rss_2.0Naše gospodarstvo/Our economy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Naše gospodarstvo/Our economyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/NGOEhttps://www.sciendo.comNaše gospodarstvo/Our economy 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/62cc669b009d3e44af3ebc4c/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220808T044014Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220808%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=2797779f795a492a7500dd440464d1ddc6e03508e36f63638e4f4817be15621d200300Document Management System – A Way to Digital Transformationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the key activities of any company is the management of documents, which are created on a daily basis. Classic document management cannot follow the needs of the market for companies with a desire to be agile and modern. Therefore, companies need to offer employees a solution that allows them to carefully store and archive documentation, while at the same time giving them enough time to perform their main daily tasks. Electronic management of documents not only influences companies’ workflows, savings and adaptions to market needs but also influences their digital transformation. It is also necessary to consider the influences on the environment. The influence of the production and use of paper in daily business has burdened the environment a lot in the past and it is about time that this matter is addressed. Implementation of a document management system (DMS) is now almost a must-have for companies wanting to be competitive in the market and with a desire to digitalise its processes, and is also surely a good step in the right direction for the environment. The aim of this paper is to define the advantages of disadvantages of a DMS as part of companies’ digital transformation as well as to provide an overview of the process of implementation and to analyse future trends and predictions in this field. For better understanding, the authors also included some examples of the implementation of a DMS in Slovenian companies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Does Debt Have Threshold Effects on Medium-Term Growth? Evidence from European Union Countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Debt has become an important factor in economic activity and its extent has incentivized many researchers to incorporate it into contemporary growth models. On the positive side, debt has the ability to smoothen private consumption, firms’ investment and government expenditure in relation to their corresponding income, subsequently leading to better capital allocation. However, the history of debt defaults and lessons from European sovereign debt crises, which were accompanied by strict austerity measures, have warned us about the danger of debt overhang and unsustainable debt burdens. This paper tackles the question of the existence of a turning point, at which the negative effects of debt start to prevail in the economic process. In the sample of European Union countries in the period from 1995 to 2019, the author of this paper investigated the presence of threshold effects of government, non-financial corporate and household debt on medium-term growth following the paper by Mika and Žumer (2017). The author first confirmed the concave-shaped relationship between public debt and growth with a threshold of 111.6% of GDP, based on Eurostat debt-to-GDP data. In contrast, private debt was found to have first lag effects with an accompanied convex-shaped relationship between private debt and growth and with a corresponding threshold of 149.8% of GDP. Next, the author divided private debt into non-financial corporate and household debt to investigate a more detailed relationship between debt and growth. Corresponding to the Global Debt Database, the concave-shaped relationship between public debt and growth was confirmed with a threshold of 104.8% of GDP. Both of the investigated types of private debt confirmed the previously explored lagged impact on medium-term growth and a convex-shaped relationship between non-financial corporate and household debt and growth. The threshold of non-financial corporate debt stands at 138.3% of GDP, while that for household debt is 145.1% of GDP. Considering the presence of thresholds may offer an important message to economic policymakers, as timely and suitable governance can lead to either higher economic growth or prevent adverse effects of excessive indebtedness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Euro Area Countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, the author examines the impact of government expenditure on economic growth. A review of empirical studies shows that researchers have found a negative link between government spending and economic growth in most cases. This paper is based on yearly data between 1995 and 2020 in euro area countries, with the application of linear regression on panel data. The main purpose is to determine whether government spending affects economic growth and, if so, how. Based on the econometrics model applied, the author established that in panel data, government expenditure has a negative impact on economic growth, more precisely, if government spending as a share of GDP increases by 1%, economic growth decreases by 0.509%. In addition, there is a significant negative relationship between government expenditure and economic growth for each country as well as the entire panel.