christian Initiation in a Parish</italic> is the encouragement to read and explore the model of the pastoral work which often meets with ignorance or incomprehen sion in parish life reality.</p> <p>While reading the monograph it might be helpful to point the book’s specificity and to present the reviewer’s insights so that the people interested could analyze the thesis with the knowledge of its assumptions and the scope of the research. Particularly significant for the future readers is the emphasis of the monograph’s role as a source of valuable knowledge which could be used in community pastoral work and therefore, it might be a compendium of appropriate and effective pastoral premises.</p> <p>In order to provide content’s clearness the text is divided into paragraphs so that the main part of the article corresponds to individual chapters of the book. Accordingly to its nature, the review is fully based on the title mentioned above.</p> <p>To sum up, the result of the review is to outline the issues that are broadly discussed in the monograph. The article is also an incentive to read the book which might seem only a theoretical study but might as well greatly affect practical dimension of preparation and celebration of the sacraments of Christian initiation in a parish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Post-Tridentine Catholic Piety and Forms of Devotional Practices in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.07<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article concerns the Polish religiosity and piety of the post-Tridentine era, combining <italic>nova et vetera</italic>, elements inherited from old centuries and entirely new. On the one hand, the religiosity of that period was based on the heritage of the late Middle Ages, on the other — it introduced elements of new piety and expanded certain forms of worship. The article describes various forms of the cult of the Passion of Christ, Calvarian devotions, ascetic practices, Marian piety and the area of hagiography. It focuses primarily on the Polish features of post-Tridentine religiosity, but also introduces the European context to indicate broader experience in this field, to draw attention to the national uniqueness and universality of Polish Catholicism, and to emphasise its dialogue with Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00A Contribution to the Issue of the Translation of the Word in Gen 4,3–5ahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.01<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>At the end of 2016, a revised edition of the Catholic Bible translation (<italic>Einheitsübersetzung</italic>) was published. One of the many corrections introduced referred to the word <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_pst.2020.37.01_ingr_002.png"/> in Gen 4,3–5a. It was translated as “a gift” (<italic>Gabe</italic>). The previous translation (1980) read this word as “a sacrifice” (<italic>Opfer</italic>). This article examines the validity of a given correction, proposing to combine both translation traditions into one as “a sacrificial gift” (<italic>Opfergabe</italic>).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Cooperation of the Local Government and the Church in the Service of the Old People in Poznańhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.06<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>About 148 thousand seniors live in Poznań and according to forecasts, this number will systematically increase. The cooperation of the local government, non-governmental organizations and the Church counteracts the social exclusion of this group of people and is a necessary condition for seniors to live in their environment as long as possible. The senior policy in Poznań is implemented in the areas indicated by the WHO: construction, public space management, transport, housing, social support, professional and social activation, counteracting exclusion, social support, health protection. The Center for Senior Initiatives, as a municipal unit, implements projects for seniors and cooperates with Caritas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Presence and Formation of Adults in the Sodality of Our Lady: Contribution to the Native Historyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.37.08<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The Christian Life Community is the successor of the Sodality of Our Lady. The Christian Life Community today is mostly made up of adults. They are formed spiritually and morally. This formation had already existed since the beginning in the Sodality of Our Lady, that is since the foundation of the first Sodality of Our Lady by the Jesuit John Leunis in 1563 at the <italic>Collegium Romanum</italic>. The adults who co-created the Sodality of Our Lady until the 18<sup>th</sup> century were kings, aristocrats, bishops, nobles, townsmen, craftsmen, servants, but the presence of adults most fully developed after the reactivation of the Society of Jesus (1814). The indications presented in the <italic>Guide</italic> by the Jesuit Jan Rostworowski have shaped the characters and attitudes of the adult members of the Marian Sodalities for centuries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Mystery of the Holy Name of Jesus in the Liturgy of the Roman Churchhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.09<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>According to the bible tradition, the name of a person determine its personality and dignity. Since the 18<sup>th</sup> century there is known commemoration of the most sacred name of Jesus in the liturgy of Roman Church. The essence of this devotion contains the liturgical texts assigned for that day. Especially many texts of the pre-Vatican liturgy point out the great importance of that day. After the Second Vatican Council the commemoration was removed from the liturgical agenda, but anew established in 2002. Analysis of the texts contained in missal and breviary show theological contain of that feast day. The base are words about the humiliation and glorification of the Servant of Yahwe derived from the second chapter of the Letter of Saint Paul to Philippians (Phil. 2:6–11) and from the Acts of Apostles. In that book it is said that the name of Jesus is the only one by which we can be saved (Acts 4:8–12). Liturgical texts from the Old Testament indicate the fulfilment of the prophecy in the name of Jesus. Different motivation of praising the name of Jesus is shown in the literature of Christian writers who demonstrate the beauty and sweetness of the name of Jesus. Before The Second Vatican Council, in the sermons of St. Bernard it is highlighted that this name is innate, not