rss_2.0Psychology of Language and Communication FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Psychology of Language and Communication of Language and Communication 's Cover patient aggression in healthcare: Initial testing of a communication accommodation theory intervention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Patient-perpetrated workplace violence (WPV) in healthcare is common. Although communication skills trainings are helpful, they may be strengthened by having a theoretical framework to improve replicability across contexts. This study developed and conducted an initial test of a training framed by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) using longitudinal mixed-methods surveys of healthcare professionals in an American primary care clinic to increase their self-efficacy, patient cooperation, and use of CAT strategies to de-escalate patient aggression. Results of the intervention indicate that the CAT training significantly increased professionals’ efficacy and reported patient cooperation over time. Findings showed that those who reported using more of the five CAT strategies also reported situations that they were able to de-escalate effectively. This initial test of a CAT training to prevent WPV demonstrates promise for the applicability of CAT strategies to de-escalate patient aggression, and the need to scale and test these trainings in settings that experience high WPV levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Lexical and morphological development: A case study of Malay English bilingual first language acquisition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many first language acquisition (FLA) studies have found a strong correlation between lexical and grammatical development in early language acquisition. For bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA), the development of grammar is also found to be correlated with the size of the lexicon in each language. This case study investigates how a Malay-English bilingual child developed the lexicon and grammar in each of her languages and considers possible evidence of interaction between the languages during acquisition. The study also aims to show that the predominant linguistic environment to which the child was alternatively exposed might have played an important role in her lexical and grammatical development. Thus, the study presents two sets of data: (a) a 12-month longitudinal investigation when the child was 2;10 up till 3;10 in Australia and (b) a one-off elicitation session at age 4;8 when the family was in Malaysia. The findings show that not only the emergence of grammar is linked to the lexical size of the developing languages, but that other variables, mainly the linguistic environment and the bilingual language mode, also influenced the child’s language productions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Animals, foods, and household items—oh my! Evidence of 24-30-month-old children’s increasing flexibility in word learning from naturalistic data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At 18 months of age, children frequently generalize (and overgeneralize) novel objects’ labels by shape (Landau et al., 1988). However, data from laboratory studies using ostensive word-learning paradigms indicate that, by three years of age, children generalize the labels of novel objects depending on the objects’ perceptual characteristics and taxonomy (Lavin &amp; Hall, 2001; Jones et al., 1991). The current study sought to document this shift in children’s word-learning strategies using naturalistic data. We tracked children’s vocabularies over a six-month period of time (between 24-30 months of age) and classified their known words according to perceptual organization of the object categories to which they refer (e.g., shape-based, material-based). Children’s vocabulary sizes and rates of growth varied in meaningful ways between types of object categories and between the superordinate categories (e.g., animals, toys) to which the object categories belong. Findings carry implications for two popular accounts of vocabulary acquisition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Who is kissing whom? Two-year-olds’ comprehension of pronouns, case and word order<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Two-year olds’ comprehension of pronouns in transitive sentences was examined. Previously, children at this age have been shown to comprehend transitive sentences containing full nouns and pronouns in subject position (Gertner et. al. 2006; Hirsh-Pasek &amp; Golinkoff 1996;), but little is known about when children begin to comprehend the nominative and accusative case in pronouns. Using a preferential looking task, we found that 27-month-old children were able to comprehend transitive, grammatical sentences that had subject-verb-object (SVO) word order and nominative pronouns in subject position or accusative pronouns in object position, but 19-month-old children did not demonstrate this comprehension. Furthermore, neither group showed a consistent interpretation for ungrammatical sentences containing pronouns, in contrast to adult participants. Our results suggest that the ability to use pronouns as an aid to understanding transitive sentences develops by 27 months, before children are capable of producing these pronouns in their own speech.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Commitment to the truth or defensive stance? Political strategies in the Brexit contest<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper analyses politicians’ selection of adverbs of certainty and extreme case formulations (ECFs) in both the 1975 Referendum and the Brexit (2016). This analysis helped discover if politicians in the 1975 Referendum and the Brexit: (a) framed a similar or different reality through their discourse choices and (b) used the same types of adverbs of certainty and ECFs and with the same frequency. For this purpose, we contrasted both the time (the 1975 Referendum vs. the Brexit) and the position (Anti-Europe vs. Pro-Europe). The corpus was made up of eight different recordings. Four of them were about the Brexit and four about the 1975 Referendum. In the case of the Brexit corpus, two recordings were Pro-Europe, two were Anti-Europe, and the same was in the case of the 1975 Referendum corpus.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial: Same mission, new standards Temporal Systems<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper reviews a body of research that reveals how children acquire the capacity to express the temporal location of episodes that they remember and those they anticipate for the future. The paper shows how the child’s knowledge of language structure provides a window on the conceptual development of memory processes and the capacity for conceptual time travel away from the conversational context of the speech act.