rss_2.0Mineralogia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Mineralogia 's Cover steps for the detection and classification of different lamprophyric rocks: a case study from Greece<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to help non-expert geologists in locating, classifying and analyzing lamprophyres, the exotic and complex rocks. The process includes three basic steps, a macroscopic study of the formation, petrographic microscopy and lastly whole-rock and trace element analyses of the samples. Fourteen Greek lamprophyric rocks with distinct characteristics were used. Conventional lamprophyres were considered along with rarer alkali minettes, meta-lamprophyres, lamproschists, appinites and para-lamproites.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Sorption of oil products on the synthetic zeolite granules<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, lightweight granules of zeolite Na-P1 based on expanded glass aggregates were synthesized for the application in oil products’ sorption. The sorption of gasoline, diesel and silicone oil tests were also conducted for raw expanded glass, zeolite A, clinoptilolite and mineral sorbent available at a fuel station. All sorbents were also characterized in terms of the phase composition (X-ray diffraction) and structure (infrared spectroscopy). The zeolite Na-P1 granules achieved the highest values of sorption capacities (1.8, 2.1 and 2.6 g/g, respectively), which makes them promising materials for oils’ removal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of selected mineral and waste sorbents for the capture of elemental mercury from exhaust gases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Several mineralogically, chemically and texturally diverse minerals and waste materials were selected for the testing of elemental mercury capture in exhaust gas, namely tyre char resulting from the burning of pyrolytic rubber tyres, class C fly ash, mesoporous material type MCM-41 and glauconite. Each material’s mineralogical, chemical and textural characteristics were explored. In order to conduct experiments in conditions similar to those during the contact of sorbent with real coal exhaust fumes at a temperature of about 110-120°C, the experiments were carried out using a test device consisting of a furnace for burning powdered coals, a thermostatic cage for sorbent reactors and mercury gas analysers, which are able to measure and compare the effects of individual sorbents with exhaust gas. The study found that the best results for mercury sorption in the exhaust atmosphere were obtained for class C ash resulting from brown coal combustion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of porosity on the reactivity of calcium sorbents<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current work presents the results of seven sorbent samples investigated with respect to SO<sub>2</sub> capture. The sorbents’ reactivity and capacity indexes were determined, and the tests were carried out in accordance with the ‘classical’ procedure for limestone sorbents. The reactivity indexes (RIs) of the tested samples were in the range of 2.57 and 3.55 (mol Ca)/(mol S), while the absolute sorption coefficients as determined by the capacity index (CI) varied between 87.9 and 120.6 (g S)/(kg of sorbent). Porosimetric analysis was also carried out and the specific surface area of the samples was found to be between 0.2 and 1.7 m<sup>2</sup>/g. The number of micro-, meso- and macro-pores in individual samples was determined from the corresponding pore size distribution histograms, and the values of sorbent RIs and CIs were correlated with the samples’ total porosity and specific surface.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Activated Carbon as a Support of Catalysts for the Removal of Nitrogen Oxides<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Activated carbon was oxidised with concentrated nitric acid and impregnated with urea to form nitrogen-containing groups. Such a support was impregnated with cobalt, copper or silver nitrates to obtain catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides with ammonia. Infrared spectra confirmed the formation of carboxylic and other organic oxygen-containing groups during oxidation. Nitrogen-containing species resulted from urea thermal decomposition. The metal-containing samples were hydrophilic. Cobalt and copper were present in the samples as small Co<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and CuO crystallites, while silver occurred in the form of large metallic crystallites, as seen from the X-ray diffraction patterns. Low temperature N<sub>2</sub> sorption revealed that all samples were microporous solids, and the chemical and thermal treatment did not change their textural properties. The copper admixture caused the highest NO conversion, but worsened the selectivity and thermal stability of functionalised carbon support.