rss_2.0Macedonian Veterinary Review FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Macedonian Veterinary Review Veterinary Review 's Cover Microscopic Detection of Animal Proteins in Animal Feed Regarding Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Due to the actuality of spongiform encephalopathies and their proven spreading by means of animal feed containing meat and bone meal, the description and measurement of osteocytic lacunae contributes to more easily distinguish bone fragments in meat and bone meal. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have attracted a lot of attention, especially after 1986, when the first case of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) was detected. Since the outbreak of spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the use of animal protein including bone meal as an ingredient in animal feed has been controlled by several regulations including Regulation (EC) 999/2001, Regulation (EC) 1774/2002, and Regulation (EC) 1234/2003. The classical microscopic method is the only official method for detecting animal protein in animal feed in the European Union (Commission Regulation (EC) 152/2009). By applying the microscopic method to the animal feed samples, we performed detection in order to determine the presence of animal proteins that originate from mammals and fish. The microscopic analysis of all 421 samples, of which 115 were raw materials for the production of animal feed, 230 were concentrates for ruminant nutrition and 76 were concentrates for non-ruminant nutrition (32 concentrates for laying hens and 44 concentrates for pigs), did not provide positive results, that is, no remains of animal tissues of mammalian origin were found in any specimen. Whereas in 10 out of 32 (31.25%) concentrates intended for non-ruminant nutrition (laying hens), pieces of fish tissue were found. In these samples, we usually detected the presence of fish bones, gills and scales.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Isolation Rate of Spp. and Detection of Virulence Genes of Across the Broiler Chain<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the study was to identify the isolation rate of thermotolerant campylobacters in a small-scale broiler-meat production farm over a one-year period. The second deliverable of the study was to determine the potential virulence markers. The laboratory investigation was performed on 283 samples (cloacal swabs, caeca, carcass swabs) collected on three sampling points (farm, slaughter line, and cold storage). The isolates obtained with the conventional microbiological method were confirmed with multiplex PCR for identification of campylobacters. The presence of 10 virulence genes was analyzed in the <italic>C. jejuni</italic> isolates ( <italic>flaA, racR, virB11, dnaJ, wlaN, cadF, ciaB, cdtA, cdtB, cdtC</italic>). Out of 283 samples, 169 (59.7%) were confirmed as <italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp., 111 (39.2%) <italic>C. jejuni</italic>, and 43 (15.2%) <italic>C. coli</italic>. <italic>C. jejuni</italic> was the most prevalent in all sampling points. <italic>Campylobacter</italic> spp. showed a characteristically seasonal prevalence with the highest isolation rate during the warmer period of the year. We detected the <italic>cadF</italic> and <italic>ciaB</italic> genes in all <italic>C. jejuni</italic> isolates. The <italic>flaA</italic> gene was present in 50% of the examined strains. The <italic>cdt</italic> genes (<italic>cdtA</italic>, <italic>cdtB</italic>, and <italic>cdtC</italic>) were confirmed in 52.8%, 52.8%, and 47.2% of the <italic>C. jejuni</italic> strains, respectively. <italic>C. jejuni</italic> showed 15 profiles of virulence patterns with four predominant profiles.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Morphological Peculiarities of Parasitic () Infection in Rat Urinary Bladder<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Trichosomoides crassicauda</italic> (<italic>T. crassicauda</italic>) is a parasite commonly localized in the urinary bladder (UB) of laboratory and wild rats. The presence of these helminths can influence the prediction of pathological changes in the UB. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to make a comprehensive study of the features of the morphological changes in the UB wall of white laboratory rats as a result of <italic>T. crassicauda</italic> infestation. The study was performed on male rats using histological (Hematoxyline-Eosin and Alcian Blue staining) and immunohistochemical (Ki-67, Hsp70, Hsp90α, CD3 and CD20) methods. <italic>T. crassicauda</italic> was detected in both urine and UB samples. Morphological changes were observed as disruption in urothelial cell stratification and insignificant proliferative and immune responses in the UB. Increased heat shock protein levels were observed which may suggest a natural body’s resistance to this parasite.