rss_2.0Marketing of Scientific and Research Organizations FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Marketing of Scientific and Research Organizations of Scientific and Research Organizations 's Cover as a Purchase Determinanton the Dietary Supplement Market in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Unit packaging of dietary supplements - an inherent element of their manufacturing, without which they would be impossible to market — has numerous interlocking functions to fulfil, including the protective, transport, information, functional, ecological and marketing functions. The information function, however, is one of the priority functions of dietary supplement packaging. In the era of the continual development of online and self-service stores (including pharmacies), such packaging has become one of the key sources of information about dietary supplements’ features and properties, while also serving as a brand image creator and a carrier of promotional information. This raises the questions of whether and to what extent the unit packaging of dietary supplements influences the purchasing decisions of consumers, what features and elements of such packaging are crucial for consumers in the purchasing process, and what significance supplement packaging has in the purchasing process against the background of other purchasing determinants. Seeking to address these questions, herein we present selected results of an original study conducted in 2019 with a purposely selected sample of 468 dietary supplement consumers in Poland, whose main purpose was to identify the role and significance of packaging as a determinant of purchase in relation to three selected categories of dietary supplements..</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Users’ Awareness of Augmented Reality Technology in Mobile Applications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Augmented reality (AR) is becoming an increasingly popular technology, used in many fields. Particular prospects for its development are inherent in the dissemination of AR-based applications on widely used mobile devices. To guide the emerging research in this field, the level of knowledge of AR technology among potential consumers needs to be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness of AR in mobile applications among their potential users, attempting to determine whether it is possible to define the profile of a user characterized by a greater level of knowledge of AR. Statistical analysis of the results of original research carried out with the CAWI in the spring of 2020 showed that the knowledge of augmented reality technology among potential consumers is at a relatively low level. Moreover, this study found no characteristics correlated with this knowledge, in terms of either demographics, or interest in and knowledge of modern technologies in general.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Twenty-First Century Male Elegance Amongst Elegantly-Dressing Polish Males and Self-Declared “Dandies”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dandyism was a thriving philosophical and social movement amongst elegant men of the nineteenth century. The prevailing conviction in the literature on the subject is that the dandy trend began to gradually disappear in the twentieth century, whereas in the new millennium it essentially no longer exists, or at best exists only as a mere shadow of itself. Herein we report a questionnaire study of elegantly-dressing Polish males regarding their behaviour on the fashion market, seeking to gain an better image of this particular market segment and at the same time to identify the features of contemporary dandies and possible connections with the “metro” style. The results indicate that dandyism (at least in the respondents’ opinion) is still a lively and thriving e-consumer community, which clearly differs in terms of certain features from metrosexualism. However, the modern-day “dandies” cannot easily be considered heirs to the ideals of their nineteenth-century counterparts. Our findings, in particular the characterization of twenty-first-century elegant-dressing men in Poland, may be of use to fashion brands in the broader men’s elegance segment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Selected Online Image-Building Activities By Polish Universities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to identify the online tools used by Polish universities and analyse to what extent these tools are used for image-related, communication, and marketing purposes. Based on our own analyses and desk research, we listed and then compared selected image-related activities carried out online by the higher education institutions rated as Poland’s top universities in the “Perspektywy Ranking”. We also extended our analysis to the universities rated as the world’s top universities, selected based on the Webometrics ranking, and identified a clear difference in trends. The online tools listed in this paper were evaluated in terms of their impact on the position of the higher education institutions in the education market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Developing Students’ Transversal Competences Through Cultivation of Health Literacy Competence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recognition that transversal competences are increasingly needed to face the challenges of the ever-changing world has given rise to work examining students’ development of transversal competences (TVCs) during their university time. This approach argues in favor of embedding transversal competences as well as health literacy competence and subject-based competences in curricula. The mini-study presented herein first posits a logical model for the integration of transversal competences in university curricula, supplemented with a qualimetric model comprising 6 factors associated with transversal competences. The resulting tools for transversal competence evaluation and self-assessment were next applied in a pilot questionnaire study of a small group of management students at a local university. Overall, the findings support the claim that students’ TVC development requires a new educational paradigm based on a holistic approach to competence-based learning that involves the harmonious development of a person’s TVCs and subject-based competences. Moreover, the results may serve as a reference for future studies on transversal competences and health literacy in particular, as well as for teachers and researchers in related fields.