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Does Entrepreneurial Risk-Taking Affect the Business Performance of Micro-Enterprises? Evidence from Skikda in Algeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to several previous studies, entrepreneurial risk-taking is an important aspect that can lead to prospective business opportunities, hence improving entrepreneurial outcomes such as enterprise performance. The main purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and degree of impact of entrepreneurial risk-taking (ERT) as one of the dimensions of entrepreneurial mindset on the performance of micro enterprises in Skikda, Algeria. Based on a self-administered survey questionnaire, data were collected from a random sample of 142 micro-enterprises in Skikda. The study adopted descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses to estimate the impact of entrepreneurial risk-taking. collected data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22) programme. The findings demonstrate that entrepreneurial risk-taking significantly affects the performance of micro enterprises in Skikda. Of the total variance of the performance of micro enterprise’s, 9.2% can be explained by the variability of entrepreneurial risk-taking. A small percentage is expected and can partly be explained by the presence of other factors that affect the performance of these enterprises as well as the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the process of economic activity and available business opportunities worldwide, especially these very small enterprises. However, the presence of this positive impact calls for a focus on raising the risk-taking spirit of existing and potential Algerian entrepreneurs, by holding conferences, forums and entrepreneurial programmes that enhance and support this characteristic of the entrepreneurial mindset.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Board Structure and Bank Performance: The Mediating Role of Intellectual Capitalhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Intellectual capital in the knowledge era is a strategic advantage of board structure, which leads to the improvement of a company’s work and the achievement of its goals. The aim of this study is to develop a structural model that connects the corporate governance, intellectual capital and financial performance of the banking sector. Corporate governance is conceptualised by the board of directors as the main internal mechanism of corporate governance, which is measured by the size of the board of directors, the number of independent board members and the female board members. Intellectual capital represents a mediator in this model and its efficiency is calculated through the Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC) model, while the financial performance of banks is measured through return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). The results of the study conducted in 22 Serbian banks between 2015 to 2019 show that the size of the board of directors and the number of independent board members have a statistically significant impact on intelectual capital (IC), but there is no impact on total assets (ROA). The number of women in the board of directors does not have a statistically significant effect on either ROA or ROE. The findings also indicate that intellectual capital (HCE, SCE, CEE) has a significant mediating role in the relationship between board structure and bank performance. The results of this study will provide a significant contribution to further investment in intellectual capital as the strongest link in achieving positive effects on bank performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Attitude of Hungarian HR Professionals to Artificial Intelligencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Human resource (HR) management is one of an organisation’s most important core activities. As new technologies and software applications spread, it is important to recognise that human resource management must also mature and, to this end, must apply new technological guidelines. Artificial intelligence (AI) is one such promising technology trend that is likely to change the existing methods of HR management. This paper examines the attitudes that AI evokes among practicing HR professionals and assesses the potential for the practical application of these technologies. A survey, in the form of a questionnaire, was conducted among Hungarian HR managers, which allowed the collection of first-hand data. The survey was conducted in winter 2021 using the snowball method sampling procedure. The questionnaire mainly contained Likert-scale questions. The results of the research show that survey participants have mixed emotions about AI. The respondents largely agreed that the tools provided by AI are effective and their use helps HR management. The main limitation of the research is that it is limited to just one country, since the COVID-19 pandemic made it difficult to find and involve respondents in the research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00The Simplification of Public Administration: A Managerial Perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper addresses the issue of complexity in the administrative processes of public institutions: in particular, accounting routines and processes are examined. Back-office activities, although having a mere supporting role in the delivery of public services, absorb a relevant part of the resources of public institutions. The aim of the paper is to analyse the factors that contribute to the enhancement of complexity of these activities. The paper is based on an in-depth analysis of two Italian public organisations: a university and an ASP (agency for services to persons). Italy is an interesting context since simplification policies have been adopted in the country at central government level and in specific sectors of public administration, however, at the institutional level, simplification initiatives depend on the initiative of the single organisation. The cases described in this paper show that complexity stems from the need for inspectory controls (which is typical of the law) as well as from the volume of information requested (which is typical of management studies) for different stakeholders and at different, yet correlated, levels. The paper suggests that public management scholars have the opportunity and the burden of a contribution in this field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00A Comparative Analysis of Competitive Trade in a Cluster Market of the European Union: The Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) Indexhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research is concerned with the comparative analysis of