rss_2.0Production Engineering Archives FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Production Engineering Archiveshttps://sciendo.com/journal/PEAhttps://www.sciendo.comProduction Engineering Archives 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/628746978b5f78544d968222/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220520T110334Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220520%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=f9345d207872420006423cb9df25634b7cc90358852b212a258db8b643f531ef200300Quality of automotive sand casting with different wall thickness from progressive secondary alloyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.20<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paperwork is focused on the quality of AlSi6Cu4 casting with different wall thicknesses cast into the metal mold. Investigated are structural changes (the morphology, size, and distribution of structural components). The quantitative analysis is used to numerically evaluate the size and area fraction of structural parameters (α-phase, eutectic Si, intermetallic phases) between delivered experimental material and cast with different wall thicknesses. Additionally, the Brinell hardness is performed to obtain the mechanical property benefits of the thin-walled alloys. This research leads to the conclusion, that the AlSi6Cu4 alloy from metal mold has finer structural components, especially in small wall thicknesses, and thus has better mechanical properties (Brinell hardness). These secondary Al-castings have a high potential for use in the automotive industry, due to the thin thicknesses and thus lightweight of the construction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Contribution of the quality costs to sustainable developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a framework of contemporary quality costs concept contributing to a more sustainable society regarding an integrated view of quality costs in all phases of the product life cycle (engineering, production, use, and end-of-life) by all stakeholders in the supply chain. The development of this framework is viewed through the complementarity of the sustainability dimensions and the circular economy concept understood as a waste management concept, which represents a solid basis for the development of a novel approach to understanding quality costs which, in turn, reflects the sustainable quality concept. By providing sustainable criteria (economic, environmental, and social) as an integral part of the quality costs concept, this framework will improve the sustainability performance in the early phases of product design, increase the added value of the products and the duration of the added value, and strengthen the responsibility of all stakeholders beyond the limits of their organizational processes. This will inevitably lead to changes to the quality cost structure, dominated by new quality costs elements which reflect sustainability. This research demonstrates the findings that should support the setting the theoretic assumptions for the development of a sustainable quality cost generic model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Formal and Informal Regulations on Industrial Effluents and Firm Compliance Behavior in Malaysiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.23<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development of the manufacturing sector has been causing industrial effluents pollution. The practice of environmental regulation in the emerging economy focused on the externalities impact of industrialization. In conjunction with the issue, this study examines the effect of formal and informal regulation on the industrial effluent act and the firm compliance behavior in Malaysia. This quantitative study uses a survey questionnaire (structured) and involved 42 factories of three industries, namely food and beverages, textiles, and paper in Penang, Kedah, and Perlis. The data were analyzed using non-parametric tests: The Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Spearman’s Rho. This study uses the firm behavior theory as the framework, and our non-parametric analyses showed that the traditional enforcement and fined probability could significantly affect compliance levels. We also find the market, consumer, competitor, and investor pressure positively influence firm compliance. The empirical results suggest effective enforcement of environmental regulation and the role of non-regulation must be empowered as a support mechanism for pollution control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Forecasting municipal waste accumulation rate and personal consumption expenditures using vector autoregressive (VAR) modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.17<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is important for the planning, operation and optimization of municipal waste management system. However, it’s not easy task due to dynamic changes in waste volume, its composition or unpredictable factors. Initially, mainly conventional and descriptive statistical models of waste generation forecasting with demographic and socioeconomic factors were used. Methods based on machine learning or artificial intelligence have been widely used in municipal waste projection for several years. This study investigates the trend of municipal waste accumulation rate and its relation to personal consumption expenditures based on the yearly data achieved from Local Data Bank (LDB) driven by Polish Statistical Office. The effect of personal consumption expenditures on the municipal waste accumulation rate was analysed by using the vector autoregressive model (VAR). The results showed that such method can be successfully used for this purpose with an approximate level of 2.3% Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Surface Roughness Reduction in A Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Process using Central Composite Design Methodhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.18<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study is to optimize the fabrication factors of a consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) system. The input factors were nozzle temperature, bed temperature, printing speed, and layer thickness. The optimization aims to minimize average surface roughness (Ra) indicating the surface quality of benchmarks. In this study, Ra was measured at two positions, the bottom and top surface of benchmarks. For the fabrication, the material used was the Polylactic acid (PLA) filament. A response surface method (RSM), central composite design (CCD), was utilized to carry out the optimization. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to explore the significant factors, interactions, quadratic effect, and lack of fit, while the regression analysis was performed to determine the prediction equation of Ra. The model adequacy checking was conducted to check whether the residual assumption still held. The total number of thirty benchmarks was fabricated and measured using a surface roughness tester. For the bottom surface, the analysis results indicated that there was the main effect from only one factor, printing speed. However, for the top surface, the ANOVA signified an interaction between the printing speed and layer thickness. The optimal setting of these factors was also recommended, while the empirical models of Ra at both surface positions were also presented. Finally, an extra benchmark was fabricated to validate the empirical model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Project of Micro-hydroelectric Power Generation System – Case studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.21<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article describes a student project of installing a micropower generation system utilizing energy from the water drained from underground coalmines. The paper contains a description of the site which is a manmade phenomenon from the anthracite mining era. The project described in the article was completed as part of the project-based learning curriculum. Students had the opportunity to work on a team and apply theoretical knowledge learned in individual courses as part of the engineering curriculum. The article also focuses on the calculation of the potential power capacity to a proposed hydropower generation system. The proposed micro-hydro system is harvesting the potential and kinetic energy of the water discharged from the water-draining tunnel. A commercially available micro-hydro turbine combined with an electric power generator was adapted for this purpose. The article also includes an analysis of the profitability of the project and the time of return on investment. The calculations are based on the current price of electricity (2021), depreciation schedule and present tax incentives (2021) to generate electricity from renewable sources. The article also includes some lessons learned from the project as well as the recommendations for future projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Formation of coatings with technologies using concentrated energy streamhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.13<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A number of modern surface processing methods use an energy flux. The examples include electro-spark deposition (ESD) and laser beam processing (LBP). The work concerns the study of Cu-Mo coatings deposited on C45 carbon steel, which were then eroded with a laser beam. The analysis included the analysis of the microstructure, measurements of macrogeometry and microhardness, corrosion resistance tests of selected areas after laser treatment. The coatings were applied with ELFA-541 and subjected to Nd:YAG laser treatment with variable laser parameters. The problem presented in the work can be used to extend the knowledge of the areas of application of ESD coatings, especially in sliding friction pairs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Modeling and optimization of friction stir stitching of AISI 201 stainless steel via Box-Behnken design methodologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.15<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper investigates the modelling and optimization of the notch-repaired/friction stir stitched AISI 201 stainless steel welds via the use of a non-consumable tool-based repair process. The repair process employs a sequential hopping-stitching approach. This approach involves the application of two intercepted and completely overlapped plunging actions of a probe-less titanium carbide tool to create an effective refilling and repair of the notched zone. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed for the experimental planning, modelling, and optimization of the notch-repair process. Tool rotational speed, penetration depth and dwell time of the tool were the studied process parameters while tensile strength was the response variable. A quadratic model was identified as the best model for the notch-repaired welds based on the combination of a low sequential P-value of 0.008216, a high lack of fit P-value of 0.931366, and a close to unity adjusted and predicted R-square values. The process parameter and their interaction effects on the tensile strength of the repaired notch were identified via the ANOVA analysis. Plunge depth (main effect) and interaction effect of tool rotational speed and dwell time had significant influences on the notch-repair process and the resultant tensile strength of the AISI 201 stainless steel. The visual representations of these effects were shown through the 2D elliptical contour and 3D response surface plots. The optimized process parameters were identified as 1215.9795 rpm, 0.40262212 mm, and 5.98706376 s while the resultant notch-repaired joint yielded a tensile strength of 886 MPa, which is close to the predicted value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical simulation of the processes of burning lignite in a vortex furnace with swirling countercurrent flowshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.16<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work presents the results of a numerical study of the working processes of burning lignite in a vortex furnace with swirling countercurrent flows. The results of computer simulation of