given. Saint Bernard from Siena said in his sermons that the name of Jesus is the name of His mercy. This text is the base of the Office of readings after the Second Vatican Council. Nowadays this feast is celebrated on 3<sup>rd</sup> January and links the mystery of the nativity and of the revelation of the Lord, pointing out the unity in the celebration of the mystery of Incarnation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00European Humanism and Benedictine Monasticism. Around Selected Statements of Benedict XVIhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.08<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Josef Ratzinger has made the problem of the solid foundations of European humanism one of the most important in his scientific and pastoral work. Called to the Holy See, he chose the name Benedict XVI, indicating the Saint Abbot of Nursia as the special patron of his pontificate. In this study two valuable statements of Pope Ratzinger are discussed, showing the relationship between European humanism and Benedictine monasticism. The first is the speech of Benedict XVI during a meeting with people active in culture at the Bernardine College in Paris on September 12, 2008. The second is the text <italic>Crisis of cultures</italic>, in which the Pope pensioner presents Abbot Benedict and his way of life as an adequate response to the contemporary crisis of European humanism. To seek God in the first place, to sensitize conscience to trueness, showing the paths of freedom, which advocates good and beauty, is the calling of Benedictine monks and at the same time, a necessary condition for integral humanism, the creative development of European culture.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Injuries that May Have Been Caused by a Crown of Thornshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.05<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The article is the attempt to answer the question: what physical injury could cause the Crown of Thorns, which was placed on the head of Jesus. Analysis of this event and its effects, was carried out on the basis of the study of the Shroud of Turin, Sudarium of Oviedo, Sainte Coiffe. In addition, there has been included information on Jewish funeral procedures and the study of plant species, which served the soldiers to make the crown of thorns for Jesus.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Approaching the Bible Through Fables. A Commemoration of the 25th Anniversary of the Publication of https://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.04<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Nowadays, Catholic exegetes interpret the Bible using a variety of methods and approaches. The most important of these are mentioned in the document entitled <italic>The Interpretation of the Bible in the Church</italic>. More than 25 years have passed since this act was published. This article wants to commemorate this event. It proposes an approach to the Bible through fables. The application of the proposed approach undoubtedly enriches the interpretation of the Scriptures. This thesis is demonstrated by the application of two fables motifs: <italic>fish</italic> and <italic>laughter</italic>. In fables, <italic>fish</italic> and <italic>laughter</italic> quite often mark the beginning of a new stage in the life of a certain protagonist or even become the causative agent of pregnancy, i.e. a new life. Paying attention to these ideas enables a better understanding of those biblical texts that also contain themes of <italic>fish</italic> and <italic>laughter</italic>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The First Evangelization of Indigenous Peoples of New France: The Radical Way to Martyrdom of Jesuit Missionarieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.10<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The French Jesuits played a significant role in the first evangelization of the indigenous peoples of North America in the early 17<sup>th</sup> century. They focused on the evangelization of the Huron and Iroquois tribes which remained in constant conflict with each other. In their work they cut themselves off from the commercial interests of colonial countries, especially of France. After a dozen or so years, they were already able to convey evangelical values in tribal languages, being firmly immersed in the local culture. Thus, they were precursors of the inculturation of the Gospel. The missionaries were characterized by deep Christological spirituality, founded on contemplation of the cross, and, therefore, able to endure boldly the hardships of evangelization. As the result of the vile strategies of colonial powers stirring up tribal disputes, they faced numerous misfortunes, and, ultimately, many of them suffered martyrdom. Consequently, their missionary effort became a path to personal holiness and an irreplaceable contribution to the strengthening of the newly established Church communities on the American soil.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Przymierza Izraelitów… z narodami w świetle zakazów Pięcioksięgu Biblii greckiejhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.01<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The conducted exegesis of some particular verses from the Septuagint indicates that two initial covenants made between a representative of the chosen nation with a Gentile party (Abraham and Solomon) did not breach the obligations resulting from the Law of Moses. The theological portrait of Abraham in the Book of Genesis captures an unambiguous evaluation of his conduct in accordance with the Law although the Law itself appeared considerably later when Moses lived. The pact between Solomon and Hiram deserves a similar evaluation. However, the later covenants between the kings of Israel and Judah with Gentile rulers deserve an extremely negative evaluation. Although they did not formally violate the Mosaic prohibitions, they were evaluated as a violation of trust in the Lord as He was the only Partner of the covenant between Himself and the Israelites. Such an interpretation is possible especially in light of Deut 7:6 which accentuates the uniqueness of Israel as a nation chosen by God from among other nations. And because this selection of Israel was done on the foundation of the covenant made on the Mount Sinai, it should be a one-of-a-kind covenant that should not be replaced with another pact signed with a human being, and let alone a Gentile. In all of the cases above, starting from King Asa and ending with Archpriest Jonathan, there was a true violation of the rule whereby the Lord was the only Partner of the covenant with His people. Thus, each of the analyzed treatises met with valid criticism both from a prophet and the inspired author. It is difficult to treat these violations as a major breach of the faith of Israel because of the established diplomatic relations. However, it was the rule of God’s uniqueness as a foundation for any sphere in the life of the chosen people that was violated. It included the political sphere which should not be excluded from the chosen people’s faith.