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-28T00:00:00.000+00:00In Memory of Professor Grace Wales Shugar: Introduction to the Special Issues on “Children’s Language and Communicative Knowledge”<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper is an outline of Grace Wales Shugar’s research approach and some of her main theses in the field of language acquisition and children’s discourse. Her idea of dual agentivity of adult-child interaction shows how to best support children’s communicative skills: It is only when children can show what they know in their own way, and when that child knowledge is received and used in a discourse process, that we can expect a child’s inner motivation to acquire knowledge from others to be maintained and to become a driving force of the child’s further development (Shugar, 1995, p. 233).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Deaf Children Building Narrative Texts. Effect of Adult-Shared vs. Non-Shared Perception of a Picture Story<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper discusses the communicative competence of deaf children. It illustrates the process in which such children build narrative texts in interaction with a deaf teacher, and presents the diversity of this process due to the shared vs. non-shared perception of a picture - the source of the topic. Detailed analyses focus on the formal and semantic aspect of the stories, including the length of the text in sign language, the content selected, information categories, and types of answers to the teacher’s questions. This text is our contribution in memory of Professor Grace Wales Shugar, whose idea of dual agentivity of child-adult interaction inspired the research presented here.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Specific Language Impairment (SLI): The Internet Ralli Campaign to Raise Awareness of SLI<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this short article, we discuss what is specific language impairment (SLI) and why it is a hidden disability that few people have heard about. We describe the impact on research, policy and practice of SLI being a neglected condition. We end by providing the background and rationale of a new internet campaign, RALLI (, aimed at changing this state of affairs and raising awareness of SLI.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Nature of Child-Adult Interaction. From Turn-Taking to Understanding Pointing and Use of Pointing Gestures<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Analyses of interactions between an adult and a one-year-old child are often connected with studying early communicative competences, e.g. the child’s participation in turn-taking sequences, in joint attention, and use of pointing gestures. Infants’ communicative behaviors were studied using a structured observational measure - the Early Social Communication Scales (Mundy et al., 2003) in a study of 358 12-month-old children. An exploratory factor analysis revealed: (i) a distinction between the categories of initiation and response among the behaviors displayed, (ii) simple and complex behavior categories occurring; (iii) the presence within one factor of behaviors fulfilling various functions (e.g. requesting and sharing interest). An analysis of the results showed that communicative competences can be classified according to their level and ignoring their function, and made it possible to suggest modifications to the way in which behaviors are coded on the ESCS and to complement the procedure of studying early communicative competences.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Variables and Values in Children’s Early Word-Combinations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A model of syntactic development proposes that children’s very first word-combinations are already generated via productive rules that express in syntactic form the relation between a predicate word and its semantic argument. An alternative hypothesis is that they learn frozen chunks. In Study 1 we analyzed a large sample of young children’s early two-word sentences comprising of verbs with direct objects. A majority of objects were generated by pronouns but a third of children’s sentences used bare common nouns as objects. We checked parents’ twoword long sentences of verbs with objects and found almost no bare common nouns. Children cannot have copied sentences with bare noun objects from parents’ two-word long sentences as frozen chunks. In Study 2 we raised the possibility that children’s early sentences with bare nouns are rote-learned ‘telegraphic speech’, acquired as unanalyzed frozen chunks from longer input sentences due to perceptual problem to hear the unstressed determiners. To test this explanation, we tested the children’s speech corpus for evidence that they avoid determiners in their word-combinations. The results showed that they do not; in fact they generate very many determiner-common noun combinations as two-word utterances. The findings suggest that children produce their early word-combinations of the core-grammar type by a productive rule that maps the predicate-argument relations of verbs and their semantic arguments to headdependent syntax, and not as frozen word-combinations. Children mostly learn to use indexical expressions such as pronouns to express the variable semantic arguments of verbs as context dependent; they also employ bare common nouns to express specific values of the arguments. The earliest word-combinations demonstrate that children understand that syntax is built on the predicate-argument relations of words and use this insight to produce their early sentences.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Negation Polarizes Agreement Dynamics During Sentence Comprehension<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In a forced-choice mouse-tracking paradigm, true and false statements (ranging from very true, to ambiguous, to very false) were tested in both affirmative and negated forms. Replicating prior research, mouse trajectories reveal subtle differences in a continuum of true to false statements. However, negation modifies this process, particularly for very true statements (i.e. Bread is not made from sand). The mouse trajectories were more curved with negated sentences, with end-points of the continuum of truth (very true and very false statements) having the greatest area under the curve. The proposed explanation is the pragmatic meaning of a negated statement such as <italic>“Gummie bears are not alive”</italic> is infelicitous, whereas a true statement <italic>“People live on Earth”</italic> is felicitous. This study reveals the online dynamics of processing these statements and possible confusion, particularly when very true statements contain a negation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Mothers’ Use of Gestures and their Relationship to Children’s Lexical Production<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study examines the relationship between mothers’ use of gestures and the lexical production of their children, measured in a joint book-reading task. Fifteen mother-child dyads participated, all monolingual native speakers of Mexican Spanish. Children were boys and girls with typical development, aged 48 months. Each reading session was videotaped and analyzed to calculate the gestural production of mothers and the lexical production of children. The results showed a significant positive correlation between the number of mothers’ gestures and the number of distinct words used by the children. Mothers’ gestural communication was related to the size of the vocabulary children produced in joint book-reading.