the processes of burning lignite with a moisture content of 30%, an ash content of 20% and 35% and a higher calorific value of Qрв = 13.9 MJ/kg and 9.7 MJ/kg, respectively are given. The fields of temperature distribution, gas velocity and particle trajectory in the volume and at the outlet of the furnace are determined. The values of the swirling flow velocity near the exit from the furnace reach 150-170 m/s. Mechanical underburning is 3.7% and 9.4% depending on the ash content. The results of a numerical study have showed that the diameter of lignite particles affects their combustion process: coke particles with an initial diameter from 25 microns to 250 microns burn out by 96%. The furnace provides a complete combustion of pulverized coal particles - 99.8% and of volatiles - 100% at volumetric heat stress in the 2500 kW/m<sup>3</sup> furnace. The afterburning of fuel particles containing carbon is ensured by their circulation</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of the heat insulation layer on the thermally stressed condition of the facade wallhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.14<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The temperature-stress state of the concrete facade wall with a window opening, which is the external enclosing structure of the room with a steel heating device, was investigated by the method of numerical modeling. Estimated studies were performed for winter period when the heating system of the building is functioning. According to the results of solving the system of equations of thermal stress and equation of thermal conductivity, the temperature distribution over the wall volume and distribution of normal and tangential stresses were determined. Areas of the wall where these stresses are maximum were identified. The research was performed for cases of both, absence and presence of a heat-insulating layer on the outer surface of the facade wall. From comparison of the results obtained for these two options, it follows that the external thermal insulation coating not only helps to reduce dissipative heat loss through the facade wall, but also reduces the absolute values of stresses in the concrete wall arising resulting from temperature deformations. In some cases, the sign of stresses changes from stretching (wall without external insulation) to compressive (wall with insulation).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Revitalization of Mining Dumps. Assessment of Possibilitieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.24<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The revitalization of mining dumps in the Silesian agglomeration is a very difficult and complex problem. It has a substantial impact on the concepts of sustainable urban development. Other than the key areas including people, the environment and the economy, revitalization also refers to spatial management, and thus to a significant improvement in the functioning conditions of the local cities’ communities. The article describes an algorithm assessing the possibilities of revitalizing a mining dump by one of the Polska Grupa Górnicza’s mines. With legal status and location taken into account, several potential scenarios had been proposed, out of which one was chosen based on the adopted criteria. The chosen scenario had been subjected to further assessment using analyses such as SWOT/TOWS, FMEA, and QFD. The analyses had been carried out in order to acquire more effective and meaningful assessments, having taken social and economic aspects into consideration. In effect of the carried out analysis a recreational scenario was proposed. The adopted solution shows that the mine can continue its work in accordance with the principle of sustainable development as well as apply the concept of corporate social responsibility.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Dimensions and Factors that Determine Integration of Small-Scale Sources in the Structures of Virtual Power Plantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.22<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper the author has attempted to achieve two convergent objectives: cognitive and empirical ones. The cognitive goal constituted an analysis of the definitions of virtual organi-sations and their adaptation while defining Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). When discussing the discourse in the area of virtual organisations, the author has attempted to justify the fact that the terminology pertaining to virtual organisations should constitute the foundations for defining Virtual Power Plants. With such an assumption, a vital importance has been assigned to co-sharing of “soft” resources – key competencies, and also organisational (managerial) integration. In the context of the adopted definitions, the distributed structure of virtual power plant has been em-bedded into four layers of Smart Grid: Customer Technology, Operational Technology, Smart Metering, Energy Management System. A measurable value of the conducted discourse has been aggregation of management functions of VPP, carried out in the four-layer structure of Smart Grid. In turn, the empirical objective was to determine and distinguish, based on the conducted expert research, the factors that determine the development of small-scale energy sector, including re-newable energy sources and prosumer installations – simultaneously determining the inclination of distributed electricity producers to mutual integration in the structures of virtual power plants. Assuming, in accordance with the definitions and discourse included in the first part of the paper, that the determined factors, among others, creating virtual power plants are not only of techno-logical nature, the author has developed four portfolios of these factors. They include the following ones: technological, economic (including micro- and macro-economic), environmental, and social. The experts participating in the research could select 5 factors from each of the developed portfolio which in their opinion determined the inclination of distributed electricity producers to integrate their sources in the structures of virtual power plants. A