rss_2.0Nukleonika FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Nukleonika 's Cover characterization of PM10 in two small towns located in South Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this study is to analyse the elements and PM10 concentrations in air samples gathered in the winter of 2017/2018 in two small towns, namely Skala and Wadowice. The chemical elements were identified for each sample using the energy dispersive X-ray method. The spectrometer was equipped, among others, with an Mo-X-ray tube which was the source of the photons and the Si(Li) detector. The following chemical elements: Cl, K, Fe, Ca, Zn, Pb, Br, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Co, Rb, Ni, Sr, and Cr were identified in the samples. In addition, As and Se were identified in Wadowice. First, the results were compared with each other and then with the results for the nearest city. It was observed that the PM10 concentrations were significantly higher than the UE limit value for PM10, which equals 50 μg·m<sup>−3</sup> per 24 h. Moreover, the high concentrations of, among others, K, Pb, Cl or Zn, are likely to be linked with fossil fuels combustion and biomass burning. The levels of element concentrations in Wadowice and Skala resemble the levels observed several years earlier in Krakow.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Radiological characterization of the phosphate deposit in Al-Jalamid phosphate mining area, Saudi Arabia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>It is a known fact that phosphate rocks have high levels of natural radioactivity due to the presence of large concentrations of radionuclides. This work aims to estimate radiation exposure and dose levels at Al-Jalamid site in northern Saudi Arabia. Al-Jalamid area is one of the largest reserves of phosphate worldwide. Ma’aden, a Saudi Government public company, owns the mine and is responsible for all mining activities. Phosphate and soil samples collected from Al-Jalamid phosphate mining area have been analysed for their uranium and thorium content by an α-spectrometer using radiochemical techniques. The quantity of radon gas was measured both in groundwater and in the atmosphere (indoor and outdoor) at the site using a portable radiation survey instrument. Groundwater samples collected from wells surrounding the mining area were analysed using a liquid scintillation counter in addition to an α-spectrometer. Finally, it is found that phosphate rock concentrate products cannot be utilized economically based on the standards set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), since the average activity concentration does not reach the limit set by IAEA and hence are not commercially feasible.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of electron and gamma irradiation on the properties of starch:PVA films – the effect of irradiation dose<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper discusses the effect of ionizing radiation on the functional properties of the biodegradable starch:PVA films. The analysis is related to the possible use of the material for packing the products (particularly, food) that are predicted for radiation decontamination and to the potential modification of the material by radiation treatment. Our previous results have shown that the influence of ionizing radiation on the films’ properties varied for the specific compositions (differing in starch:PVA ratio or the type of substrates) and depended on irradiation conditions. However, these studies considered only the irradiation performed in gamma chamber or in e-beam using a dose of 25 kGy. Therefore, the present study deals with the effect of the irradiations performed using various doses on the selected promising starch:PVA composition. The films characterized by starch:PVA weight ratio of 45:55 was obtained by solution casting and irradiated with fast electrons in air and with <sup>60</sup>Co gamma rays in nitrogen applying the doses of 5, 10, 20, 25, 30, 50, and 75 kGy. No regular dependence has been noticed between the composition of films (differing in the starch and PVA content) and the intensities of the particular bands in the UV-VIS DRS spectra after irradiation. The results indicated strong interaction of the starch and PVA components in the films and the occurrence of specific reactions in each composition upon irradiation. No special differences were observed between tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the non-irradiated films characterized by the starch:PVA ratio equal to 45:55 and the samples irradiated using doses in the range of 5–75 kGy. Similarly, no differences were observed in both cases between the swelling capability of the non-irradiated and the irradiated films. However, it can be deduced that solubility in water increased when the radiation dose increased. The results show that using the doses till the range 25 kGy does not cause an essential change of all the examined properties of the starch:PVA (45:55) films. Accordingly, starch:PVA (45:55) films might be considered suitable for packing food predicted for radiation decontamination.