rss_2.0Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journalhttps://sciendo.com/journal/OTMCJhttps://www.sciendo.comOrganization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/61425edc77e2d37818f9c10a/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211205T102650Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211205%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=a76cb2311aef9dadff439e04bfe89b8aa0b024a2fabc74917c2247a92042aace200300Providing a framework for optimizing a mixing design of reactive powder concrete (RPC)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2020-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Suitable distribution of particles and the presence of hydration lead to the improved compressive performance and optimum (even reduced) cost in the production of reactive powder concrete (RPC). This study was conducted to obtain a better understanding of RPC and analyze the behavior of modified RPC (MRPC) using the properties of surface resistivity, water penetration, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity, apart from the cost. The present study was carried out to investigate how to optimize the size and diversity of the aggregate in order to increase the applications and reduce the costs. The options were selected from among the 12 alternatives classified during the construction stages. According to the six weighting parameters used for comparing with the sample, the derived framework can be described as a mixing design for RPC. Five weighting criteria were considered with values of one of the five criteria missing, and in one case, all criteria were taken with equal weights. For the final analysis, the Expert Choice software was used to create a framework for the optimal mix design of RPC and MRPC. The MRPC mixing designs showed good results, with very slight differences compared to RPC. In many cases, MRPC can be used instead of RPC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Added value of sites suitable for sustainable office developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0026<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Valuations of real estate are widely used for various purposes and it relied always upon the financial and other markets. Valuation methodology is based on the operation of the free market economy and the real estate properties. The issue of certified properties is relatively new in the field of real estate valuation and is not sufficiently explored. Certified buildings are preferred by major corporate tenants with international field of activity who often have ethical rules for sustainable development. Therefore, certified properties are attractive to international commercial real estate investors who have higher purchasing power and are willing to pay a higher purchase price. Sustainable property certification is an element affecting the market value of the property. The purpose of this presented research is to quantify the impact of property certification on the value of office properties in Prague and subsequently to determine the impact of sustainability certificates on the market value of the land by using basic valuation techniques. The outcome of the project could be used by real estate valuation experts as a guideline to consider the future project certification and its impact on the land market value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Sleep duration and fatigue in construction workers: A preliminary studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The construction industry is known for its high rate of accidents. Among the different possible causes of this situation, we could find lack of sleep and fatigue. Chronic sleep deprivation is a determining factor in the deterioration of vigilance and alert, and consequently a risk factor for occupational accidents. Fatigue is the answer of our organism to sustained physical and mental stress. Regretfully, those topics have been ovelooked in the construction industry. The objective of this study is to understand better these phenomena, such as sleep duration and fatigue, and whether they are interrelated, and to propose strategies to mitigate them and contribute to the reduction of accidents in construction projects. We worked with 154 male construction workers from one Chilean construction company. To assess sleep quality, we used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). To evaluate fatigue, we used a personal computer version of the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PC-PVT) that measures alertness and vigilance. This 5-minute test was performed on construction workers on-site in the morning. Those people who took part in the test were classified into various groups according to self-reported sleep hours, namely: 7–9 h (26%), 5–7 h (61.7%), and &lt;5 h (12.3%). These results were compared for three variables (Mean Reaction Time (RT), 10% faster, and 10% slower) using an Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. Differences were found for Mean RT and Slowest 10%, the difference being greater in the group that reported sleeping &lt;5 h, but without statistical significance. Studies with a greater number of subjects and measurements are required throughout the working day.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Leadership skills, stakeholder management and execution of fibre-optic infrastructure: intervening influence of government policyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2020-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Communication technology has drastically evolved in the last 10 years across the globe. With increased demand for data and voice traffic, fibre-optic network is preferred to transmit high-speed broadband. Nonetheless, fibre-optic infrastructure involves huge construction challenges and continues to fail because of ineffective leadership, stakeholder management and government policies. The main purpose of this study was to investigate how government policy intervenes on the joint influence of leadership skills and stakeholder management on execution of fibre-optic infrastructure in Nairobi County, Kenya. This study adopted the pragmatism paradigm approach, with a cross-sectional survey design. Census was used to select 187 respondents from a target population of 187 functional staff in fibre-optic infrastructure departments. A questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data while an interview guide was used to collect qualitative data. Statistical analysis techniques were used to analyse the data. It was demonstrated that government policy has a significant intervening influence on the joint influence of leadership skills and stakeholder management on execution of fibre-optic infrastructure. Therefore, governments should come up with policies to guide and regulate execution of fibre-optic