measurable value of the empirical part has been aggregating the determinants generated and distinguished in the research process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Risk identification methodology regarding the safety and quality of railway serviceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.03<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with the implementation of a modified FMEA methodology according to the EU Commission Regulation no. 402/13 on a common safety method for risk assessment and evaluation in the railway sector. The basic goal is to create a methodology for risk identification regarding the safety of services in railway transport concerning railway crossings. Reason for this research was the fact that the manager of the railway infrastructure in Slovakia has problems related to accidents at railway crossings including problems with the quality of services when trains are delayed. Based on previous research, this area has been defined as a priority for risk identification. Accidents at level crossings are often the result of complex interactions between several factors. The results of the authors’ long-term research bring direct impact on the safety and quality of rail transport services. The first effect of the research is a detailed investigation of the causes of accidents, on which the new methodology is based. This is important because understanding the causes of accidents is the first step in eliminating them. The proposed new framework of the methodology provides guidance to the railway infrastructure manager on how to identify, analyze, evaluate and eliminate the risks of their effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Hospital selection under Insured Public Health Schemes in the multi-criteria group decision-making environmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.01<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A thriving healthcare system perfectly reflects economic development and contentment amongst the people of any region. With increasing anxiety concering health and growing medical needs, hospitals worldwide face substantial challenge to provide patients with adequate medical facilities under one roof. With a fragile state of the health industry in a developing country like India, there is a need for the hospitals to opt for international standards and comply with other premier health centers of the country. This paper aims to select the hospitals based on incongruous and conflicting criteria involving group decision-making using the Intuitionistic Fuzzy (IF) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. The criteria used are concomitant to an insured public health scheme named Ayushman Bharat-National Health Protection Scheme (AB-NHPS) of the Government of India. For each alternative Euclidean distance has been used to calculate the positive and negative separation measure from the ideal solution. The relative closeness to the ideal solution has been used to rank the hospitals. The result is a list of hospitals ranked from best to worst based on the laid criteria. It can aid governing bodies in decision-making under an uncertain environment with multiple complex criteria to analyze.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Specifics of physico-mechanical characteristics of thermally-hardened rebarhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.09<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Thermal hardening is widely used nowadays for modification of steel bar properties and obtaining effective reinforcing material. Strength and deformation characteristics of thermally hardened reinforcement is the complex indicator of reinforcement efficiency. Therefore, reliable assessment of physico-mechanical characteristics of thermally hardened rebar is topical and important issue. This article is intended to the analysis of physico-mechanical characteristics of thermally hardened rebar on the basis of experimental data. Thorough statistical processing of experimental data was made and specific features of strength parameters were identified. Analytical model of strength characteristics is proposed, which enables to take into account inhomogeneous strength properties of the rebar along its cross-section. It could be stated that assessment of physico-mechanical characteristics of thermally hardened rebar is topical and important issue, which is the prospective area of further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative analysis of static and dynamic facility layouts design using the modeling of plantain flour as case studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.02<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Profit optimization at the expense of minimal resource utilization for product development has been the major focus of prospective investors. In an attempt to realize this goal, the present research consideration is tailored towards investigating the effect of introducing dynamic facility layout design. Therefore, this research study uses an existing designed plantain flour processing plant that consists of a washing machine, grating machine, dryer, milling machine and sieving machine. Modeling techniques incorporated with software development were employed on the existing static plant layout to optimize production time and cost of each of the processing units along with the layout. Also, dynamic constraints were introduced into the layouts while mathematical models were formulated to visualize how the output and production process would be. With these models, software for the optimization of static and dynamic layouts was developed. The comparative study was carried out based on the processing time, the number of machines needed for each layout type, the cost of operation and machine procurement cost for both static and dynamic layouts. The constraints introduced ensured that the system improved within the cost limit based on the current market situation and prevented unnecessary enlargement in the plant facility size while minimizing material congestion in the system. The distinction between static and dynamic layout configurations was further established by comparing