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00A virtual laboratory for radiotracer and sealed-source applications in industry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Radioactive sealed sources and radiotracer techniques are used to diagnose industrial process units. This work introduces a workspace to simulate four sealed sources and radiotracer applications, namely, gamma scanning of distillation columns, gamma scanning of pipes, gamma transmission tomography, and radiotracer flow rate measurements. The workspace was created in Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) simulation toolkit and was called Industrial Radioisotope Applications Virtual Laboratory. The flexibility of GATE and the fact that it is an open-source software render it advantageous to radioisotope technology practitioners, educators, and students. The comparison of the simulation results with experimental results that are available in the literature showed the effectiveness of the virtual laboratory.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Natural zeolite as a replacement for resin in the cation exchange process of cesium on post-irradiated nuclear fuel<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Characterization of natural salts from Bayah, Lampung, and Tasikmalaya, Indonesia has been carried out as a substitute for synthetic resins. The characteristics include zeolite activation with NH<sub>4</sub>Cl, and heated at 200°C, the bond stability test of <sup>137</sup>Cs-zeolite, chemical composition analysis, surface area, pore size, analysis of Cs cation exchange capacity (CEC), diffusion coefficient (<italic>D<sub>i</sub></italic>), activation energy (<italic>E<sub>a</sub></italic>), and absorption of three zeolites. To do this, pipette 50 μl of a standard solution of <sup>137</sup>Cs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), put in, 2 ml of 0.1 N HCl, and then add 1 g of zeolite and stir each for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 h. Based on this stirring time, the <sup>137</sup>C isotope will exchange ions with NH<sub>4</sub>-zeolite to <sup>137</sup>Cs-zeolite in the solid phase. The content of <sup>137</sup>Cs in <sup>137</sup>Cs-zeolites (solid phase) was analysed using a gamma spectrometer. The results of the chemical composition analysis showed that the character of zeolite from Lampung has a Si/Al ratio, with a CEC value of 1.448 mEq/g which is greater than Bayah and Tasikmalaya, while the <italic>D<sub>i</sub></italic> and <italic>E<sub>a</sub></italic> values for the three select types were obtained almost the same. Moreover, the stability test of the Cs ion bond with zeolite showed no significant release of Cs ions from the zeolite structure. It can be concluded that the three soloists tested that the zeolite from Lampung has better characters. The results of <sup>137</sup>Cs isotope separation in 150 μl of U<sub>3</sub>Si<sub>2</sub>/Al fuel solution post-irradiation using zeolite from Lampung and Dowex resins obtained almost the same recovery around 98–99%, so it can be concluded that zeolite from Lampung can be used as a substitute for synthetic resin in the cation exchange process for the <sup>137</sup>Cs isotope in nuclear fuel post-irradiated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of Po determination in soil<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In recent years, naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have become an important topic from the perspective of environmental protection. The list of isotopes that should be monitored in the environment is constantly growing as new amendments to international legislation are introduced. One of the often studied NORM elements is <sup>210</sup>Po. In this study, a process of elaborating of a new method of <sup>210</sup>Po determination in soil was presented. In the proposed method, several analytical aspects, like the influence of silica decomposition or optimization of an electrode material, were revised. The obtained procedure allows performance of complete radiochemical analysis in a single day, with the chemical efficiency of over 85% and great reduction of costs. Further, the influence of the use of phosphate fertilizers on polonium concentration in soil was also confirmed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Design and fabrication of I seeds for brachytherapy using capillary-based microfluidic technique<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A new kind of <sup>125</sup>I seeds with a core-shell structure were synthesized by an easy assembling–disassembling coaxial capillaries microfluidic device. The dose distribution of a <sup>125</sup>I brachytherapy source fabricated by arranging six <sup>125</sup>I seeds collinearly within a cylindrical titanium capsule was simulated by modelling the source in a water phantom using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code. The influence of the motion and the core size of the <sup>125</sup>I seeds on the dose distribution was also studied in this work.