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Time-Dependent Testicular and Epididymal Damage in Rabbit Bucks Experimentally Infected with<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study was designed to determine the progressive pathological changes in the testis and epididymis of rabbit bucks experimentally infected with <italic>Trypanosoma brucei brucei</italic> (<italic>T. brucei</italic>). Fifteen local rabbit bucks were divided into 2 groups comprising 8 bucks in group A and 7 bucks in group B. Bucks in group A were infected intraperitoneally with approximately 1.0x10<sup>6</sup> of <italic>T. brucei</italic> while bucks in group B served as the uninfected control. The bucks were closely monitored for clinical signs of trypanosomosis from the time of infection till the end of the study. One buck from each group was humanely sacrificed on days 9, 19, 29 and 38 post-infection (pi) and its testis and epididymis were examined for pathological changes. At post mortem, no gross lesions were observed in the infected bucks except for adhesion of the testis and epididymis to the scrotum on days 29 and 38 pi. There were no histological changes in the testis and epididymis of the infected buck sacrificed on day 9 pi apart from mild depletion of the epididymal sperm reserve. The buck infected on day 19 pi had moderate testicular degeneration but the epididymis was devoid of sperm reserve. Severe testicular and epididymal degeneration was observed in the buck on days 29 and 38 pi. The testis and epididymis of bucks from the control group were normal with evidence of spermatogenic activities and full epididymal sperm reserve throughout. The study shows that infected bucks were unfit for breeding from day 19 pi.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Antibody Titer and Lymphoid Organs Weight Following Newcastle Disease Vaccination and Feed-Supplementation of Vitamin-C, Probiotics and Antibiotic-Growth-Promoters in Japanese Quails<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious viral disease. This study was conducted to determine the antibody titer in Japanese quails following vaccination against ND and feed-supplementation with vitamin-C, probiotics and antibiotic-growth-promoters. Forty Japanese quails were equally grouped in four groups (A<sub>1</sub> to A<sub>4</sub>) and were vaccinated by LaSota, B1, F and VG/GA strains, respectively, at the age of 10 days. Another forty Japenese quails were equally grouped in four groups (B<sub>1</sub> to B<sub>4</sub>), were vaccinated with the vaccines of the previous groups that showed a higher effect, and were fed with mesh-feed (control-B<sub>1</sub>), supplemented with vitamin-C (B<sub>2</sub>), probiotics (B<sub>3</sub>), and antibiotic growth promoter (B<sub>4</sub>). Serum samples were obtained on 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of age and were subjected to a hemagglutination inhibition test. The mean antibody titer (Log<sub>2</sub>) had no significant difference between groups A<sub>1</sub>-A<sub>4</sub>. The highest titers were recorded in A<sub>4</sub> (6.20±0.37) and A<sub>3</sub> (6.00±0.71). The mean titer was significantly different among the groups at 4 weeks, but insignificant in the other weeks of the supplemented groups. A higher mean titer was found between 8 and 10 weeks in group B<sub>2</sub> (7.40±0.60) and B<sub>3</sub> (7.20±0.58). The relative weights (gm/kg) of the spleen, thymus and bursa were significantly higher in group B<sub>3</sub> (1.947±0.109, 5.951±0.312 and 2.624±0.083, respectively). They had no significant correlation with antibody titer at 12 weeks. In conclusion, vitamin-C and probiotic supplemented feeds can boost up the antibody titer against ND in Japanese quail when given during VG/GA strain vaccination.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Bovine Rotavirus a in Calf Feces<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Bovine rotavirus A (BRVA) is a frequent causative agent of diarrhea in neonatal calves. Accurate and rapid diagnosis is crucial to prevent calf mortality from BRVA induced diarrhea. Currently, variety of diagnostic methods are being used to detect BRVA from calves’ feces: antibody-based rapid test and ELISA, and molecular-based RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the rapid test (Immunochromatography), ELISA, and RT-PCR assays, using RT-qPCR as the gold standard, in detection of BRVA in diarrheic calves’ fecal samples. One hundred (n=100) clinically diarrheic fecal samples were tested with four different diagnostic tools. The percent of samples positive by rapid test, ELISA, RT-PCR and RT-qPCR was 10%, 16%, 17%, and 33%, respectively. The agreement between different assays was 75% to 99%. The highest agreement was observed between ELISA and RT-PCR assay (99%). The lowest agreement was recorded (75%) between rapid test and RT-qPCR. The sensitivity of the rapid test, ELISA, and RT-PCR were 30%, 49%, and 52%, respectively when compared to the reference test (RT-qPCR), whereas specificity was 100% for all assays. In conclusion, none of the frequently used diagnostic tests showed a satisfactory level of sensitivity to identify BRVA in calves’ feces. Therefore, the use of a more sensitive rapid test should be used to identify infected calves in field conditions in order to prevent calf mortality from rotaviral diarrhea.