the results from the layout configurations for a set of throughput masses ranging from 50 kg to 250 kg. Results showed that the cost of operation drops drastically by 69.6 % under dynamic layout configuration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Statistical analysis of road freight transport in Cataloniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.05<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article describes the links between economic level, investment in Research &amp; development (R&amp;D), and Catalan freight transport between 2006 and 2016. Catalonia is the second most populous area in Spain, northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, whose economy ranks second among the Autonomous Communities, surpassed only by the Community of Madrid, to speak of a significant economic and social region. The study sought to answer the question of what economic contexts exist in the region regarding freight transport. To do all this, it uses mathematical-statistical tools to explore the relationships between real data sets, which were calculated using seven indicators. The analyses suggest a positive increase in the volume of imports and exports of goods in the region. The same is true for GDP per capita. It came as a surprise that virtually no positive correlations existed between R&amp;D and any other indicators. In analysing the indicators, we found that the current economy was pushed back by the 2008 world economic change, similarly to international trends. At the same time, there has been rapid growth since 2010, especially in exports. This also means that Spain, particularly the Catalan region, has serious trade relations, which affect the region’s economic development and the freight transport industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of different wire materials on WEDM performance of Bio-compatible materialhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.06<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present experimental investigation aims to analyse the effect of various machining parameters, such as pulse peak current (Ion), pulse on time (Ton), pulse off time (Toff) and spark voltage (SV) on the surface roughness (SR) and material removal rate(MRR) by using continuous traveling of both wire electrode (i.e. brass wire and zinc-coated brass wire). The present work also analyses the effect of types of wires, such as brass wire and zinc-coated brass wire used during machining of Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) on Surface roughness (SR) and material removal rate (MRR). This work studies the correlation between various response parameter such SR and MRR by using same machining parameter by for both wires.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Restructuring picking and restocking processes on a hypermarkethttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.08<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges and opportunities for exploring Lean approaches in managing instore logistics processes of a hypermarket, wherein data collection made to quantify the state of the system, methods, and instruments will be applied to improve picking and restocking processes between the two main stock areas, the store and the warehouse. This article reports on a case study work, comprising direct observation, and analysis of the data collected, which was developed in three main phases: identification and characterization of problems, improvements in management of stock and restocking information, and finally improvements in the picking and restoking processes and teams. After analysing the hypermarket, some problems were found such as a high percentage of non-productive time in restocking, a daily average of 132 products to be restocked, a lack of standardization of tasks in the warehouse, and outdated restocking management system. Therefore, there will be some proposals to change the restocking management system, the picking and restocking work method and the warehouse layout, which makes it possible to decrease stock breaks in the store by 17%, the number of employees dedicated to these processes from 14 to 11, and finally, to reduce 2 daily hours of non-adding value time. This work makes an innovative contribution to fulfil a lack of publications dedicated to hyper-market inbound logistics between the warehouse and the store. Thus, it reveals the significant importance of focusing on instore logistics to the point of sale, concerning the efficiency, the lean production, and social benefits to the retail hypermarket, from the reception of products in the hypermarket warehouse until they are placed on the store shelves.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00AHP QFD methodology for a recycled solar collectorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.30657/pea.2022.28.04<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As it is presented in literature, the AHP-QFD method is a method applicable to many sectors, namely industry. The article is a part of this framework, applying this method for the design of a recycled solar air heater according to customer’s expectations. The methodology is based on the application of QFD to detect consumer requirements, technical characteristics and their relationship matrices. while the AHP method aims to evaluate the weights of each criterion in order to make the right decision.</p> <p>In this study, the manufacturing process was projected from upstream to downstream, as well as a market study was established in October 2020, in Khouribga-Morocco, in which 50 people responded favourably to a survey about the most frequently searched requirements which include size, efficiency, design, price and ecology as well as their importance in a solar collector. Besides, relationship matrices and the weight matrices of the technical criteria have been established, by presenting a consistent ratio “CR” less than 10% showing the consistency of the assessment, and finally a priority given to the characteristics of the recycled solar air heater: cans and thermal insulation more superior to the others characteristics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1