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Marketing, Start-Ups and Innovation: A Framework for Understanding the Possibilities for Harnessing Technological Innovations in Tourism (Based on the Example of the Georgian Tourism Sector and Russian Start-Ups)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The travel and tourism industry is one of the largest and fastest-growing sectors in the world. In the case of countries like Georgia, where tourism is a priority sector of the economy, innovation is crucial for a tourism-based development strategy — and this has become particularly important in the post-pandemic realities. This paper proposes a certain framework for understanding the possibilities for harnessing technological innovations in the travel industry (particularly apps and websites). It then considers the specific example of the country of Georgia, outlining the state’s measures meant to foster IT innovation in tourism and also certain moderate successes to date in this respect. Next, the paper looks to Russian tourist-sector start-ups as models for operation that be successfully harnessed in the Georgian tourism industry, examining several such Russian start-ups in closer detail.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Interaction Effect of Country of Manufacture and Brand Awareness on Malaysian Young Adults Purchase Intention of Low Involvement Product<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to examine the interaction effect of country of manufacture and brand awareness, packaging and price impact on the purchase intention of toothpaste among young adults in Malaysia. As previous studies show, the country of origin should not be taken as a single clue, as it exaggerates the country of origin effect. This study evaluates the effect of the country of origin effect on the low-involvement good (toothpaste). The Cue Utilization Theory was used to explain how the consumer uses product cues to rate a product before making a purchase decision. Study data are analysed using SmartPLS. The results of this study showed that all variables influence consumer purchase intention for toothpaste. IPMA analysis showed that the interaction effect of the country of manufacture and brand awareness are important factors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Open Innovations as a form of Customer Value Co-Creation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article aims to present customer participation in value co-creation based on the demand-side approach to innovation. We present the rationale and principles of the demand-side approach to innovation based on user participation. Further, we discuss the forms of customer engagement in customer-company cooperation, customer motivations, and perceived benefits. This article also identifies the open innovation model’s factors and provides practitioners with implementation guidance regarding the demand approach to innovation. Further, this article shows the influence of the customer’s active role and the demand-side approach to innovation on the enterprise, the economy, and society. Finally, we identify possible risks associated with using this approach and their impact on the environment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Market Functioning of Polish Higher Education Institutions in the Context of the Implementation of the Concept of Social Responsibility<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The evolution in the sector set new tasks for Higher Education Institutions (HEIs)*, where — in addition to educational activity — their cooperation with other entities is assumed, which will make it possible to take up contemporary challenges. One of these is University Social Responsibility (USR)*, the popularity of which is growing; however, this area is not sufficiently recognized in the relevant literature. This fact was an important premise for undertaking research to assess the current state of the higher education sector in the context of the implementation of the concept of social responsibility. The purpose of the paper is to show students’ opinions on the implementation of USR by HEIs and their knowledge of SR. The author’s intention is to present the results of her own research. The material obtained in the course of the survey showed that the symptoms of the adaptation of the concept of Social Responsibility (SR)* to HEI management were identified, but the degree of their involvement in this area is insufficient, as is the level of students’ knowledge in the field of SR. The exploratory research referred to in this article is an introduction to a broader scope of research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00New Organizational Model for Functioning of Research Institutes in Poland — Comparative Analysis of Łukasiewicz and Poltrin Networks<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article concerns the functioning of research institutes in Poland taking into account their legal and organizational changes. The aim of the article is to attempt to answer the question whether networking of research institutes in Poland is an appropriate organizational model for the functioning of these organizations. The introduction outlines the theoretical background for the network analysis and presents general information about research institutes. The author presents solutions concerning networking of scientific institutions in Poland and in selected EU countries. The POLTRIN and Łukasiewicz networks are an example of models of networking research institutes in our country. The author analyzes the activities of these networks, taking into account the benefits of network connections in cooperation with the economy. The research methods used in this paper include: the analysis of source materials, case study, comparison method and bibliometric method.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Academic Tutoring as a form of Modern Cooperation with the Student and an Element of Improving the Quality of Teaching Services<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article, on the example of Poland and Slovakia, concentrates on the changes taking place in higher education in Central and Eastern Europe. The expectations of contemporary students (Z generation representatives) towards academic education and teaching staff have been analysed, and academic tutoring has been presented as an innovative, though not a new, form of education that perfectly meets these expectations.</p><p>Based on the collected theoretical material and own experience, the authors have indicated the strengths and weaknesses of academic tutoring and analysed the opportunities of implementing this form of teaching in higher education systems. The subsidiary aim of this paper is to pose a number of questions, which could lead to determining the direction of changes that should be considered in order to incorporate academic tutoring into the teaching activities of the university.</p><p>Potential difficulties arising at the stage of implementing tutoring have also been presented. Their identification may contribute to the optimization of the application of this didactic method, thus increasing the chances of its success. Moreover, several examples of good practice and didactic projects related to the introduction of tutoring into academic practice in Poland have been presented. They may be found helpful when making a decision to implement tutoring at the university level in other Central European countries.