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Worldwide Search for the New Mutations in the RNA-Directed RNA Polymerase Domain of SARS-CoV-2<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an RNA virus, responsible for the current pandemic outbreak. In total, 200 genomes of the SARS-CoV-2 strains from four host organisms have been analyzed. To investigate the presence of the new mutations in the RNA-directed RNA Polymerase (RdRp) of SARS-CoV-2, we analyzed sequences isolated from different hosts, with particular emphasis on human isolates. We performed a search for the new mutations of the RdRp proteins and study how those newly identified mutations could influence RdRp protein stability. Our results revealed 25 mutations in <italic>Rhinolophus sinicus</italic>, 1 in <italic>Mustela lutreola</italic>, 6 in <italic>Homo sapiens,</italic> and none in <italic>Mus musculus</italic> RdRp proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 isolates. We found that P323L is the most common stabilising radical mutation in human isolates. Also, we described several unique mutations, specific for studied hosts. Therefore, our data suggest that new and emerging variants of the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp have to be considered for the development of effective therapeutic agents and treatments.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of Pathogenic Spp. in Goats from Slaughterhouses in Southwestern Nigeria Using Isolation, Histochemistry and Immunohistochemistry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Studies on caprine leptospirosis using isolation, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry are rare. The role of small ruminants in the epidemiology of leptospirosis is scarce. This study investigated the prevalence of <italic>Leptospira</italic> spp. serovars, and the renal pathology of caprine leptospirosis in slaughterhouses from two states in southwest Nigeria using isolation (IS), Warthin Starry silver (WSs) impregnation and immunohistochemistry (IH). One hundred and sixty-nine kidney samples were randomly obtained from goats between September 2015 and June 2017. Chi-square test was used with a confidence level set at 0.05 to ascertain associations between the positive cases, sex and animal species. Eighty-seven (51.5%) samples were positive on IS, out of which 26/40 and 25/30 were positive on WSs and IH, respectively. Ten (5.9%) kidneys showed macroscopic lesions while interstitial nephritis (48.6%) and tubular nephrosis (64.2%) were the most prominent histopathological changes. The most frequently observed positive reactions were against serovars Hardjo type Prajitno (12/25, 48%), and Gripptotyphosa (5/25, 20%). Other serovars such as Bratislava (2/25, 8%), Canicola (3/25, 12%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (2/25, 8%), and Pomona (1/25, 4.0%) were also detected using IH. The result showed high prevalence of <italic>Leptospira</italic> infection in goats and the possibility of humans contracting the disease. To date, the detection of leptospirosis from kidneys of goats using IS, WSs and IH has not been reported. This study is the first documentation of evidence of pathogenic <italic>Leptospira</italic> species in renal tissues of goats.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Study of the Effect of Ethanolic Extract on Survival of in Lighvan Cheese During Ripening Time<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic> is one of the most frequent foodborne bacteria that can be transmitted through dairy products. The demand for replacing chemical preservatives with natural compounds has increased recently. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of <italic>Echinophora platyloba</italic> DC ethanolic extract on the survival of <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> in Lighvan cheese during ripening time. Three concentrations of <italic>E. platyloba</italic> ethanolic extract (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were added to raw milk at the beginning of Lighvan cheese manufacture, and the population of <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> was counted on days 15, 30, 60 and 90. Furthermore, the pH and salt concentration of Lighvan cheese were evaluated in these periods. The results showed that an increase in the concentration of ethanolic extract, as well as the ripening time of Lighvan cheese, resulted in a significant decrease (p&lt;0.05) in the levels of <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> (cfu/g). Moreover, the logarithm of the <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> population (log cfu/g) was significantly decreased (p&lt;0.05) as the concentration of the added ethanolic extract was enhanced over the ripening time, but no significant changes in pH and salt concentration were observed in Lighvan cheese (p&gt;0.05). It was found that the optimal concentration of <italic>E. platyloba</italic> ethanolic extract for the complete inhibition of <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> was 1-1.5% following 90 days of the ripening.