rss_2.0Lingua Posnaniensis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Lingua Posnaniensis Posnaniensis 's Cover Dziedzice inscription and West Germanic rhotacism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The inscription discovered in 1931 on the remains of a cinerary urn near Sedschütz, Upper Silesia, was at first proposed to be runic. Later analysed as a Germanic text written in Roman characters, the long-obscure Iron Age inscription has only recently been republished after being moved from the museum where it was originally conserved. Presumably executed by a member of the Buri, the early Germano-Roman text is only partially preserved and appears to feature key evidence for the early dialectal development of Germanic. Contemporary with the period of the Marcomannic Wars, its single interpretable lexical element seems to contain the earliest evidence for West Germanic rhotacism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Angas-Sura Etymologies VII<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper as part of a long-running series is devoted to the etymological analysis of a new segment (namely that with initial dental *d-) of the Angas-Sura root stock, a small group of modern languages remotely and ultimately akin to pharaonic Egyptian and the well-known Semitic languages or Twareg in the Sahara etc. Doing so, I wish to continue the noble tradition initiated by J.H. Greenberg (1958), the founding father of modern Afro-Asiatic comparative linguistics (along with I.M. Diakonoff), who was the first scholar ever to have established by Neo-Grammarian the methods regular consonantal correspondences between Angas-Sura and ancient Egyptian in his pioneering (painfully isolated) paper on the ancient trichtomomy of the word-initial labials in both branches. Nowadays our chances in following this path are substantially more favourable being equipped with our gigantic comparative root catalogue system of the Egyptian etymologies ever published (ongoing since 1994) and of the Afro-Asiatic parental lexical stock (ongoing since 1999).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Толковый словарь якутского языка // Саха тылын быhаарыылаах тылдьыта (Explanatory dictionary of the Yakut language [in fifteen volumes], in the text bellow referred to as <the Dictionary> or <Sleptsov 2004-2018>). Под общей редакцией академика Академии наук Респу-блики Саха (Якутия) П[ётра] А[лексеевича] Слепцова // Caxa Oрoспyyбyлyкэтин Наукатын академиятын академига П.А. Слепцов уопсай эрэдээксийэтинэн (under the general editorship of academician P[yotr] A[lekseyevich] Sleptsov of the Sakha [Yakut] Academy of Sciences). 2004-2018. Новосибирск // Новосибирскай: «Наука» (Novosibirsk: Nauka Publishers) convergence in the shadowing for natural and synthesized speech in Polish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The matter of shadowing natural speech has been discussed in many studies and papers. However, there is very little knowledge of human phonetical convergence to synthesized speech. To find out more about this issue an experiment in the Polish language was conducted. Two types of stimuli were used – natural speech and synthesised speech. Five sets of sentences with various phonetic phenomena in Polish were prepared. A group of twenty persons were recorded which gave the total number of 100 samples for each phenomenon. The summary of results shows convergence in both natural and synthesised speech in set number 1, 2, 4 while in group 3 and 5 the convergence was not observed. The baseline production shown that the great majority of participants prefer <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic> version of phonetic feature which was reflected in 83 out of 100 sentences. In the shadowing natural speech participants changed <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic> to <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> in 26 cases and in 4 <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> to <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic>. When shadowing synthesised speech shift from <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic> to <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> in 18 sentences and 4 from <italic>ɛw/ɛ̃</italic> to <italic>ɛn/ɛm</italic>. The intonation convergence was also observed in the perceptual analysis, however the analysis of F0 statistics did not show statistically significant differences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Dineke Schokkin. 