infrastructure, review building code to allow for fibre-optic services in new buildings, develop right of way conduits and establish a centrally coordinated authority to facilitate time-bound issuance of permits and related services. It was suggested that similar studies should be carried out in other countries and target vendors and contractors engaged in supply of equipment and construction of fibre-optic infrastructure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Construction health and safety: A topic landscape studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0027<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We aim to draw in-depth insights into the current literature in construction health and safety and provide perspectives for future research efforts. The existing literature on construction health and safety is not only diverse and rich in sight, but also complex and fragmented in structure. It is essential for the construction industry and research community to understand the overall development and existing challenges of construction health and safety to adapt to future new code of practice and challenges in this field. We mapped the topic landscape followed by identifying the salient development trajectories of this research area over time. We used the topic modeling algorithm to extract 10 distinct topics from 662 abstracts (filtered from a total of 895) of articles published between 1991 and 2020. In addition, we provided the most cited references and the most popular journal per topic as well. The results from a time series analysis suggested that the construction health and safety would maintain its popularity in the next 5 years. Research efforts would be devoted to the topics including “Physical health and disease”, “Migrant and race”, “Vocational ability and training”, and “Smart devices.” Among these topics, “Smart devices” would be the most promising one.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Network analysis of interconnections between theoretical concepts associated with principal–agent theory concerning construction projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0025<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Communication risks and asymmetric information among project participants are often associated with poor performance in construction projects. Communication and coordination are prominent issues in recent research on construction management, with little actual theoretical foundation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which principal–agent (P–A) theory and its implications are used in construction management research. In the archives of the top seven construction management journals, 148 scientific papers mentioning P–A theory were found. The keywords were analysed to determine the connections between them. Network analysis (NA) of the interconnected keywords was used to illustrate the most common relations between P–A theory and construction management. The findings of this study indicate that the most important elements associated with P–A theory in construction management are contracts, governance, partnership, transaction costs, information systems, incentives, risk management, and trust. However, some keywords are often used without considering related theoretical concepts. This study introduces a new perspective on P–A theory research in the field of construction management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding the effects of BIM implementation in corporation finance: An empirical study in Chinahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0028<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been acknowledged for promoting effectiveness and efficiency in project planning and management activities including design, bidding, and construction. Yet limited effort has been made to investigate the impacts of BIM implementation on corporate performance. Using the financial information of 314 Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) companies listed in the A-share market of China, this paper examines the economic benefits of BIM practice and assesses the influential mechanism of BIM implementation at the corporation level. The results reveal that BIM adoption contributes to better corporate profitability, especially in non-state-owned enterprises (non-SOEs). The positive impact of BIM implementation on profitability is achieved by the functions of promoting schedule efficiency and operation cost reduction. However, high initial BIM investment is still required in China's AEC companies at the current stage, and the effectiveness enhancement in corporation management has not been realized. By providing clear empirical evidence of the economic benefits of BIM adoption from a corporation perspective, this study might help improve top managers’ awareness, intention, or support of future BIM utilization in China's AEC companies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00A new framework for ranking Critical Success Factors for International Construction Projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the wide range of opportunities, collaborations, and challenges offered by the international construction sector, interest in international construction is on the rise. Construction companies must be able to carry out international construction projects (ICPs) more effectively and efficiently. However, executing ICPs is more challenging than executing domestic construction projects. Considering the peculiarities of the construction industry and the associated complexity of construction projects, construction companies should decide on international capability and the selection of an ICP through a careful evaluation of their critical success factors (CSFs). Most of the previous research deals with the concept of CSFs in the context of project management in general, but few studies have identified CSFs for ICPs. To fill that gap in current research, the main objective of this study was to identify and group CSFs for ICPs. A total of 37 CSFs were identified after conducting a detailed literature review and a pre-pilot study. A new framework of CSFs for ICPs was proposed following primary research, which was conducted through in-depth interviews with leading experts in international projects. Although the constructability/complexity factor of the project received the highest rating in terms of importance to the success of the ICP, the next most critical factors were found to be external factors, such as local contractor/subcontractor, investor, and presence of a foreign partner. The results of this research may help participants involved in ICPs to improve their understanding of the international construction environment and deliver more successful ICPs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of construction process duration based on labor