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Debatable Issues of Personal Values in the Context of Harmonization of Educational Standards of Ukraine and the EU<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The necessity and urgency of the gap reducing between the pace of technological and humanitarian development of society in order to prevent the risks caused by the insufficient level of training of users of modern technologies is pointed out. The expediency of strengthening of the humanitarian component in the educational process is substantiated. Based on the method of desk content research, some structural and substantive differences between normative documents are illustrated, the positive influence of harmonization of legislation in the field of education is shown, as well as the development of educational standards on the formulation of personality values in these documents. The group of moral and ethical characteristics of students and teachers of Ukraine and Poland was evaluated. A relatively low level of presence of characteristics that make up the values of the representatives of the surveyed groups is established. Positive and negative dynamics of various indicators are revealed. A comparative evaluation of the studied characteristics between the representatives of Ukraine and Poland was carried out. An explanation of the identified differences is given.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Volume and Dynamics of Domestic Expenditures on Research and Development in the European Union<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the article, whose construction is of theoretical and empirical nature, the author attempted to achieve the following objectives: 1) identification and critical assessment of expenditures on research and development (GERD index), expressed in euro per inhabitant, incurred by statistical units concentrated in the sectors: business enterprises, government, higher education, private non-profit organizations and jointly in all sectors in countries members of the European Union. The level and dynamics of these expenditures are treated as an indirect measure of senior management’s involvement in creating R&amp;D policy and efficient management in R&amp;D phases; 2) an attempt to verify theses that R&amp;D expenditures are variable and diversified in EU Member States, which indicates the lack of a rational R&amp;D policy focused on the systematic generation of new knowledge materialized in innovations providing customers the expected value in a systemic way; 3) developing models of innovative R&amp;D activities management. To develop the article, research methods are used, such as: critical-cognitive analysis of literature, statistical-comparative analysis of Eurostat’s empirical secondary material, projection method. The level of the GERD meter indicates a significant differentiation of R&amp;D expenditure in individual sections of the analysis. The member states of the old EU had relatively higher outlays for this purpose compared to the new member states.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Preliminary Research of Information Overload from Information Search and Information Follow<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The major objective of this research is to test if two types of information overload are different: Information overload from searching for the information someone needs to search, and information overload from following all the information someone needs to follow. These two types of information overload may be labelled information search overload and information follow overload, corresponding to the concepts of information search and information follow. Using the data of a survey from a sample of about 1600 respondents across 50 states in the United States, the research identified 2 items corresponding to information search overload and information follow overload, and ran analyses including correlation and logistic regression with the 2 items separately as the dependent variables, and with some other items about consumers’ activities involving information as independent variables. Results of the various analyses suggest that information search overload and information follow overload are different, especially in terms of how they associate with different variables of consumer activities involving information, therefore indicate as a preliminary research that we may separate the two types of information overload in our future research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Consumer Attitudes Towards Innovative Food Products Including Functional Products — Implications for Marketing in Terms of Nutrition and Health Claims<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In order to identify the attitudes of consumers towards innovative food products, including functional foods, qualitative research was carried out in 2019 to find out what are the components of these attitudes in relation to innovative food, on the example of functional food, in the conditions of the growing global tendency to care for health and convenience. As a result of the research carried out using the focus group interview (FGI) methodology, it was found that innovative food is associated with a new taste or packaging, increased nutritional value, as well as health related attributes. Often, in studies, consumers also referred to the reduction or complete elimination of allergenic ingredients and other chemical ingredients, e.g. preservatives, flavor enhancers. Consumers accept these innovations in different ways, generally showing skepticism about “improving” food by enriching it with various ingredients, while positively referring to changes related to the reduction in the content of nutrients considered harmful to health, e.g. fat, sugar or salt. It was also noted that innovativeness treated as a personality trait is accompanied by such features as: openness, tolerance, optimism, life satisfaction, while people lacking tendency to accept innovation are usually pessimistic about the world, attached to tradition or thrifty. It was also noted that consumers similarly perceive innovative and functional food, indicating that functional products are food with a specific health purpose, with a modified composition. The interviewees also indicated that it is possible to increase the interest of consumers in purchasing new food products or functional food through, inter alia, well targeted marketing messages, and it is necessary to take into account the legal regulations regarding their wording when formulating them. This applies in particular to the possibility of using nutrition and health claims in the case of products enriched with ingredients with a declared health-related effect.