2020. . . Pacific Linguistics [series], vol. 663. Berlin– –Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, pp. xxv + 434 anticausatives in Jordanian Arabic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the morpho-syntax of labile anticausative structures in Jordanian Arabic (JA). Although the transitive counterpart of anticausatives is marked via morphological affixes that reflect structural and lexical components in Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic, a number of verbs involving causative alternation exhibit identical forms in JA (e.g., <italic>ġala</italic> [+T] ‘to CAUSE boil something’ vs <italic>ġala</italic> [–T] ‘to BECOME boil’). Such variation poses challenges for mapping between verb morphology and its lexical semantics. To handle such variation, which is also observed cross-linguistically, we argue in favour of Schäfer (2008; 2012), Schäfer &amp; Vivanco (2015), and Ramchand’s (2008) “causer-less” analysis over Koontz-Garboden’s (2009) “reflexive” analysis. This work further assumes the existence of a Voice phrase lacking a specifier (external argument) and assumes that Voice projection is headed by an implied Voice head (<sup>v</sup>causer) that syntactically assigns the accusative case to its new subject and semantically encodes the internal argument and describes the resultant subevent of the verb. The work also provides an alternative solution for voice projection that lacks an explicit specifier bearing [+agent] or [+causer] feature specification. The work assumes the presence of an inchoative Voice head [<sup>v</sup>inch] introducing the Spec Voice Phrase, which encodes an inchoative resultant state of an event achieved over its theme. Contrary to Al-Qadi (2015), the present model assumes that such verbs constitute a middle position between transitive and intransitive verbs in JA but do not constitute a separate class of their own. Evidently, the correct characterization of the anticausative subclass distribution is that it surfaces wherever v is transitive as well as in intransitive volitional contexts (a non-natural class). More intriguingly, the presented material suggests that there is an ongoing process of diachronic change in spoken Arabic varieties (including JA) that amounts to the development and expansion of an inchoative class where no external or internal inchoative detransitivizing morphemes are involved. This topic, which incorporates an intriguing diachronic dimension in addition to the syntactic details, is missing from the generative literature on Arabic morpho-syntax and is potentially of sufficient interest to merit investigation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender-related differences in the use and perception of verbal insults: the Bosnian perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper explores potential gender-linked differences in the use and perception of insulting language among Bosnian university students. The respondents were asked to provide one-word answers to four questions about the worst male-directed and female-directed insults, and about one-word descriptions of a male and female person who they view as the most detestable. The results indicate that the male and female respondents have a similar perception of the worst male-directed (<italic>lack of masculinity</italic>) and, to a lesser extent, femaledirected insults (<italic>sexual looseness</italic>). Surprisingly, insults of homosexual nature, as well as those pertaining to being unethical and physically unattractive were rarely mentioned. The results also reveal significant gender -of-insulter differences in the use of offensive words in reference to the most disliked person, as well as the tendency by the respondents of both genders to avoid using those insults that they perceive as the harshest.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00New Indo-Aryan associative plural markers derived from Old Indo-Aryan ‘other’ and their further grammaticalization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper deals with associative plurals in New Indo-Aryan languages, which are derived from the Old Indo- Aryan <italic>apara</italic> ‘other’. These markers are found in a large number of NIA languages, but in many of these languages they underwent further grammaticalization into other grammatical units, such as honorific particle, standard plural marker, definiteness marker, marker of inalienable possession etc. Among the factors which underlie this grammatical development, contacts with non-Indo-Aryan languages play a significant role.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00How to choose the proper words? The process of vocabulary standardization in<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As with most fields of life, China can trace its history of word standardization back to ancient times, when the first dictionaries (such as <italic>Erya</italic>, ca. 3<sup>rd</sup> century B.C.) appeared. Modern Standard Chinese used in Mainland China – Putonghua – has been subject to standardization since its proclamation as the official national language of China in 1956. The definition states quite clearly that its base is formed by the Northern dialects. This statement concerns also vocabulary.</p> <p>However, it is not a simple matter to make a choice of words which are to be used throughout the country. On the one hand, the so-called “Northern dialects” are spoken by almost 70% of the Han Chinese population, i.e. by about 800 million people. Although the Northern dialects are said to be quite uniform, the vast area that they cover must bring diversity in vocabulary. On the other hand, the remaining 30% of the Han Chinese speak a range of mutually unintelligible tongues, which are bound to penetrate the Northern dialects.