productivity estimation: A case studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0031<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Monitoring labor productivity and how to decrease construction costs are the key issues in the planning process of a construction project. The CONTEC automated system combined with statistical methods assists in predicting the amount of time required to complete construction works according to the specified number of deployed work crews, technological processes, and labor required for certain production in person-hours. This study applies statistical analyses and probability theories for plastering work, which represents a labor-intensive construction process. The goal of the research is to determine the probability of completion of the construction process based on monitoring the mean value of performance. By application of statistical analyses a decrease in the performance standard has been proved compared with the planned values given in the CONTEC database. The decrease in performance, which was also caused by the number of days with unfavorable climatic conditions and demonstrated by performing interval estimates based on the collection of statistical data, was later confirmed by a relative frequency test. The measures taken were in terms of establishing the required number of personnel capacities for complying with the construction schedule.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of management practices on construction productivity in Indian building construction projects: an empirical studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study is to analyse the impact of management practices on the productivity of building construction projects in India. The methodology adopted for this study is to identify and analyse the management practice attributes from the literature review and expert focus group interviews. The identified attributes were analysed and priorities using relative weight were given by the respondents. The collected data were further analysed using SPSS 21 software. The quantitative research methodology was adopted to analyse the collected data and the following tools and techniques were applied to the data: reliability analysis to check the consistency of data collected for this study and relative importance index (RII) to prioritise and rank the attributes based on the weighted average score given by the respondents. The findings of this study concluded that coordination between all stakeholders, ability to handle the crisis by the project managers, social skills of key team managers, timely payment of completed works and design capability and frequent design changes are the most significant attributes of management practice, affecting construction productivity and having a rating on the RII of 0.91, 0.90, 0.88, 0.87 and 0.87.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00On-site factories to support lean principles and industrialized constructionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Purpose</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of on-site factories that combine the strengths of both prefabrication techniques and a traditional work environment to support lean principles and promote industrialized construction for on-site operations.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Design/methodology/approach</title> <p>Based on the principles of lean construction and design for manufacturing and assembly (DfMA), discrete-event simulation is used to evaluate different arrangements and configurations of an on-site factory for the prefabrication of structural insulated panels (SIPs).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The proposed on-site factory provided a feasible way to promote lean and industrialized construction principles. Also, these types of factories are particularly relevant for projects in remote areas that do not have sufficient infrastructure. Further, it is also a good solution for strengthening the local economy by using local labor and suppliers, hence assisting in the creation of a socially responsible framework.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Originality/value</title> <p>This study presents the design of an on-site factory for the prefabrication of SIPs. This type of on-site assembly supports not only lean principles but also promotes social responsibility by capitalizing on local labor. This approach could be particularly interesting for construction companies in developing countries or working in a project with limited infrastructure.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-21T00:00:00.000+00:00A study of project managers’ choice on key methods, tools and techniques in managing engineering projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is no doubt that each project manager uses different methodologies, methods, tools and techniques (MMTTs) while dealing with constant pressure to deliver results in a complex and changing environment, where complexity and stakeholders’ expectations are continually growing. This article presents results from the study about project managers’ choice on artefacts that they frequently use in their regular work. This study was conducted within the context of selected environment (one country and one sector of engineering projects), but designed methodology and results might also be significant for a wider audience. The results were based on the feedback that were received from 31 project management (PM) professionals gathered in the form of a structured questionnaire, followed by an interview with three PM experts for validation. The results confirmed a variety of PM artefacts in use and provided their ranking by perceived usefulness. The additional results indicated correlation between PM success and usage of MMTTs, as perceived by project managers. This study also resulted in several interesting findings, such as popularity and usefulness of artefacts, rigidity of PM processes, and maturity of PM organizations, about the topic. Despite of rather small sample taken from one country's environment, the results could serve as a solid information for moving ahead, while considering the significance of PM artefacts, as well as for their further development. The key findings are also messages to PM professionals to consider whether they use available and appropriate PM artefacts and is there a room for more efficient and effective usage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Analyzing and modeling thermal complaints in a commercial building in Francehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2020-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Buildings are interactive environments in which their operations and occupants are linked. Although buildings are operated according to the standards, occupant complaints may arise when there is a mismatch between indoor environmental conditions and actual user needs. Therefore, the accuracy of thermal comfort prediction models suggested by the standards and alternative prediction models need to be investigated. This study aims at assessing the performance of the predicted mean vote (PMV) model suggested by the ISO 7730 Standard to detect occupant thermal dissatisfaction. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was developed to predict thermal complaints with respect to “too warm” and “too cold.” This case study was conducted in a commercial building located in Paris, France, between January 2017 and May 2018. Indoor environmental conditions were monitored via sensors and an online tool was used to collect occupant thermal complaints. A total of 53 thermal complaints were analyzed. The results showed that all the operative temperature measurements in both the heating and cooling seasons were within the thresholds suggested by the standards. The PMV method suggested that only 4% of the occupants were dissatisfied with the indoor environment whereas the actual dissatisfaction ratio was 100% under these indoor environmental conditions. In addition, the multivariate logistic regression model showed that operative temperature and season have a significant effect on thermal complaints. Furthermore, the accuracy of the developed model was 90.6%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-31T00:00:00.000+00:00A framework for achieving sustainability by overcoming the challenges of the construction supply chain during the design processhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to develop a framework to achieve sustainability by overcoming the challenges of the construction supply chain (CCSC) during the design process. To achieve this, two approaches, namely theoretical and practical, were used to accomplish four objectives. For the theoretical approach, based on literature review and case studies, the objective used was to identify, classify and validate the challenges that the construction supply chain (CSC) encounter. For the practical approach, a survey questionnaire was employed to quantify the CCSC and investigate the perception of architectural design firms (ADFs) in Egypt towards achieving sustainability by overcoming the CCSC during the design process. Based on the results, the research developed a framework to overcome the CCSC as an approach towards achieving sustainability in construction projects during the design process. The research identified and validated 20 challenges that the CSC encounter towards achieving sustainability during the design process. These challenges were classified under four categories, namely (1) design and technical process; (2) coordination, information flow and accuracy; (3) material specification, technology, supplier rework and whole life cycle cost; and (4) skills gap of the qualified architects and design managers and non-compliance to building codes, regulations, laws and standards. In addition, a survey questionnaire was employed to rank these challenges according to their importance on 1–5 Likert scale using the measure of central tendency and dispersion and relative importance index (RII).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Drivers of cost and time overruns: A client and contractor perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Large infrastructure investments are expected to be of sustained value to society for a long time. Such investment projects include, for instance, hospitals, tunnels, sport arenas, power plants, roads, railways, and bridges. They involve a complex organization of contracts and agreements. The client is expected to plan, procure, and determine the critical steps of a project, while the contractor should solve issues raised by the client. Many of these agreements are path-dependent and reflect past routines, experiences, and contacts. As such, many investments tend to return to similar sources instead of replacing routines and collaborations that did not work. This can cause change orders that furthermore reflect consequences such as cost and time overruns. While much is known about these effects in construction projects, this paper sheds light on the drivers of change orders. We build upon a sample of 234 observations responding to a survey on investment planning. The results show that project assumptions are often wrong and inadequate in large investments. Such wrong assumptions are caused by interpersonal and leadership issues, poor planning, or sometimes even intentional profit-seeking. Our results show that clients and contractors have different perceptions and enter contractual obligations differently. The implication is, therefore, that better routines of documentation, more frequent feedback, and more accurate or precise standards may close the gap between planning and what is actually achieved. More precise contractual agreements may also create a better process to procure, manage projects, and allocate resources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimation of the excavator actual productivity at the construction site using video analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Current estimates of the actual productivity of heavy construction machinery at a construction site are not supported by an appropriate and widely used methodology. Recently, for the purpose of estimating the actual productivity of heavy construction machinery, vision-based technologies are used. This paper emphasizes the importance of estimating actual productivity and presents a way (i.e. a research framework) to achieve it. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose a simple research framework (SRF) for quick and practical estimates of excavator actual productivity and cycle time at a construction site. The excavator actual productivity refers to the maximum possible productivity in real construction site conditions. The SRF includes the use of a video camera and the analysis of recorded videos using an advanced computer program. In cases of continuous application of SRF, a clear and transparent base for monitoring and control of earthworks can be obtained at an observed construction site.