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Anatomical Studies on Ductus Venosus in Fetuses of Domestic Ruminants<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study has aimed to investigate and determine the anatomical position, shape, size, and histological features of the ductus venosus, and its role as a shunt in the fetal circulatory system in domestic ruminants. The research was conducted on 19 bovine, 11 sheep and 5 goat fetuses, aborted at the late stage of pregnancy or deceased just after delivery. The general anatomy of the ductus venosus was investigated by in-situ dissection of the corrosive cast obtained by injection of 25% solution of Vinylite mass through the umbilical vein. For histological examination, the fetal tissue samples were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Verhoeff-Van Gieson and Gomoriꞌs silver stain. The results showed that ruminant fetal ductus venosus is a curved, trumpet-shaped vessel, situated in the central part of the liver, above the porta hepatis. Its ventral part is constricted in the form of an isthmus, having a prominent lip-like thickening at the junction with the portal sinus. Histological examination showed the dominant presence of collagen and elastic fibers in its tunica media, with thin bands of smooth muscle fibers oriented in a longitudinal and circular direction indicating ability for vasoconstriction and vasodilatation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of the Enterotoxigenic Strains Isolated from Raw Milk and Cheese Produced in North Macedonia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> is an important foodborne pathogen due to toxin-related virulence, invasiveness and antibiotic resistance. The ability of <italic>S. aureus</italic> strains to produce one or more staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in food has been associated with the occurrence of staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), which is the most common foodborne intoxication worldwide. The study aimed to determine the count of <italic>S. aureus</italic> strains in samples of raw cow’s milk and various cheeses produced in R. North Macedonia and to detect their ability to produce enterotoxins by passive agglutination SET RPLA (OXOID, UK) and by enzyme-linked fluorescence assay (ELFA) VIDAS SET 2 (Biomerieux, France). A total of 130 <italic>S. aureus</italic> strains were analyzed. The ability to produce SEs was determined in 17 (13.1%) strains using the SET RPLA detection kit and in 20 (15.4%) strains using the VIDAS SET 2. The study detected enterotoxigenic strains in cheese samples, despite the low count of <italic>S. aureus</italic> which was below the detection limit according to the Book of rules for microbiological criteria (Off. G. of R.M no 100/2013). Based on these and similar findings, <italic>S. aure</italic>us must be considered as a possible cause of intoxication, despite the undetected and underreported cases of SFP in the scientific literature.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Pregnancy-Specific Protein B in Yankasa Ewes During Pregnancy and Postpartum Periods<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) is produced by mono and binucleate trophoblast cells in the placenta of ruminants during pregnancy. This study was designed to determine the pattern of serum PSPB in Yankasa ewes during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Mature cycling Yankasa ewes were synchronized and divided into two groups A (n=11) and B (n=13). Group A was bred, while group B was unbred. Blood samples for PSPB assessment were collected from the ewes starting from the day of breeding until 4 weeks post-lambing. All pregnant Yankasa ewes lambed with singleton lambs after an average of 151.18 days. There was a significant (<italic>p</italic>&lt;0.05) increase in PSPB in pregnant compared with the non-pregnant ewes in the period between 3 weeks post-breeding and 3 weeks post-lambing. Peaks were detected in the first (100.60 ng/ml), second (133.90 ng/ml), and third (114.82 ng/ml) trimesters at 5, 10 and 21 weeks of gestation, respectively, but steadily decreased within 4 weeks (2.38 ng/ml) postpartum. In conclusion, PSPB detected pregnancy in Yankasa ewes from 3 weeks post-breeding with peak levels at 5, 10 and 21 weeks post-breeding in the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. PSPB decreased gradually after lambing until 4 weeks postpartum.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on Healing of Third-Degree Burns Infected with in Laboratory Mice<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The treatment of full-thickness skin burn using nanomaterials is promising as a medical application reducing the risk of infection and severe dermal scarring. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of nanomaterials, particularly 3% silver nanoparticles containing ointment (3% SNO), on the full-thickness skin burn of laboratory mice. A total number of 36 male mice were used, equally divided into three groups: negative control (not burned and not treated); positive control (+ve) (burned and treated with castor oil and white petroleum jelly); and SNO-treated group (burned and treated with 3% SNO). The skin of the animals’ back was shaved. A 2x0.5 cm metal plate was heated on a burner to burn the skin of the animals of positive control and SNO-treated groups. <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> bacterial suspension was applied to the burnt area. The application of SNO, as well as the mixture of white petroleum jelly and castor oil, was started after 6 hours of inducing burns and continued for 14 days (three times daily) in the respected groups. The SNO-treated group showed accelerated healing within 14 days demonstrated by re-epithelialization of the epidermal layer and proliferation of the fibroblasts in the dermal layer. Less healing evidence was observed in the +ve control group in the same period. In conclusion, to our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a 3% SNO formula and has found that it has a promising impact on the treatment of infected skin burns.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Video-Otoscopic, Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Examinations of Cats and Dogs with Ear Diseases<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of imaging techniques (video-otoscopy-VO, radiography-RTG, computed tomography-CT) in diagnosing ear diseases in cats and dogs. Seven cats and thirteen dogs diagnosed with ear diseases were used for the research. Clinical examination, VO, RTG and CT were performed. Three (42.9%) unilateral otitis externa (OE), three (42.9%) unilateral otitis media (OM), and one (14.2%) bilateral otitis media (OM) with OE were diagnosed in 7 cats. Five (38.4%) unilateral OE, one (7.7%) unilateral OM, four (30.8%) bilateral OE, and three (23.1%) bilateral OM with OE were diagnosed in 13 dogs. All diagnostic methods were determined to be highly efficient for the specified diagnosis. VO and RTG were confirmed as sufficiently effective for the diagnosis of OE. OE plays a major role in the etiopathogenesis of OM, and for this reason, RTG and CT are required diagnostic methods for this condition.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Isolates from Diarrheic Dogs in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Diarrhea caused by multidrug-resistant <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> (<italic>E. coli</italic>) is an important and common problem in companion animals, especially dogs. Moreover, these dogs may serve as a reservoir of pathogenic strains of <italic>E. coli</italic> that may cause enteric and extra-intestinal infections in humans and other animals. This study was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates from diarrheic dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. In fecal samples of 200 dogs with diarrhea, 147 <italic>E. coli</italic> strains (73.5%) were isolated and characterized by the standard bacteriological techniques (culture, biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). Out of the 147 positive isolates, 45, 50, and 52 were from Elkanemi Park, Magaram, and Sabon gari wards respectively. The isolates show 100% resistance to chloramphenicol, cefuroxime, and ceftriaxone, 96.6% to amoxicillin, and 95.9% to gentamicin, while all (100%) were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. All the isolates showed multiple antimicrobial resistance. The result of the current study showed that dogs in Maiduguri are important reservoirs of multidrug-resistant <italic>E. coli</italic>. Therefore, it is important to adopt and apply guidelines for the correct use of antimicrobials in small animal practice to reduce the emergence of multidrug resistance among <italic>E. coli</italic> in companion animals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Zoonotic Endoparasites in Dogs from the Bosnian-Podrinje Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>More than 30 dog parasite species have been identified in Bosnia and Herzegovina so far, and half of these are zoonotic. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of parasitic infections in dogs from Bosnian-podrinje canton with a focus on zoonotic parasites. The study included 212 dogs (107 owned and 105 stray). One or more of the twenty parasite species were found in 82.55% of tested samples. <italic>Dicrocoelium dendriticum</italic> (Class Trematoda) was found in 0.94% of dogs. <italic>Dipylidium caninum</italic> and <italic>Mesocestoides lineatus</italic> (Class Cestoda) were found in 7.55% and 0.94% of dogs, respectively. <italic>Taenia</italic> spp. and <italic>Echinococcus</italic> spp. (Family Taeniidae) were found in 0.47% and 0.94% of samples, respectively. In the family of Nematoda, the following parasite species were identified with corresponding percent among tested dogs: <italic>Toxocara canis</italic> (25.94%), <italic>Toxascaris leonine</italic> (8.96%), <italic>Strongyloides stercoralis</italic> (0.47%), <italic>Ancylostoma caninum</italic> (3.77%), <italic>Uncinaria stenocephala</italic> (52.36%), <italic>Trichuris vulpis</italic> (22.17%), <italic>Eucoleus aerophilus</italic> (1.42%), <italic>Dirofilaria immitis</italic> (1.89%) and <italic>Dirofilaria repens</italic> (1.42%). In the kingdom of Protozoa, the following parasite species were identified with corresponding percent among tested dogs: <italic>Cystoisospora canis</italic> (8.49%), <italic>C. ohioensis</italic> (2.36%), <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> spp. (4.72%), <italic>Sarcocystis</italic> spp. (0.47%), <italic>Babesia</italic> spp. (5.19%), and <italic>Giardia duodenalis</italic> (15.57%). <italic>Leishmania infantum</italic> was not identified in tested samples. The results showed a high level of parasitic infestation in the dog population in the Bosnian-Podrinje canton, with a high occurrence of zoonotic parasites. Significant differences were found between owned and stray dogs for all classes of detected parasites with exception of the class Trematoda, disregarding specific parasite species.