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Synthesis and application of natural sorbents with silver nanoparticles in reducing the emission of odours<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns the applicability of silver nanoparticles for reducing the emission of odours. Silver nanoparticles were successfully adsorbed on three different dolomitic limestone samples. In the next stage, wastewater from the meat industry was mixed with sorbents modified with a variable content of silver nanoparticles. After 4 days and 7 days, the concentration of ammonia was examined spectrophotometrically. Also, the degree of reduction of total odour concentration by olfactometric method was carried out. Depending on the concentration of the silver nanoparticles on the sorbents, the concentration of ammonia was 15-42 μg/cm<sup>3</sup> for nAg content equal to 0.08%, while for sorbents containing approximately 36% of nAg the concentration of ammonia was 0.09-16 μg/cm<sup>3</sup>. A leaching test of nanosilver from sorbents confirmed that the particles were bound with the sorbents by strong bonds. The percentage of eluted silver increased from 0.67% to 11%, with increased initial concentrations of nAg on the sorbents from 0.18% to 0.37%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Włodzimierz Wojciech Kowalski 1932-2005<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Włodzimierz Wojciech Kowalski 1932-2005</title></abstract>ARTICLE2007-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Low-Grade Metamorphism of Permian Mafic Rocks From the Gorzów Wielkopolski Block (Fore Sudetic Monocline, Nw Poland): Age and Mechanism<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Low-Grade Metamorphism of Permian Mafic Rocks From the Gorzów Wielkopolski Block (Fore Sudetic Monocline, Nw Poland): Age and Mechanism</title><p>The metavolcanic rocks in the Gorzów Wielkopolski area (NW Poland) are andesite-basalts and andesites derived from contaminated within-plate subalkaline basalt melts. K-Ar dating of primary K-feldspar yields an extrusion age of 285±5 Ma. This new date suggests that these rocks may be the youngest dated Permo-Carboniferous volcanic rocks within the eastern margin of the North German Basin.</p><p>Petrological and micro-thermometric data indicate that the volcanic rocks were altered by a sub-greenschist facies, metamorphic process that proceeded within temperatures and pressures ranging from 195-290°C and 63-96 MPa, respectively. The major metamorphic phases, corrensite, pumpellyite, laumontite and prehnite, formed due to interaction between the original volcanic rock and low-saline Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>-rich hydrothermal fluids. Numerical modelling indicates fluid flow in fractures as the most probable explanation for the low-grade hydrothermal metamorphism. Model calculations suggest that the process was of short duration, <italic>ca</italic> 140-250 years. K-Ar dating reveals three Mesozoic episodes at 121±2 Ma, 188-190 Ma and 149±4 Ma that can be ascribed to the metamorphism. These ages are similar to previously determined Mesozoic ages from altered volcanic- and clastic rocks in the North German Basin and in the Polish Basin.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2007-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Monazite Breakdown in Metapelites From Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Svalbard — Preliminary Report<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Monazite Breakdown in Metapelites From Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Svalbard — Preliminary Report</title><p>Metapelites from the SW part of Wedel Jarlsberg Land were progressively metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions followed by a Caledonian low-temperature metamorphic event under greenschist facies conditions. The latter resulted in various stages of monazite breakdown. These include monazite alterations and the formation of allanite-apatite coronas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2007-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Zygmunt Holcer 10.11.1925-17.07.2004<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Zygmunt Holcer 10.11.1925-17.07.2004</title></abstract>ARTICLE2007-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A Note on the Chemical Composition of Nuffieldite Solid-Solution From Sulphide Mineralizations in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>A Note on the Chemical Composition of Nuffieldite Solid-Solution From Sulphide Mineralizations in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia</title><p>The chemistry of the rare sulphosalt nuffieldite from three localities in Slovakia is examined. Nuffieldite is a part of a complex association of Bi sulphosalts accompanying tetrahedrite mineralization in some sulphide deposits in the Western Carpathians. Cu + Pb = (Bi, Sb) + vac. substitution in nuffieldite and the general formula Cu<sub>1+x</sub>Pb<sub>2</sub>Bi<sub>2</sub>(Pb<sub>x</sub>Sb<sub>y</sub>Bi<sub>1-x-y</sub>)S<sub>7</sub> where 0 &lt; x &lt; 0.34; and 0.32 &lt; y &lt; 0.45 are confirmed. Decreasing Sb content with increasing copper content indicates a predominant substitution of Bi by Sb in nuffieldite.