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Method for Base Estimation of Construction Time for Linear Projects in Front-end Project Phaseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2018-0026<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Even though horizontally linear projects have low complexity schedules, they are still not successful in meeting planned time. The deadlines are mostly based on estimations done in front-end project development when limited data are available. Early time estimation models in literature rely on few variables and, almost in all cases, one of them is the estimated cost. Early cost estimations can significantly deviate from actual costs and thus lead to unreliable time estimation. Time estimation models based on neural network and other alternative methods require databases and software, which complicates the process of time estimation. The purpose of this paper is to bridge the gap of scarce time estimation models and unreliable time estimates by developing a new method for time estimation. This research has been done on one large sewer system project. The case study shows how to extract several continuous activities for a pipeline project chosen from a sewer system. Moreover, a new algorithm for the calculation of project duration is devised based on the existing equation related to the linear scheduling method, and this algorithm works with continuous activities. The new method for construction time estimation is based on the extraction of linear continuous activities, usage of the algorithm for identification of minimal buffer between activities, and calculation of the project duration. To verify the algorithm, this method is used on another pipeline project from a sewer system. The limitation is that this method can be used only for base estimation. Further research needs to be done to include uncertainties and risks in the method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing the role and significance of project selection by the contractors in the Saudi construction industryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Construction companies hold great significance in Saudi Arabia due to new developments taking place in the region. A project automatically turns out better if it has been selected based on the level of expertise and resources available to the construction company and vice versa.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Purpose</title> <p>The study aims to investigate the importance of project selection by the contractors within the Saudi construction industry.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methodology</title> <p>The study has employed a quantitative research design to conduct a survey through the administration of questionnaire. A total of 46 employees from construction companies were selected. A questionnaire was distributed among maintenance contractors, contractors, and construction contractors.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>The findings have shown that mostly organizations were unclassified or classified under the fifth category (projects valuing AED10,000,000 or lesser) (34.8%). Most of the respondents (94.4%) agreed that consideration of the project selection is important. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between the level of importance given to the project selection and the organizational size of the respondents. Success factors play an important role in the project selection phase.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Practical implications</title> <p>Careful project selection is the first step toward the success of the construction company, so it needs to be carried out carefully.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-18T00:00:00.000+00:00An automated nD model creation on BIM modelshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2020-0018<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The construction technology (CONTEC) method was originally developed for automated CONTEC planning and project management based on the data in the form of a budget or bill of quantities. This article outlines a new approach in an automated creation of the discrete nD building information modeling (BIM) models by using data from the BIM model and their processing by existing CONTEC method through the CONTEC software. This article outlines the discrete modeling approach on BIM models as one of the applicable approaches for nD modeling. It also defines the methodology of interlinking BIM model data and CONTEC software through the classification of items. The interlink enables automation in the production of discrete nD BIM model data, such as schedule (4D) including work distribution end resource planning, budget (5D)—based on integrated pricing system, but also nD data such as health and safety risks (6D) plans (H&amp;S Risk register), quality plans, and quality assurance checklists (7D) including their monitoring and environmental plans (8D). The methodology of the direct application of the selected classification system, as well as means of data transfer and conditions of data transferability, is described. The method was tested on the case study of an office building project, and acquired data were compared to actual construction time and costs. The case study proves the application of the CONTEC method as a usable method in the BIM model environment, enabling the creation of not only 4D, 5D models but also nD discrete models up to 8D models in the perception of the construction management process. In comparison with the existing BIM classification systems, further development of the method will enable full automated discrete nD model creation in the BIM model environment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Detecting unbalanced bids via an improved grading-based modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2020-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Unbalanced bidding, also known as skewed bidding, is the process of increasing and/or decreasing the prices of various bid items without altering the total offered bid price. Bids can be unbalanced either mathematically (front-end loading) or materially (quantity error exploitation). Owners should be very careful when evaluating the tenders as awarding a contract to an unbalanced bid may result in severe cost overruns because the prices of those items do not reflect their true costs and markup allocations. Unbalanced bidding is still a contentious issue in the construction industry. While some researchers consider it as a legal bidding strategy in such a fierce competitive business environment, others view it as an unethical practice and claim that unbalanced bids should be disqualified. Studies regarding unbalanced bidding can be categorized into two groups: (1) the ones focusing on detecting or preventing this practice to help owners; and 2) the ones focusing on optimizing unbalanced bidding to help contractors. This study aims to develop a model, which consists of eight grading systems, to assist owners in detecting materially unbalanced bids. The proposed model is the improved version of the previous model, which was composed of five grading systems. In order to demonstrate how this grading-based model can be used by owners, an illustrative example is presented. It was found that owners can easily and successfully detect unbalanced bids via the proposed model.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-03-25T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1