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin a in Animal Liver Using HPLC-FD Method with Immunoaffinity Column Clean-Up<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Analytical methods based on immunoaffinity column clean-up and quantitative determination with liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection were used to determine aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in liver samples. The validation of the procedures was performed. The linearity of the methods was checked, and a good coefficient of correlation was found for all aflatoxins and OTA as well. The LOD and LOQ were acceptable: 0.003 µg/kg and 0.009 µg/kg for AFB<sub>1</sub>; 0.001 µg/kg and 0.005 µg/kg for AFB<sub>2</sub>; 0.006 µg/kg and 0.020 µg/kg for AFG<sub>1</sub>; 0.007 µg/kg and 0.022 µg/kg for AFG<sub>2</sub>; 0.08 µg/kg and 0.27 µg/kg for OTA. The results for the repeatability estimated by the relative standard deviation (RSD<sub>r</sub>) were satisfactory and the obtained values were in the acceptable range (1.97–14.41% for all aflatoxins and 3.76-8.31% for OTA) at three proposed concentration levels. RSD<sub>R</sub> values showed acceptable correlation between two analysts for all four aflatoxins and OTA. The RSD<sub>R</sub> values were as followed: 2.37% and 5.60% for AFB1, 6.71% and 8.78% for AFB<sub>2</sub>, 4.40% and 7.00% for AFG<sub>1</sub> and 10.30% and 13.91% for AFG<sub>2</sub> (for the first and second analyst, respectively). The RSDR values for OTA were 4.91% and 3.15% (1 µg/kg); 3.76% and 4.12% (5 µg/kg) and 8.31% and 8.21% (10 µg/kg). The mean recovery for total aflatoxins and OTA were 78.10% and 93.34%, respectively. All validation parameters were in accordance to European legislation. They indicate that the proposed analytical procedures are suitable and they could be methods of choice for the determination of aflatoxins and OTA in liver samples.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Etiological and Pathomorphological Investigations of Coronavirus and Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Goat Kids and Lambs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the performed field and laboratory investigations was to determine the commonest enteropathogens in neonatal and juvenile lambs and goat kids, as well as induced macro- and microscopic alterations in the different digestive system compartments. The study comprised a total of 850 newborn and juvenile lambs (600) and goat kids (250) from 9 private dairy farms (3 goat farms, 6 sheep farms). The age of animals was from 24 hours to 20 days. The following rapid antigen detection tests were used: (Rainbow calf scour 5 BIO K 306, Monoclonal Antibody anti-Coronavirus аnd Rotavirus FITC conjugated, BIOX Diagnostics, Belgium). Gross anatomy and histopathological examination of tissue samples was performed on 21 carcasses (9 goat kids and 12 lambs) from animals that died with signs of gastroenteritis. The main detected agents of intestinal infections were <italic>Cryptosporidium parvum</italic>, rotaviruses, coronaviruses and <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Biopsy of Boar Testes Using Ultrasonographic Examination<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa) with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse) through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-11-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Replacement of Fish Meal by Ribotricin in Diets of Carp (Cyprinus Carpio)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Waste non-standard fish combined with wheat bran filler in ratio 60:40 were used for production of new non-traditional protein component called Ribotricin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of the new protein component Ribotricin on growth performance, feed utilization and feed ingredients digestibility of carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) fish. The experiment (90 days) involved 160 carp reared in eight concrete tanks with an initial average weight of 0.046 ± 8.04 g in (RT) tank, and fish with an initial average weight of 0.047 ± 6.52 g in (FM) tanks. The experimental carp were equally divided into two groups of 80 (four replicates of 20 carp each). The obtained results at the end of the experiment, showed no significant differences between the groups` Body Weight (BW), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) (p&gt; 0.05). Based on the obtained data, we can conclude that Ribotricin (RT) can be used as fish meal substitution in the diets of carp fish without adverse effects on the measured parameters.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-11-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1