competitive trade within the cluster market economies of the European Union. The aim of this paper is to carry out trade analysis within the competing countries in the European market from 2009 to 2018 which represents the period after the global crisis of 2008 and prior to the Covid-19 pandemic of 2019 for the purpose of determining the extent of competitive trade within the European economies. The chosen metric is Béla Balassa’s Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) index used for determining various countries’ comparative advantage or disadvantage in trade. The findings show that the countries with RCA &gt; 1 thrive economically in comparison to other competing lower economies. And the fact that the European Union economy thrives on mechanized trade other than agricultural products irrespective of the competitive market. This study is a significant contribution towards improving the Ricardian model of comparative advantage on trade within a cluster market in the European economies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Statistical Methods in Croatian Enterprises During the Early Stages of COVID-19https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The appropriate application of statistical methods in enterprises should have an important role in business decision-making processes. However, Croatian enterprises still tend to have certain resistance to statistical methods. The new challenges introduced by the COVID-19 pandemic emphasised the importance of conducting statistical analyses as support for making business decisions. In order to investigate the situation and attitudes towards the use of statistical methods, primary research was conducted in the form of a web survey on a sample of 768 Croatian enterprises, of which 40% use statistical methods in their business. The research revealed the level of statistical methods use in Croatian enterprises, demonstrated which statistical methods Croatian enterprises prefer, and defined who is most responsible for their use. Furthermore, the reasons for the use of statistical methods and the major obstacles to the use of more intensive statistical methods were also investigated. The results are described and discussed on an overall level and by considering the size of the enterprises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Macroprudential Policy Instruments on Financial Stability in Southern Europehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is a contribution to the body of research examining the impact of macroprudential policy instruments on financial stability. The following hypothesis was tested (H1): Macroprudential policy instruments (household borrowing costs; interbank loans as a percentage of total loans; loan to deposit ratio; leverage ratio; and solvency ratio) enhance financial stability, as measured by credit growth, in four southern European economies (Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain) from Q4 2010 to Q4 2018. The empirical results of this study suggest that, of the investigated macroprudential policy instruments, household borrowing costs, interbank loans as a percentage of total loans and loan to deposit ratio exhibit the predicted impact on credit growth rate. Leverage ratio and solvency ratio do not exhibit the expected impact on the response variable. Moreover, only three out of the five explanatory variables are statistically significant in the model. Consequently, it is not possible to confirm or reject the hypothesis based on the available data and results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Are African Stock Markets Efficient? A Comparative Analysis Between Six African Markets, the UK, Japan and the USA in the Period of the Pandemichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to test and compare the efficient market hypothesis, in its weak form, on the stock markets of Botswana, Egypt, Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, Japan, the UK and the USA from 2 September 2019 to 2 September 2020. This study is based on the following research question: has the global pandemic (COVID-19) reduced the efficiency – in its weak form – of African financial markets compared to the mature markets of the UK, Japan and the USA? The results sustain the evidence that the random walk hypothesis is not supported by the financial markets analysed in the period of the global pandemic. The variance ratio values are lower than the unit, which implies that the returns are self-correlated over time. A reversion to the average is also observed, with no differences identified between mature and emerging financial markets. In corroboration, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) exponents show that the financial markets present signs of (in)efficiency in its weak form, thus showing persistence in the yields. This therefore implies the existence of long memories validating the results of the variance using the Wright’s Rank and Signs Test (2000), which prove the rejection of the random walk hypothesis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00What is the Nature of the Dynamics between Government Spending and Aggregate Output in the Nordic Countries?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between government consumption and aggregate output in five Nordic countries in two different scenarios: first, in periods when government consumption increases and, second, in periods when government consumption decreases. Therefore, the nonlinear ARDL model is applied to test for the presence of a short-run and long-run asymmetry in output response to government consumption. The key findings are as follows. First, based on the linear model, a positive connection between government consumption and economic activity has been confirmed, both in the short and long term, which is also in line with the predictions of economic theory. Second, based on the nonlinear model, six out of ten short-term coefficients are statistically significant, as are six out of ten long-term coefficients, with statistically significant asymmetry detected in four out of ten cases. Thus, estimated test statistics and graphical