rss_2.0Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Kulturwissenschaftliche Zeitschrift Zeitschrift 's Cover im Technozän. Der Technikfolgendiskurs in den 1970er Jahren<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At the end of the post-war economic boom in the late 1960s, a new paradigm of futures studies emerged in “western” nations and institutions. Following an era which saw a broad, albeit ambivalent, influx of cybernetic planning discourses and a euphoria for growth and science, undesired and unplanned consequences of scientific and economic expansion were now chiefly problematized. This article traces the discourse of Technology Assessment (TA), a political and scientific process in development to “foresee” harmful effects on environments, societies, and economies. It soon proved to be a field of action for both politicians who valued it as a means of technology control, and for experts of futurology to reappraise their methods under new auspices. TA and its scientific and institutional legacy in the present relate to the ongoing debate about the Anthropocene. While TA is in its essence oriented towards a progressive and positivistic outlook on the future and knowledge thereof, the Anthropocene discourse has similar origins in futures semantics found in the 1970s. Both concepts should be historicized in regard to their scientific and political contexts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Allochronie im Anthropozän: Ein Gespräch mit Erhard Schüttpelz<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Against the backdrop of the climate crisis and Anthropocene injustices, this conversation unfolds the concept of allochrony to examine modernity as a temporal regime that relied on the attribution of non-simultaneity to the populations of western colonies under the ethnographic gaze of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Positioning the racialized signifier of “the primitive” as a key concept and foil in understanding the articulation of modern subjectivity around 1900, modern temporalities are grounded in the construction of a temporal hierarchy that legitimized the dispossession of land and oppression of Indigenous peoples at the height of European imperialism. Drawing on cultural anthropology, media theory, and the history of science, this conversation provides a critical assessment of the Anthropocene by foregrounding the colonial violence and inherent paradoxes of modern epistemologies as a function of temporal categorization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Wie die Geschichte(n) der Erde bewohnen? (Literarische) Kompositionen von planetarer Zeit zwischen Moderne und Anthropozän<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As human activities increasingly shape the material reality of the earth, it becomes important to embed the temporalities of human experience and history in the larger context of planetary temporalities. In this article I ask for a composition of planetary time that allows as a theoretical framework to explore the manifold relations between human and more-than-human kinds of time. In a first step, I show how the relation of geological ‘deep time’ to historical time in modern geology is dominantly constructed as a dichotomy and how this dichotomic construction troubles the Anthropocene discourse, for example in Dipesh Chakrabarty’s seminal essays. In a second step, I argue that planetary temporalities should not be reduced to the geological construction of deep time. As an alternative, I propose to conceive of planetary temporality as a plurality of ‘sympoietic times’. Thinking with Donna Haraway and Anna Tsing, this approach highlights the ways in which heterogenous kinds of time entangle in world-making processes that shape the earth. Finally, I show how literary representations of geological time can be seen as a reservoir of knowledge about the manifold sympoietic relations between the temporalities of human experience and the time scales of earth history.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Vom Ausgang der Erde aus der Welt des Menschen, oder: Wie das „Prä-“ vor die Geschichte kam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The anthropocene discourse is a fascinating intervention into the current understanding of the human sphere and its environment, stimulating the re-shaping of “natural” as well as disciplinary, epistemological boundaries. But the vivid circulation of this vibrant term seems to hide the fact that the binary of the natural and the cultural sphere is not a recent invention nor is it itself a “natural” differentiation. This article will therefore shed light on its intellectual predecessors and its diachronic depth discussing contributions to European enlightenment historiography around 1800 and their narrowing understanding of “universal history” as human, written history – and as such clearly separated from the history of the earth and other species. Analyzing this crucial episode of modern historiography is of genuine importance: this specific understanding of history as limited to humans has to be regarded as the fundamental epistemological shift separating the two worlds of nature and culture that remains influential until the present day and is currently challenged by the anthropocence discourse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00(Re)Synchronisierung auf dem Boden der Tatsachen? Die Pedosphäre als Übersetzungsregion anthropologischer und geologischer Zeitlichkeit<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The new geological epoch defined by hu/man brings an end to the modern narrative and worldview of an independent anthropological agent who thrives on the passive and unlimited resources of nature and thus, one day, will transcend planetary boundaries to become truly liberated. Counterintuitively to its name, this new planetary time unit is characterized by a critical situation of formerly separated entities, hu/man and earth, which now prove to be inextricably bound together but struggle to find a common and thus livable ground. By taking ground (stemming from Greek pédon) in the sense of earth, soil and bedrock as a literally and materially relevant contact zone of our current geo-historical transformation, alternative relationships of mankind and planet can be developed. Especially the notion layers of time allows for a useful approach to both forms of horizontal manifestation, geological and historical strata, which express the interdependent reality or co-constructive worlding in the age of Anthropocene. Thus, the Anthropocene indicates an ambivalent and yet undefined dynamic for the planet and its inhabitants, since extensive geoengineering, the excavation and penetration of ground, signifies the undertaking of hu/man to realize dominance over the planet, while myriad human trace fossils are giving an ominous sign of mankind’s wasteful and self-destructive lifestyle, signaling an imminent return to the earth it originally emerged from.