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to show how the lexicon of Putonghua is being codified. An attempt will be made to reveal how the basic vocabulary was selected during the forming of Putonghua in the 1950s. Some of the tools used by the State Language Commission in order to control the process of vocabulary standardization will be described. Moreover, the paper intends to describe the ongoing changes in the Chinese lexicon. It will show the sources of new words that are gradually accepted into the authoritative dictionaries of modern Chinese.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviews: Mieczysław Jerzy Künstler. 2019. . Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 322 grammatical distinction between count nouns and mass nouns in Mandarin Chinese<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to prove the Mass Noun Hypothesis wrong. The hypothesis claims that all common nouns in classifier languages like Mandarin Chinese are mass nouns. The objection against it consists in displaying its implausible deduction, where false conclusions have been drawn due to relying on the grammar of English, which is incongruent with the grammar of Chinese. Consequently, this paper defends the Count Noun Thesis, stating that in Chinese there are count as well as mass nouns. In support of this statement, first, the typology of numeral classifiers had to be established, which resulted in gathering and completing all the reasons to distinguish classifiers from measure words. After only this necessary differentiation was made, it was possible to show that the count/mass distinction exists in Mandarin Chinese. That is, count nouns by default have only one classifier, with certain disclaimers. Apart from that, count nouns, as in every language, may undergo some measurement with measure words. Mass nouns, however, in the context of quantification may appear only with measure words, but not with classifiers. These conditions naturally follow from the ontological status of the two types of nouns’ referents, i.e. bounded objects denoted by count nouns, and scattered substances denoted by mass nouns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Chinese vocabulary and elements of culture reflected in the lexical meaning as a challenge in the teaching of Chinese as a foreign language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes the elements of Chinese culture enclosed in vocabulary and in the meaning of words; it is divided into four parts. Firstly, it is pointed out that, due to the fact that words are written down with Chinese characters, teachers of Chinese should purposefully help the students understand the rich culture contained in Chinese words, especially disyllabic compounds. Secondly, the article presents the investigation methods concerning compound words applied by the researchers of Chinese lexicon;It also assesses their applicability with regard to teaching a second language. Thirdly, the paper discusses five ways of incorporating Chinese culture during the process of formation of compound words, and points out their relationship with second language teaching. Finally, the paper discusses the methods applied in teaching Chinese vocabulary, and puts forward two methods of teaching vocabulary and their strategies at different levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Comparison of Kinship Terminology in the Yulin Dialect and in Cantonese<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Yulin dialect is a sub-dialect of Cantonese, only used in Yuzhou and Fumian districts of the city of Yulin, located in the southeast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The kinship terms in Yue dialects include direct and indirect address terms, and usually are a combination of morphemes used to embody referential features (synthetic relation terms) and morphemes that distinguish the degree of kinship (ranking, collateral, spousal, generation and gender terms). This article offers a comparison, in terms of morphology, of kinship terms between the Yulin dialect and Cantonese. It is argued that the Yulin dialect and Cantonese have the same pattern of combining kinship terms, but approximately half of the compared kinship term logograms in the Yulin dialect are totally different from those in Cantonese as used in Canton, and the same terms are used in less than one-fourth of the cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Speech shadowing as a teaching technique in the CFL classroom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to present speech shadowing (the listener’s repetition of a word, phrase or sentence immediately after hearing it) as an effective teaching technique. Shadowing has been practiced in English classes in Japan for decades and many studies have confirmed its effectiveness for improving learners’ listening comprehension and pronunciation skills. Even though some studies have already indicated that this technique is successfully used in teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) (Zajdler &amp; Chu 2019), its potential has not been widely utilized in the Chinese classroom in Poland. Thus, the present paper will first discuss the auditory and cognitive underpinnings of shadowing, then a classification of the types of shadowing will be