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Validation of transient time method to calibrate oil flow meters in closed conduits using I as the radiotracer<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>To assure the credibility of commodity transfer operations in the oil and gas industry, calibrated flow meters are used to quantify the movement of fluids in the pipelines. The purpose of this paper is to validate the transient time method (TTM) to calibrate oil flow meters installed in restricted areas, using the <sup>123</sup>I-labelled oil as a radiotracer. Traditionally, as proposed by the standard ISO 2975-7:1977 [<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_nuka-2021-0009_ref_001">1</xref>] for experiments in an aqueous medium, the TTM is employed by positioning two detectors at separate locations. However, in industrial plants, it is not always possible to install detectors at the distances recommended by the ISO 2975-7. The method proposed in this paper uses four scintillator detectors separated one from each other by 0.30 m and three injections containing 5.0 ml of <sup>123</sup>I-labelled oil. The experiments were carried out in an oil flow rig with a turbulent flow profile. The results have reached an uncertainty which is lower than 1.0%.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Production of actinium-225 from a (n,p) reaction: Feasibility and pre-design studies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Actinium-225 is used in nuclear medicine for the treatment of malignant tumours. It can be applied to produce Bi-213 in a reusable generator or can be used alone as an agent for radiation therapy, in particular for targeted alpha therapy. However, the availability of Ac-225 for worldwide use, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, is limited. We present a feasibility study employing GATE, an open-source Monte Carlo simulation toolkit, on the production of Ac-225 from a neutron generator. This work suggests that a design consisting of three concentric cylinders, the innermost a Cf-252 neutron source, the middle nickel cylinder acting as a proton-producing target and the outer cylinder a RaCl<sub>2</sub> target may provide a feasible design outline for an Ac-225 generator.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Independent verification of treatment planning system calculations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec><title style='display:none'>Purpose</title><p>According to the available international recommendations, at least one independent verification of the calculations of number of monitor unit (MU) is required for every patient treated by teleradiotherapy. The aim of this study was to estimate the differences of dose distributions calculated with two treatment planning systems: Eclipse (Varian) and Oncentra MasterPlan (Elekta).</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title><p>The analysis was performed for 280 three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment (3D-CRT) plans with photon beams from Varian accelerators: CL 600C/D X6 MV (109 plans), CL 2300C/D X6 MV (43 plans), and CL 2300C/D X15 MV (128 plans). The mean doses in the planning target volume (PTV) and doses at the isocenter point obtained with Eclipse and Oncentra MasterPlan (OMP) were compared with Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. Additionally, the treatment planning system (TPS) calculations were compared with dosimetric measurements performed in the inhomogeneous phantom.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Data were analysed for 6 MV plans and for 15 MV plans separately, independently of the treatment machine. The dose values calculated in Eclipse were significantly (<italic>p</italic> &lt;0.001) higher compared to calculations of OMP system. The average difference of the mean dose to PTV was (1.4 ± 1.0)% for X6 MV and (2.5 ± 0.6)% for X15 MV. Average dose disparities at the isocenter point were (1.3 ± 1.9)% and (2.1 ± 1.0)% for X6 MV and X15 MV beams, respectively. The largest differences were observed in lungs, air cavities, and bone structures. Moreover the variation in dosimetric measurements was less as compared to Eclipse calculations.</p></sec><sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>OMP calculations were introduced as the independent MU verification tool with the first action level range equal to 3.5%.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Erratum to “Radon incomparison tests – Katowice, 2016” [Nukleonika 2020;65(2):127-132, doi:10.2478/nuka-2020-0020] applicability of C-14 measurements in the soil gas for the assessment of leakage out of underground carbon dioxide reservoirs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Poland, due to the ratification of the Kioto Protocol, is obliged to diminish the emission of greenhouse gases. One of the possible solutions of this problem is CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration (CCS - carbon capture and storage). Such an option is a priority in the European Union. On the other hand, CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration may be potentially risky in the case of gas leakage from underground