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2007-02-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Dovyrenite CaZr[SiO](OH) - A New Mineral from Skarned Carbonate Xenoliths in Basic-Ultrabasic Rocks of the Ioko-Dovyren Massif, Northern Baikal Region, Russia<p>Dovyrenite, simplified formula Ca<sub>6</sub>Zr[Si<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub>]<sub>2</sub>(OH)<sub>4</sub>, occurs as an accessory mineral in vein skarns developed in carbonate xenoliths in subvolcanic layered plagiodunite-troctolite series in the Ioko-Dovyren Massif of Proterozoic age, Northern Baikal Region, Buryatia, Russia. Dovyrenite is a late mineral of altered pyroxene and melilite-monticellite skarns. Associated minerals are Zr-bearing phases: fassaitic pyroxene, perovskite and hydrogarnets; and also monticellite, vesuvianite, diopside, foshagite, brucite, calzirtite, tazheranite, baghdadite, apatite, calcite, native bismuth, sphalerite, selenian galena, clausthalite, safflorite, rammelsbergite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, valleriite, laitakarite, nickeline, nickel-skutterudite. The average structure of dovyrenite is orthorhombic, space group <italic>Pnnm</italic>, with subcell parameters <italic>A</italic> = 5.666(16) Å, <italic>B</italic> = 18.844(5) Å, <italic>C</italic> = 3.728(11) Å, <italic>V</italic> = 398.0(2) Å<sup>3</sup> and <italic>Z</italic> = 1. Dovyrenite shows a new type of modular structure with stacking of the tobermorite-like and the rosenbuschite-like layers parallel to (010). Single-crystal structural data point to an incompletely occupied Ca(2) site from the rosenbuschite module which is confirmed by microprobe analyses: ZrO<sub>2</sub> 16.47, SiO<sub>2</sub> 32.83, TiO<sub>2</sub> 0.14, HfO<sub>2</sub> 0.16, Cr<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 0.01, CaO 43.87, FeO 0.25, MgO 0.13, MnO 0.02, Nb<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> 0.03; total 99.38 wt% with calculated H<sub>2</sub>O. The empirical formula is (Ca<sub>5.73</sub>Fe<sub>0.03</sub>Mg<sub>0.02</sub>)<sub>σ5.78</sub>(Zr<sub>0.98</sub>Hf<sub>0.01</sub>Ti<sub>0.01</sub>)<sub>σ1</sub>Si<sub>4</sub>(O<sub>13.56</sub>OH<sub>0.44</sub>)<sub>σ14</sub>(OH)<sub>4</sub>. The presence of two types of OH group in the dovyrenite structure is corroborated by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Dovyrenite is an optically positive biaxial mineral: α 1.659(2), β 1.660(2); γ 1.676(2); 2Vz 30(5)° (measured), 28° (calculated). The coexistence of monticellite, foshagite and dovyrenite points to a narrow interval of crystallization 560-630°C under subvolcanic conditions (P &lt; 10<sup>8</sup> Pa).</p>ARTICLE2007-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Nižná Boca Sb-Au Hydrothermal Ore Deposit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)<p>Samples from hydrothermal Sb-Au mineralization in the area SE of Nižná Boca village in the N&amp;iAzke Tatry Mountains were investigated using a variety of geochemical and mineralogical methods. Ore minerals typically occur in N-S striking quartz-carbonate veins hosted by an I-type biotite granodiorite to tonalite of Variscan Age (the Ďumbier Type). Paragenetic associations in the deposit are comparable to other mineralizations of the same type in the Ďumbierske Nízke Tatry Mountains. A quartz-arsenopyrite, pyrite stage of mineralization is the oldest with a calculated temperature of formation of about 445°C. It is followed by a quartz-carbonate-stibnite, zinkenite stage and, in turn, a quartz-carbonate-sphalerite-galena, boulangerite-gold stage. The gold typically contains between 9-18 wt.% Ag regardless of mineral association. No evidence for further generations of gold was found although it is possible that some gold was remobilized from the structure of the auriferous arsenopyrite. The Au and Ag content of the bulk ore ranges from 0.53 g.t<sup>-1</sup> to 20.2 g.t<sup>-1</sup> and from 0.9 g.t<sup>-1</sup> to 31.2 g.t<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. A tetrahedrite-chalcopyrite stage is followed by a barite-hematite stage - the youngest assemblage in the deposit. Fluid inclusions from the first mineralization stage are usually less than 3 μm in size and contain less than 3.6 wt.% CO<sub>2</sub>; salinity, density and homogenization temperature range from 2.7-16.3 wt.% NaCl<sub>(eq)</sub>, 0.85-1.03<sup>-1</sup> and 128-280°C, respectively.</p>ARTICLE2008-03-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Ree and Sr-Nd Isotope Compositions of Clinopyroxenites, Phoscorites and Carbonatites of the Seblyavr Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia<p>Clinopyroxenites, phoscorites and carbonatites from the Devonian Seblyavr intrusion (Kola Peninsula, Russia) have petrographic characteristics indicating that they are accumulative in origin. Their geochemical (major and rare earth elements) compositions can be accounted for by mixtures of their major rock-forming minerals and accessory phases, i.e. they reflect the record of mineral accumulation. All of the analysed Seblyavr rocks are strongly LREE-enriched with (La/Yb)<sub>N</sub> mostly ranging from 38 to 189. However, a dolomite carbonatite with hydrothermal LREE-Sr mineralization has an extreme (La/Yb)<sub>N</sub> value of 1659. Such late-stage dolomite carbonatites were formed by hydrothermal (rather than magmatic) processes. Whole-rock samples of representative magmatic lithologies from Seblyavr have initial <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr and ε<sub>Nd</sub> that fall in a very narrow range from 0.7031 to 0.7033 and +4.9 to +5.9, respectively. We therefore conclude that clinopyroxenites, phoscorites and carbonatites were formed by differentiation and crystallization of a single batch of melt. The parental melt was derived from a depleted upper mantle source that had been meta-somatised prior to melting.</p>ARTICLE2008-01-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Mineralogy and petrology serving society: challenges for the 21st century<p>One of the topical problems of science in general at present is spreading the newest discoveries among population as well as among the decision-makers. "Mineralogical sciences" (mineralogy, geochemistry, petrology) affect the wide spectrum of human activities. Such an influence can already be traced in prehistory, and in the modern age the significance of the mentioned geoscience branches is on the increase. The author presents here a review of selected applications of mineralogical sciences in the development of mankind.