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Academic Mothers’ Definitions of Bilingualism, Bilinguality, and Family Language Policies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Bilingual partnerships (Piller &amp; Pavlenko, 2004) and transnational families (Hirsch &amp; Lee, 2018) are on the rise. With mothers spending more time with their children at home, even in dual career partnerships (Hochschild &amp; Machung, 1989), the labor of family language policy (FLP) implementation often falls on them. While increasingly more new hires in academia are women (Finkelstein, Seal, &amp; Schuster, 1998), only 31% of them are mothers (Perna, 2003). In this work, we examine the dominant discourses regarding bilingualism and FLP among academic mothers who find themselves at an intersection of multiple and often competing social positions. Data was collected from 46 academic mothers residing in linguistically-different host societies but all whom gather in an online community they have co-created. Data collection procedure included 22 open-ended questions exploring bilingualism and FLP orientations. Iterative and recursive content analysis was performed, yielding thematic patterns centering around language ideologies, practices, and bilinguality.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Emotional Speech Comprehension in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implant<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We examined the understanding of emotional speech by deaf children with cochlear implant (CI). Thirty deaf children with CI and 60 typically developing controls (matched on chronological age or hearing age) performed a computerized task featuring emotional prosody, either embedded in a discrepant context or without any context at all. Across the task conditions, the deaf participants with CI scored lower on the prosody-bases responses than their peers matched on chronological age or hearing age. Additionally, we analyzed the effect of age on determining correct prosody-based responses and we found that hearing age was a predictor of the accuracy of prosody-based responses. We discuss these findings with respect to delay in prosody and intermodal processing. Future research should aim to specify the nature of the cognitive processes that would be required to process prosody.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Conflicting Nature of Social-Pragmatic Cues with Mutual Exclusivity Regarding Three-Year-Olds’ Label-Referent Mappings<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present research aims at finding to what extent social-pragmatic cues that conflict with mutual exclusivity lead preschoolers to exclude a novel object as a referent for a novel word. Sixty early and late 3-year-old preschoolers randomly participated in one of the three conditions. In the first condition, preschoolers’ tendency to select an unfamiliar object for an unfamiliar word is investigated in the absence of social-pragmatic cues that contradict mutual exclusivity. The second condition is aimed to investigate if partial social-pragmatic cues, such as pointing towards a familiar object, interfere with mutual exclusivity. In the third condition, pointing towards a familiar object is accompanied by gazing alternately between the familiar object and preschoolers to investigate whether preschoolers abandon or still honor mutual exclusivity. The results indicate that in the absence of any social-pragmatic cues, preschoolers use a familiar object as a cue leading them to match a novel object with a novel word. Partial cues such as pointing towards familiar objects do not make any significant difference in preschoolers’ familiar/unfamiliar object selection for an unfamiliar word. If both of the social-pragmatic cues are available, preschoolers suspend mutual exclusivity in indirect word learning situations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Developmental Psycholinguistics: Old Questions, New Answers and Language Abstraction in Recruitment Context<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present research explicates how job applicants employ language abstraction to present themselves as a good or bad candidate. According to the LIB theory (Maass, Salvi, Arcuri, &amp; Semin, 1989), we tested the hypothesis that, with positive instruction (i.e., to be recruited), participants’ responses would be more abstract with positive items and more concrete with negative items. Conversely, we expected that participants’ responses would be more concrete with positive items and more abstract with negative ones when the instruction was negative (i.e., to not be recruited). Results of this experiment (N = 85 French participants) confirm our hypothesis and revealed a strong interaction effect between level of language abstraction and goal of self-presentation. Implications for linguistic bias effect and normative behavior in the interpersonal context of recruitment are discussed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-26T00:00:00.000+00:00L2 Motivational Self System, International Posture, and the Socioeconomic Factor in Efl at University Level: The Case of Chile<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Motivation plays a critical role in L2 language learning and has proven to be a strong predictor of success in learning a foreign language (Biedroń &amp; Pawlak, 2016). The Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) is one of the most prominent theories developed by Dörnyei (2009), which has been studied in relation to different variables affecting language learning motivation. The aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between L2MSS components, international posture, and socioeconomic status among university students. The participants of this study were 134 non-English major university students. The results suggest that the ideal L2 self, and the L2 learning experience are related to international posture insert a comma after posture whereas the L2 learning experience is a stronger predictor of students’ motivated behavior. Future research should investigate the development of future selves in instructed language learning contexts conducive to enhancing and increasing motivation to learn English.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1