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Das „diplomatische Jahrhundert“: Mediatisierung von Zeitverhältnissen in den Staatswissenschaften des 18. Jahrhunderts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This essay argues that the assessment of the Anthropocene as a geological period characterized by the irreversible influence of human action on its environments should be supplemented by the consideration of media that shape the notion of history and its temporal structures – and therefore allow for such an assessment in the first place. For this purpose, the text examines practices of paperwork in early modern Germany. Reconstructing Johann Gottfried von Meiern’s concept of a past formed by historical records that can be collected and edited, it considers how practices of editing contributed to an understanding of a mediated past accessible through writing, allowing both for a better perception of the present and the planning of the future. The paper then also looks at practices of administrative writing through the example of Friedrich Karl Moser’s reflections on the contra-signature and examines how these practices helped shaping an environment of paperwork that individuals and institutions had to work through. The essay argues that these media practices shaped the concept of media as an environment that could be used as a resource but also needed to be controlled. Hence, early modern paperwork can be understood as part of the prehistory of discourses that complement the notion of the Anthropocene with the concept of a Mediocene.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Walter Benjamins Eschatologie der Katastrophe: Fortschritt, Unterbrechung und das Ende der Geschichte<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper analyses Walter Benjamin’s conceptions of time in the context of Anthropocene thought. In the paper, I study Benjamin’s figures of time and discuss their contribution to understanding the Anthropocene as a critical present. I analyse Walter Benjamin’s temporalities of modernity, focusing progress and primal history (Urgeschichte) in the light of Benjamin’s idea of catastrophe. I start by explaining Benjamin’s ideas in the context of the Anthropocene discourse. I then proceed to the analysis of specific figures of time, namely of primal history (Urgeschichte), progress, catastrophe and nowtime (Jetztzeit). Questioning the ambiguity of Benjamin’s concept of history, I show a hypothetical, in Benjamin’s sense revolutionary side of the Anthropocene time. In the light of Benjamin’s thought, the latter depicts the utopian, to some extent apocalyptical horizon of the absent border between man and nature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Moderne Zeitlichkeiten und das Anthropozän<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Framed by the difficulty of coming to terms with the disruptive temporalities of the climate crisis, the proposition of the Anthropocene invites a critical re-contextualization of modern concepts of time and subjectivity. The declaration of the human as an agent of geological stratification both re-inscribes and challenges the temporal self-image of western modernity as an anthropocentric narrative of progress and ontological supremacy. Establishing a dialogue between historiography and the environmental humanities, this article embeds the Anthropocene hypothesis in recent scholarship on the pluralization of modern temporalities and suggests opportunities to revisit and decenter the specific hegemonic preconceptions and implications of considering modernity and the Anthropocene as temporal regimes with universalist, yet contingent claims on divergent conceptions of being-in-time. Contextualized with references to the emergence of historicism in the late 19th century and decolonial critiques that help frame the articulation of western modernity as a practice of temporalized hegemony, this article provides a stepping-stone and introduction to what it might mean to revisit and pluralize modern times against the backdrop of the Anthropocene.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Kulturökologie und ökologische Kulturen in der Großregion/Écologie culturelle et cultures écologiques dans la Grande Région. bei vielen Beachtung findet: Zu den Transformationen des Populären<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Being popular means getting noticed by many. Popularity is measured as well as staged. Rankings and charts provide information on what is popular while vying for popularity themselves. They do not speak to the quality or originality of the popular, only to its evident success across different scales of evaluation. People do not buy good products, they buy popular ones; they do not listen to the best music, but to popular music; they do not share, like or retweet important, but popular news. Even the ‘unpopular’ can be popular: a despised politician, a hated jingle, an unpopular measure.