reservoirs. The most dangerous event may be a sudden release of the gas onto the surface. Therefore, it is very important to know if there is any escape of CO<sub>2</sub> from underground gas reservoirs, created as a result of sequestration. Such information is crucial to ensure safety of the population in areas located above geological reservoirs. It is possible to assess the origin of carbon dioxide, if the measurement of radiocarbon <sup>14</sup>C concentration in this gas is done. If CO<sub>2</sub> contains no <sup>14</sup>C, it means, that the origin of the gas is either geological or the gas has been produced as a result of combustion of fossil fuels, like coal. A lot of efforts are focused on the development of monitoring methods to ensure safety of CO<sub>2</sub> sequestration in geological formations. A radiometric method has been tested for such a purpose. The main goal of the investigations was to check the application possibility of such a method. The technique is based on the liquid scintillation counting of samples. The gas sample is at first bubbled through the carbon dioxide adsorbent, afterwards the adsorbent is mixed with a dedicated cocktail and measured in a low-background liquid scintillation spectrometer Quantulus. The described method enables measurements of <sup>14</sup>C in mine and soil gas samples.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-03-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Taurine-EVA copolymer-paraffin rods dosimeters for EPR high-dose radiation dosimetry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Taurine/EPR rods (3 × 10 mm) have been prepared by a simple technique in the laboratory where taurine powder was mixed with a molten mixture of paraffin wax and an ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer. The binding mixture EVA/Paraffin does not present interference or noise in the EPR signal before or after irradiation. The rods show good mechanical properties for safe and multi-use handling. An EPR investigation of radiation induced radicals in taurine rods revealed that there are two types of radicals produced after exposure to gamma radiation (60Co). EPR spectra were recorded and analyzed - also the microwave power saturation and modulation amplitude were studied and optimized. Response of taurine to different radiation doses (1.5-100 kGy) was studied and found to follow a linear relationship up to 100 kGy. Radiation induced radicals in taurine persists and showed a noticeable stability over 94 days following irradiation. Uncertainities associated with the evaluation of radiation doses using taurine dosimeters were discussed and tabulated. It was found that taurine possesses good dosimetric properties using EPR spectroscopy in high doses in addition to its simple spectrum.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-03-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Monte Carlo calculated CT numbers for improved heavy ion treatment planning<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Better knowledge of CT number values and their uncertainties can be applied to improve heavy ion treatment planning. We developed a novel method to calculate CT numbers for a computed tomography (CT) scanner using the Monte Carlo (MC) code, BEAMnrc/EGSnrc. To generate the initial beam shape and spectra we conducted full simulations of an X-ray tube, filters and beam shapers for a Siemens Emotion CT. The simulation output files were analyzed to calculate projections of a phantom with inserts. A simple reconstruction algorithm (FBP using a Ram-Lak filter) was applied to calculate the pixel values, which represent an attenuation coefficient, normalized in such a way to give zero for water (Hounsfield unit (HU)). Measured and Monte Carlo calculated CT numbers were compared. The average deviation between measured and simulated CT numbers was 4 ± 4 HU and the standard deviation σ was 49 ± 4 HU. The simulation also correctly predicted the behaviour of H-materials compared to a Gammex tissue substitutes. We believe the developed approach represents a useful new tool for evaluating the effect of CT scanner and phantom parameters on CT number values.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-03-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Caffeine degradation in water by gamma irradiation, ozonation and ozonation/gamma irradiation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Aqueous solutions of caffeine were treated with ozone and gamma irradiation. The amounts of remaining caffeine were determined after solid phase extraction as a function of absorbed dose and ozonation time. In addition to this, some important parameters such as inorganic ions, chemical oxygen demand (COD) dissolved oxygen and total acidity changes were followed. Caffeine (50 ppm) is found to be completely decomposed at 3.0 kGy and 1.2 kGy doses in the absence of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and in 1.20 mM H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> solutions, respectively. In the case of gamma irradiation after ozonation, 50 ppm caffeine was removed at 0.2 kGy when the solution was ozonized for 100 s at a rate of 10 g O<sub>3 </sub>h<sup>-1</sup> in 400 mL 50 ppm paracetamol solution.