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Marian Inspirations for the Culture of Encounter according to Pope Francishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.07<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The culture of encounter is among favourite themes of Pope Francis’s teaching. Nowadays, in the face of ever increasing feeling of ‘spiritual orphanage’, manifested by the disappearance of closeness and tenderness, he calls for Christians to go out and meet with people. At the same time, he points to Mary as the promoter of the culture of encounter. This very article is devoted to Her. I follow in the Pope’s footsteps, who distinguishes three elements of a meeting in the Gospel scene of Mary’s visit to Elisabeth: ‘Mary <italic>goes</italic>, Mary <italic>encounters</italic>, Mary <italic>rejoices</italic>’. These elements define the fundamental structure of the reflections presented here. This is about showing that Mary inspires us to go out to others, to show them closeness and tenderness, which restore the true joy of life.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Selected aspects of the biblical spirituality according to writings of Saint Ursula Ledóchowskahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.13<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The aim of this article is to present selected aspects of the biblical spirituality according to writings of Saint Ursula Ledóchowska. The Word of God has the central position in the spirituality of the Founder of the Congregation of the Ursuline Sisters of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus. Mother Ledóchowska is the author of <italic>Meditations</italic>, that contain considerations based on specific fragments of the Gospel, intended for each day of the year. Her <italic>Testament</italic> is also full of biblical references and permeated with the evangelical logic. According to Saint Ursula Ledóchowska the meditation of the Word of God in the spirit of faith enables us to learn more and get to know better the person of Jesus Christ and to deepen the relationship with Him. Mother Ledóchowska, by her attitude to the Holy Bible, was ahead of the Second Vatican Council’s time. All her life was an active exegesis of the words of Christ.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Tomasz M. Dąbek OSB, , Wydawnictwo Benedyktynów, Tyniec–Kraków, 2019, ss. 98https://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.17<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Book of Psalms is one of the most popular and most read Bible books. For over 2,000 years, both Jews and Christians — including Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox Christians — have been reading it. It is worth emphasizing, however, that this is not an easy book. It was created in a culture foreign to us, in a foreign language (Hebrew — biblical) — it was written by people with a different mentality than ours. Therefor to understand it, you need the right knowledge. Unfortunately, this can only be obtained at theological faculties. It is known, however, that not all Bible readers feel called to study theology. Many exegetes understand this and write comments for them on Bible books, including the Book of Psalms.</p><p>One of these exegetes is Fr. professor Tomasz M. Dąbek, the author of the book: <italic>To pray with Psalms</italic>, which was published in 2019 in Tyniec–Krakow. He divided his dissertation into several parts, which he titled: <italic>Introduction</italic> (pp. 7–8), <italic>Psalter as a prayer book of the People of God of the First Covenant</italic> (pp. 9–44), <italic>Psalms in the New Testament</italic> (pp. 45–58), <italic>Psalter as a prayer book to monks, consecrated persons and clergy</italic> (pp. 59–68), <italic>Psalter in the liturgy and in the personal prayer of a Christian</italic> (pp. 69–74), <italic>Thoughts about some Psalms</italic> (pp. 75–94), <italic>Summary</italic> (pp. 95–96) and <italic>Bibliographic proposals</italic> (pp. 97–98).</p><p>This review presents his book.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Alliances between Israel and Other Nations in Light of the Pentateuch’s Prohibitions in the Greek Biblehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.14746/pst.2020.36.02<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The conducted exegesis of some particular verses from the Septuagint indicates that two initial covenants made between a representative of the chosen nation with a Gentile party (Abraham and Solomon) did not breach the obligations resulting from the Law of Moses. The theological portrait of Abraham in the Book of Genesis captures an unambiguous evaluation of his conduct in accordance with the Law although the Law itself appeared considerably later when Moses lived. The pact between Solomon and Hiram deserves a similar evaluation. However, the later covenants between the kings of Israel and Judah with Gentile rulers deserve an extremely negative evaluation. Although they did not formally violate the Mosaic prohibitions, they were evaluated as a violation of trust in the Lord as He was the only Partner of the covenant between Himself and the Israelites. Such an interpretation is possible especially in light of Deut 7:6 which accentuates the uniqueness of Israel as a nation chosen by God from among other nations. And because this selection of Israel was done on the foundation of the covenant made on the Mount Sinai, it should be a one-of-a-kind covenant that should not be replaced with another pact signed with a human being, and let alone a Gentile. In all of the cases above, starting from King Asa and ending with Archpriest Jonathan, there was a true violation of the rule whereby the Lord was the only Partner of the covenant with His people. Thus, each of the analyzed treatises met with valid criticism both from a prophet and the inspired author. It is difficult to treat these violations as a major breach of the faith of Israel because of the established diplomatic relations. However, it was the rule of God’s uniqueness as a foundation for any sphere in the life of the chosen people that was violated. It included the political sphere which should not be excluded from the chosen people’s faith.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1