</p>ARTICLE2010-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00First Polish textbooks on mineralogy<p>First Polish textbooks on mineralogy, published between 1780s-1820s mostly in Vilna, are presented and their contents briefly discussed. Authors of these textbooks, lecturing at the Vilna University, being A. G. Werner's students, played an important role in propagating most recent ideas in mineralogy and related sciences. They were also the authors of pioneer Polish mineralogical nomenclature, which corresponded to the internationally recognised terms.</p>ARTICLE2010-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:002009: 40 Birthday of the Mineralogical Society of Poland of light hydrocarbons on clays from the Oligocene Kiscell Clay Formation, Hungary<p>Clays from Solymár (Hungary) were treated with volatile components of light hydrocarbon in order to investigate their ability to sorb these organic compounds. The clays were characterized using XRD, optical microscopy (thin sections) and CEC measurements. The contaminated samples were analyzed using ATD-GC-MS, Rock Eval and XRD. Volatilization of the fluid phase hydrocarbon was monitoring for 663 days. The quantity of volatilized hydrocarbon compounds reached 50.0-65.0% at the end of the experiment. All of the analyses indicate hydrocarbon pollution of the clay layers after the volatilization process. The gross compositions of the fluid and the sorbed phases are different; the total amount of cycloalkanes among the sorbed hydrocarbons is very low. The dominant sorbed components are toluene, xylenes, <italic>n</italic>C<sub>9</sub>, <italic>n</italic>C<sub>10</sub>, <italic>n</italic>C<sub>11</sub> and <italic>n</italic>C<sub>7</sub>. Cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, benzene, <italic>n</italic>C<sub>12</sub> and <italic>n</italic>C<sub>13</sub> also occur in lower concentrations. The geochemical and XRD results indicate that adsorption onto the external surfaces of the clay minerals was the main sorption process.</p>ARTICLE2009-11-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Mineralogy and petrology of two ordinary chondrites and their correlation with other meteorites<p>Two ordinary chondrites are compared and classified using transmitted and reflected light microscopy and electron microprobe analyses. Both meteorites were confiscated by the Polish Customs Service at the border with Belarus. The first meteorite (called in this paper Terespol-1) is a L/LL6 chondrite, its classification being supported by the equilibrated compositions of olivine and orthopyroxene and the presence of large recrystallized feldspars (&lt; 150 μm). The specimen examined experienced weak shock metamorphism (S3) and moderate weathering (although metal in the inner part of the meteorite seems to be unaffected by oxidization). The other meteorite (called in this paper Terespol-2) is a LL6 chondrite which experienced weak shock metamorphism (S3) and is unaffected by weathering. The Terespol-2 meteorite shares its classification with the Dhofar 1401 chondrite but the lack of data prevents further correlation. Both meteorites have been correlated with known findings from the <italic>Meteoritical Bulletin</italic> database and an attempt is made to identify their place of origin (fall event). Results indicate that Terespol-1 is most closely related to the Dhofar 1316 chondrite and we suggest that both meteorites at least came from the same parent body.</p>ARTICLE2010-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Observations on the effect of proximity to rhyolitic intrusions on Kübler index<p>The Upper Ordovician sedimentary succession of southeast Ireland is riddled with almost synsedimentary igneous intrusions. A study was required to determine any effects of these intrusions on Kübler Index (KI) so that further sampling for a regional study could be undertaken and the results would be unbiased. Sampling was carried out on the low-grade metapelites (Southeast Ireland) around the rhyolitic and doleritic intrusions, which were intruded into the still soft sediment. Clay mineralogy was determined using X-ray diffractometry and KI values were measured; SEM and whole rock elemental analyses were applied to complement the results of the XRD work. KIs immediately around rhyolitic intrusions were observed in all cases to be lower than the regional KI, however this was not seen around doleritic intrusions. SEM work shows illite grain sizes following the KI trend and K2<sup>O</sup> were noted to be highest where KI was lowest. Rare earth elements (REEs) show some mobilization which also follows the KI trend. This is considered to be a residual effect of hydrothermal fluids / volatiles hosted by the rhyolites but not encountered in the dolerites. Chlorite crystallinity is not affected as it most likely crystallized after the hydrothermal event. The KI is often used as a proxy for illite crystallinity in studies of low grade metamorphism but is influenced by many parameters and care should be taken when applying this technique to studies of regional metamorphism.</p>ARTICLE2011-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1