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-03-25T00:00:00.000+00:00A study about the measurement method of the homogeneity of radioactivity along an iridium-192 wire used in brachytherapy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute has produced, since 1998, iridium-192 wires used in low dose rate brachytherapy. In the paper the authors studied the influence of wire profile on the homogeneity distribution of radioactivity of iridium-192 along the wire. The authors propose the improvements in the quality control procedure that will provide more accurate measurement data and suggest changes in control devices.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-03-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Oxidative stability of the lipid fraction in cookies – the EPR study<p>Cookies are a group of convenient food products that are popular among consumers. They may contain high amounts of fats, which can be prone to oxidation. To retard the oxidative deterioration, synthetic and natural antioxidants may be added. Herb and spice extracts can be sources of natural biologically active substances with antioxidant activity. In this work, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to monitor the lipid oxidation in cookies with rosemary and thyme extracts subjected to the storage in elevated temperature. It was shown that thyme extract can be used as a natural antioxidant source for the preparation of bakery products, while the rosemary extract should be used with care in fat-rich products exposed to high temperatures.</p>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Magnetic transformation in Ni-Mn-In Heusler alloy<p>Magnetic properties of a Ni<sub>50</sub>Mn<sub>35.5</sub>In<sub>14.5</sub> Heusler ribbon were studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in the temperature range of 335–100 K. In the temperature region of 265–170 K, the FMR signal disappeared, in spite of the fact that this region comprised the main crystal transformation temperatures: <italic>M<sub>s</sub></italic>, <italic>M<sub>f</sub></italic>, <italic>A<sub>s</sub></italic>, <italic>A<sub>f</sub></italic>. In the austenite crystal state, a weak antiferromagnetic interaction was observed, whereas ferromagnetism was detected in the low temperature martensitic state.</p>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Copper-manganese-zinc spinels in zeolites: study of EMR spectra<p>The aim of this study is the application of electron magnetic resonance (EMR) spectroscopy to determine the interactions between NaY and HY zeolites and Cu-Mn-Zn spinels loaded onto the zeolite surfaces. The materials were characterized using XRD and IR spectroscopies. Four types of EMR lines were observed for Cu-Mn-Zn/NaY, Cu-Mn-Zn/HY samples. The difference between the EMR spectra recorded at 77 and 293 K has been shown. The spectra recorded at 77 K allowed us to distinguish between the species formed on NaY and HY zeolites. The EMR spectrum of Cu-Mn-Zn/NaY recorded at 77 K showed only one line attributed to antiferromagnetic spinels Cu<sub>1.4</sub>Mn<sub>1.6</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and ZnMn<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> or/and Cu<sub>0.5</sub>Zn<sub>0.5</sub>Mn<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>. The spinels appeared to be more stable (more strongly attached) on HY zeolite than on NaY one. It was proved that different strength of interactions between the zeolites and Cu-Mn-Zn spinels was caused by differences in the acidity of NaY and HY zeolites.</p>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of humic acids on EYL liposome membranes: ESR method<p>In this paper, the effects of model (commercial) and natural (extracted from peat) humic substances on the membrane of liposomes formed with egg yolk lecithin (EYL) are presented. In our research, mass concentrations of fulvic and humic acids were used, which in relation to lecithin varied from 0% to 13%. To study membrane fluidity, electron spin resonance (EPR) was used with two spin probes, penetrating various regions of the lipid bilayer. The effects of model and natural humic substances (humic acids – HAs and fulvic acids – FAs) on the lipid membrane in different regions were researched: the lipid-water interphase, and in the middle of the lipid bilayer. It was shown that FA and HA impact the fluidity of liposome membranes in different ways. Increased mass concentrations of HAs decreased membrane fluidity in both acids: extracted from peat and the model. However, increased mass concentration of FAs extracted from peat, decreased membrane fluidity in the surface region, at the same time stiffening the central part of the bilayer. Increasing the concentration of FAs extracted from peat had the opposite effect when compared to model FA. This effect may be related to the complexation of xenobiotics present in the soil environment and their impact on biological membranes.</p>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1