proposed. Finally, practical aspects of shadowing as an effective in-class CFL teaching technique will be presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Trends and challenges of Chinese-Polish translation and interpretation industry in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>China is Poland’s largest Asian trade partner. Increased trade in recent years, combined with a visible growth of interest in Asian cultures, has contributed to the development of the Polish translation industry, especially in the Polish-Chinese language pair. Although the number of sworn translators registered with the Ministry of Justice remains small (16), the dynamic increase in the number of people dealing with regular translations makes similar services more and more available. The article aims to outline the general situation of Chinese translators in Poland. The methodological basis of the article is a survey conducted in August 2018, in which 67 respondents took part, who declared themselves translators in the aforementioned pair of languages. The survey consisted of 17 questions to which one or more answers could be given. Respondents were asked about the most frequently translated content, aids, and materials used at work, as well as the particularly difficult topics. The image that emerges from these data allows an assessment of the maturity of the industry and the prospects for its further development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Lusitanian Personal Names with the Equine Motivation<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Lusitanian Personal Names with the Equine Motivation</title><p>The aim of this article is to find an equine motivation for several personal names attested in the territory of the Roman Lusitania. New or better Indo-European reconstructions (e.g. *<italic>melyos</italic> and *<italic>ku-melyos</italic> ‘horse; stallion’; IE. *<italic>k∂nkilos</italic> and *<italic>k∂nkanos</italic> ‘horse’, as well as the root *<italic>k∂nk</italic>-) in reference to the animal terminology are suggested. The distribution of the reflexes of IE. *<italic>ekwos</italic> ‘horse’ and *<italic>k∂nkilos</italic> / *<italic>k∂nkanos</italic> ‘id.’ in the area of the Hispanic Peninsula is carefully explained. Finally it is concluded that the horse and bull were the most esteemed animals in the culture of the ancient Lusitanians.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Gábor Zaicz. 2006.<abstract xml:lang="de"><title style='display:none'>Gábor Zaicz. 2006. <italic>Etimológiai szótár. Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete</italic></title></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-14T00:00:00.000+00:00On the Nature of the Accusative in Finnish<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>On the Nature of the Accusative in Finnish</title><p>Modern Finnish grammars display a clear tendency to eliminate the category of the accusative entirely, or to limit it only to manifestations which are heterophonic from manifestations of other cases (the nominative and genitive). However, in older grammars (from the first half of the 20th century), the accusative was considered a proper full member of the inventory of Finnish cases. The present paper can be seen as a defense of the former approach to the accusative, because the author believes that the new approach exposes only the paradigmatical aspect of this part of the Finnish language, concealing the syntagmatic aspect. By means of syntagmatic comparison, different types of grammatical neutralizations are brought into view. One of them is especially instructive for the case in question, because it reveals specific properties not only of the accusative, but also of the category of voice in Finnish.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Is the Taxon of Altaic Languages Natural or Artificial?<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Is the Taxon of Altaic Languages Natural or Artificial?</title><p>The article considers if the taxon of Altaic languages natural enough to call it a good classification. The more compact a taxon, the more natural it is. The article deals with the peculiarities of functioning of labial consonants in the languages of the Altaic language unity and the peculiarities of functioning of labial consonants in subgroups, groups, families and other language taxa of world languages. The analysis is made with the help of such statistical methods as the coefficient of variance, the confidence interval, Chi-square and t-test. The linguistic conclusions on the similarity of functioning of labial consonants are made on the basis of the statistical criteria. It is possible to establish the typological distances between some language taxa (Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Tungus-Manchurian, Slavonic, etc.) on the values of the t-test.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Sergio Baldi. 2008.<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Sergio Baldi. 2008. <italic>Dictionnaire des emprunts arabes dans les langues de l'Afrique de l'Ouest et en swahili.</italic></title></abstract>ARTICLE2010-01-14T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1