analysis suggest the presence of a negatively inclined asymmetry in the relationship between government consumption and the dynamic of aggregate output with stronger output response in periods when government consumption decreases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Empirical Testing of Purchasing Power Parity Validity in Selected European Union Countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, the authors carried out an empirical analysis of the validity of purchasing power parity (PPP) in Slovenia, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria. The results provide mixed support for PPP, which is typical for extransition economies. In the first phase of the empirical part of the research, the authors tested the stationarity of the real exchange rate in a logarithm, while in the second phase, the cointegration of nominal exchange rate, domestic and foreign price levels was tested.The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) was used in the third phase to test if the signs of variables are in accordance with economics and econometrics theories, while in the final phase, restrictions were imposed for the symmetry and proportionality of coefficients. Slovenia is subject to limitations on the symmetry and proportionality of coefficients, which means the validity of both the absolute and relative versions of the PPP theory. Croatia is subject to a limitation on symmetry, but not to a limit on the proportionality of coefficients, which means the validity of the relative version of the PPP theory. In the case of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria, restrictions on the symmetry and proportionality of the coefficients do not apply, which consequently constitutes an invalidity of both versions. However, to the authors’ knowledge, and taking into account Liu (1992), who states that it is more important to check the presence of co-integration than to check the symmetry and proportionality of the coefficients, since there is a cointegratation between the nominal exchange rate, foreign prices and domestic prices, the theory of PPP is valid for all the selected countries. The empirical results suggest that all the real exchange rate time series are stationary, additionally, cointegration exists among all the variables for all countries, and the signs of coefficients are statistically significant for all variables in all countries, however, the coefficient restrictions are only statistically significant in Slovenia and Croatia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploring Emerging Markets’ Demographic and Macroeconomic Dynamics and the Middle Class Growth: The Case of China and Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Emerging markets’ political, economic, and social transition processes led to altered demographic trends and new macroeconomic dynamics in these economies. These changes triggered the growth of the middle class that became an essential factor of emerging markets’ attractiveness for sales and production activities of foreign firms. The purpose of this article is to analyze the demographic and macroeconomic trends of China and India in the decades before the COVID-19 crisis, aimed at estimating their role in the growth of the middle class and the consequent attractiveness of these two important emerging markets for foreign firms. We formulate our research findings on the extensive theoretical foundations and empirical analysis of selected demographic and macroeconomic indicators related to the growth of the middle class. We established that India fell behind China considerably concerning demographic transition and macroeconomic dynamics in the observed periods. China enforced a radical demographic transition. The comparative analysis of macroeconomic dynamics showed a solid leadership of China in economic growth, international trade and investment openness, technological advancement, employment, the structure of the output, domestic investment, urbanization, and salaried workers. Consequently, we estimated the lower growth of the Indian middle class and its lower importance in foreign firms’ decisions to enter the Indian market. The findings brought some implications for international managers at segmenting and selecting target foreign markets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Stock Market Listing on Real Earnings Management: Evidence From Algerian Companieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to explore the effect of the Algiers Stock Exchange listing on real earnings management. The study included 14 non-financial non-listed companies during the period 2015-2019 and six non-financial listed companies during the period 2010-2019. Due to the small number of companies listed on the Algiers Stock Exchange, the period of study was extended in the case of listed companies to provide enough observations. The measurement of real earnings management is based on the model of abnormal cash flows from operations (Roychowdhury, 2006), while the hypothesis testing is based on a model of multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the company size and the nature of financial statement (consolidation) do not have any effect on real earnings management in Algerian companies. The results are not consistent with the author’s hypothesis about the positive effect of stock market listing on real earnings management. The empirical evidence suggests that the Algiers Stock Exchange listing has had a negative effect on real earnings management in Algerian companies. This might be due to the scrutiny of auditors and regulators as the number of companies is easy to control, which decreases the opportunity for Algerian companies to rely on real earnings management in accordance with the opportunistic or informational view.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00A Demand-Side Analysis of Intellectual Capital in the Accommodation Industry: The Case of the Youth Market in Sloveniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To date, research on intellectual capital (IC) in tourism has dealt with the supply-side view. This study continues the research into IC and develops a new perspective dealing with the demand side of IC in the accommodation industry, focusing on young consumers. On the theoretical ground, the study adapts the supply-side IC indicators to the demand-side perspective. A convenience sampling approach is used, and data was collected from 150 students representing the youth market. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is used to identify the dimensions of human, customer and structural capital of the accommodation industry for the youth market. Five dimensions of IC perceived by the youth market are identified: ‘Employee attitudes towards work’ and ‘Employee qualification’ constitute human capital; ‘Connectedness with guests’ and ‘Accommodation reputation and image’ represent customer capital, and ‘Structural knowledge’ reflects structural capital for youth in the accommodation industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Is There Asymmetry in the Relationship Between Government Consumption Dynamics and Economic Activity? Evidence From G7 Economieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, based on a quarterly dataset of G7 countries with the application of a nonlinear ARDL model we test for the presence of a short-run and long-term asymmetry in the relationship between government spending and economic activity. The main aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between government spending and economic activity in two separate scenarios, first, in periods when government spending increases and, second, in periods when government spending decreases. Our key findings are, first, the linear model that produces a positive relationship between government consumption and economic activity. Second, in the nonlinear model, more than half of the short-run and long-run coefficients are statistically significant. Third, short-run and long-run asymmetry are detected in four out of seven cases with recognized short-run asymmetry also in the remaining three cases based on graphical analysis. Finally, a negatively inclined short-run asymmetry is detected. The results thus imply a stronger output effect in periods of declining dynamics in government consumption. Future research should be focused on broadening the sample countries and model by adding additional variables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors Influencing the Perception of Destination Brand Luxuriousnesshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of this paper is to identify and investigate the factors that influence the building and managing of luxury destination brands. Based on a review of existing literature, the authors identified eight crucial factors: accommodation quality, quality of gastronomy offers, premium price, service quality, luxury shopping, unique experience, transportation infrastructure, and celebrity. The research was conducted on a sample of 619 respondents from 16 countries. Factor and regression analyses were used. The results indicate that the availability of celebrity and luxury shopping has the strongest significant influence on luxury destination brand building, while the impact of accommodation quality and a premium price is non-significant, and, interestingly, transportation infrastructure has a negative and significant impact. A convenience sample and the possibility of omitting certain factors (e.g. safety) from the research represent the main research limitations. This research contributes to marketing and brand management literature by identifying and investigating the factors that help in building and managing a luxury destination brand, which to date has been neglected in literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Consumers’ Buying Behavior on the E-commerce in Highly Developed Emerging Market and Developed Market: The Case of Singapore and Austriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The e-commerce is becoming increasingly essential and principally relevant in the modern world, especially in the current pandemic. Due to the increased use of the Internet, the growth of e-commerce has escalated. This research focuses on the e-commerce environments of Singaporean and Austrian markets. It contains an outline touching on the theoretical parts and the conduct of an empirical study where the survey results from 206 participants were studied, analysed, and compared. The statistical methods chosen for this research were the t-test analysis and the correlation analysis. The empirical study served as a quantitative discussion on both countries’ e-commerce markets. The analysis of the completed questionnaires provided a better and clear understanding of the buying behaviours and their potential impact on the e-commerce markets in Singapore and Austria. Considering the results from the comparisons, the research has also highlighted some interesting findings and differences in the buying behaviours of Singaporean and Austrian shoppers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance in B2B Sales: An Explanation of How Channel Management and Communication Influence a Firm’s Performancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/ngoe-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Communication between seller and buyer is done through multiple channels. There are multiple ways to use technical media and channel selection to create more information, but does this lead to a better performance of a firm? Research on the impact of different marketing channels in the industry regarding performance factors remains scarce. The performance of a firm is the most significant factor and will be monitored through different attributes. The purpose of this paper is to review the drivers of a sales process in terms of sales cycles, channels and communication in relation to it’s effect on performance. Beyond the characteristics of sales the review delineates the changes from the past to the present. The contribution of this review is to understand the various capabilities in channel management and communication that can be adapted to the sales process and increase a firm’s performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1