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Managing Instruments of the Future<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The studies demonstrated that the sustainable development concept hadn’t hinged the justification on hopes because the previous crisis of the global economy was synchronous in almost all countries in the world. The innovative approach to management of the future and to forming a new concept of the humankind development is very important today. The hypothesis that in the future the culture instrument for management of human activity will have to turn into a third component for a new correction of the humankind ideology in the association of the market and the hierarchy is proposed. The meaning of the humankind history learning is highlighted. But it is also demonstrated the difficulties for the people to learn the Big Data of historical information in details. The new approach to the process of history learning at higher educational establishments is proposed, namely: to learn historical information by the reverse chronological order from the contemporary history step to the old ancient history, from the special to the general: from learning history of the native country to learning history of all countries over the world. It places emphasis that under the conditions of the information chaos anyone might become the author (or several authors) of the global culture of the future as the main threat for the humankind.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Evolution of the Role of Forms of Marketing Communication in Influencing Consumers’ Shopping Behavior (Based on Surveys in 1995–2018)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of the article is to present the extent to which consumers use modern and traditional forms of marketing communication about the market offer, depending on the characteristics of these consumers, as well as to recognize the attitudes and market behavior of consumers under the influence these forms of communication, with particular emphasis on online advertising and social media. The basis of the analyzes are the results of the own, nationwide, surveys carried out in 1995, 2001 and 2017/2018. The importance of online information sources in influencing consumer behavior has grown dynamically, but the role of reference groups as a source of information on offers is still relatively large. Despite the increase in critical attitudes towards advertising, it does not significantly reduce its effectiveness in influencing consumers, although the mechanism of this influence is changing, as the strength of the behavioral component of the attitudes studied, is greater compared to the emotional component. Moreover, according to the criterion of age and education, there are significant differences in attitudes and the use of online sources of information between consumer groups, but these differences tend to decrease due to the growing rate of internet penetration. The generation Z’s susceptibility to advertising is relatively the greatest, not only in relation to ads broadcasted on the web, but also offline ads. Consumers from this generation are also more likely to engage in various types of social media activity in shaping the market offer.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of Competence Potential of Changes in Higher Education on the Training of Specialists for Entrepreneurship<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper presents the substantiation of the need to reform the higher education system of Ukraine in line with European and international standards and requirements, providing a full transition to competentive approach to learning. The essence and advantages of using competency potential for improvement of the higher education system in Ukraine are determined. A comprehensive marketing research are conducted, using the method of content analysis that helped to reveal the modern competencies needed for students and graduates of financial and legal specialties. In addition, a survey was conducted which showed that there were problems with the level and quality of the formation of professional and key competences.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The Utilization of the Concept of Relationship Marketing in the Process of Building the Ties of a University with External Stakeholders<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Constantly changing social-economic conditions are forcing Polish universities to change the orientation of their approach from focusing solely on educating to building relations with external stakeholders, the associated transfer of knowledge and continuous adaptation of offer to the needs of the labour market. An important element of this reorientation is establishing cooperation with entities which may be interested in exchange of information, access to latest research results, or which express the willingness to share knowledge in the process of teaching students. Actual cooperation between the sphere of science and economic practice is becoming a priority and the main determinant implicating the development of each of the sides. Taking the above into consideration, it becomes reasonable for universities to apply the concept of relational marketing. The assumptions of relational marketing perfectly respond to the new challenges ahead of scientific units. A university, assuming the role on an integrator should build a network of relations with entities from its environment such as: employees, opinion-forming units, schools and other universities, research-scientific units, business incubators, entities from the so-called third sector of the economy, media. These relations have to be based on trust, openness, readiness for changes, as well as on transfer of knowledge and technology, assuming common, long-term benefits for each of the involved sides.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Position of Marketing in a Contemporary Organization — Character of Changes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p> Knowledge from the area of marketing is evolving and what reflects this evolution are new marketing concepts formed in response to the challenges arising from the environment of companies. The main problem discussed in this article is the assessment of the character and scope of the changes in the role of marketing in a company in the context of adaptation to new conditions in the market environment, in particular, covering such phenomena as: rivals’ activities, consumers’ preferences, as well as technological changes and the globalization of markets. In the first part of the article an overview of classic solutions for the positioning of marketing in a company, described in literature concerning marketing is presented. In the second part an attempt was made to define the current role of marketing in a company from the perspective of the positioning of this function in the structure of a contemporary organization, as well as to define the tasks ahead of the marketing director (leader). The deliberations were based on secondary sources of information - marketing magazines and practical examples.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1