</p> <p>The popular modifies whatever it affords with attention. Its quantitatively and hierarchically comparative terms (‘bestseller’, ‘outperformer’, ‘high score’, ‘viral’) generate valences that do not inhere in the objects themselves. Conversely, the non-popular, which does not find any measurable resonance in these terms, risks being dismissed as irrelevant or worthless simply because it does not appear in any rankings or ratings. This can also be observed particularly with artefacts whose relevance as part of high culture could be taken for granted even when they do not achieve mass resonance.</p> <p>Our paper proposes the following central hypothesis: The transformations of the popular, which began in Europe around 1800 and introduced the powerful distinction between low culture and high culture, establish a competitive distinction between the popular and the non-popular becoming dominant over the course of the 20th century. As a result, the popular is no longer either culture of the ‘lower classes’ or the inclusion of the ‘people’ in the service of higher goals. The popular today is hardly the object of desired transgressions (Leslie Fiedler’s “cross the border, close the gap”) or an expression of felt or feared “massification” or “flattening”. The dissemination of the popular is no longer a normative project. It has, in fact, become an inescapable condition of cultural self-understanding in the globalised present. The purpose of our research is to devise a theory of the popular that does justice to this fact. Our research outline identifies two decisive transformations that have led to this condition: 1. the popularization of quantifying methods to measure attention in popular culture around 1950; 2. the popularization of the Internet around 2000, whereby the question of what can and cannot become popular is partially removed from the gatekeepers of the established mass media, educational institutions and cultural elites and is increasingly decided via social media.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Emotionen im Feld – Emotionen in der Wissenschaft: Tagebuch und Monographie bei Bronisław Malinowski<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Welche Rolle spielen Emotionen in der Ethnografie? Zwei Texte von Bronisław Malinowski (1884–1942) werden einer kontrastiven Analyse unterzogen: sein postum herausgegebenes Tagebuch, <italic>A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term</italic> (1967), und seine wissenschaftliche Monografie, <italic>Argonauts of the Western Pacific</italic> (1922). Mit der teilnehmenden Beobachtung begründete Malinowski einen Forschungsstil, der die Forschenden in die Lebenswelt der Beforschten auch emotional involvierte. Die Publikation seines Tagebuches löste jedoch einen Skandal aus, weil seine Einträge dem Ideal des empathischen Beobachters zu widersprechen schienen. Da beide Texte auf der gleichen Periode der Feldforschung auf den Trobriand-Inseln in Papua-Neuguinea (1914–1918) beruhen, ermöglichen sie eine vergleichende Versuchsanordnung: Wie unterscheiden sich die Darstellungen der Emotionen des Forschers? Werden im Tagebuch Emotionen verhandelt, die aus der Monografie ,verdrängt‘ wurden? Gibt es umgekehrt Emotionen, die in der Monografie einen größeren Raum einnehmen? Und wie verhalten sich die Darstellung eigener Emotionen, die Darstellung der Emotionen anderer und die Wirkabsicht der Texte zueinander? Die Studie verbindet quantitative und qualitative Verfahren und verfolgt damit ein methodologisches Interesse: Das Vokabular wird anhand von Emotionsdiktionären digital ausgewertet. Schlüsselpassagen werden im close reading rhetorisch und narratologisch verglichen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, wie Malinowski Emotionen, die im Tagebuch breiten Raum einnehmen, in der Monografie ausspart oder nur andeutet. Zugleich zeigen sie die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen digitaler Philologie.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Die Errettung der Zivilisation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Der jüngsten Konjunktur des Animismus, die sich mittlerweile unter der Bezeichnung ‘Neuer Animismus’ (New Animism) zu einer mehr oder minder kohärenten Strömung formiert hat, gilt die animistische Onto-Epistemologie als Gegenmodell zur Moderne, als alternative und für die heutige Zeit opportune Weltanschauung. Als bestimmte Spielart des <italic>Turns</italic> zu relationalen Onto-Epistemologien wird der Neue Animismus genealogisch innerhalb der Geschichte der anthropologischen Animismusforschung sowie innerhalb der symbolischen Ordnung der ‘westlichen Zivilisation’ verortet. Mit Edward Tylors ‘altem’ Animismus aus den Ursprüngen der Disziplin wird die Kontrastfolie für den Neuen Animismus entwickelt; mit Alfred Irving Hallowells Ethno-Metaphysik zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts wird sein Vorläufer vorgestellt; und mit Nurit Bird-Davids wegweisender Wiederaufnahme von Hallowell, erweitert durch James Gibsons Umweltbegriff und Marilyn Stratherns Dividuum, wird schließlich die ‘Gründungsschrift’ des Neuen Animismus präsentiert. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser genealogischen Rekonstruktion wird anhand des programmatischen <italic>The Handbook of Contemporary Animism</italic> (2013) das zentrale Motiv des Versprechens der Rettung der Zivilisation durch die Bewältigung der Krise der Vorstellung exponiert. Ziel der Rekonstruktion ist, die Grundlage für eine Kritik des Neuen Animismus zu legen, die nicht stets aufs Neue die Differenz zu Moderne und Aufklärung betont, sondern den Begriff der Zivilisation zum Ausgangspunkt hat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Problemgeschichten. ‚Rezeption‘ in Hans Blumenbergs frühen Schriften<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Der Artikel erschließt den heuristischen Stellenwert des Begriffs der Rezeption für Hans Blumenbergs frühe Schriften. Blumenberg führt diesen Begriff in seiner Dissertation (1947) zur mittelalterlich-scholastischen Ontologie ein, um eine Dynamik zu beschreiben, in der die unausdrücklichen Voraussetzungen geschichtlicher Transformationsprozesse geschaffen werden, mit der aber auch die Thematisierbarkeit ontologischer oder historischer Probleme insgesamt fraglich wird. Anhand der Sammelrezension <italic>Epochenschwelle und Rezeption</italic> (1958) und des Aufsatzes <italic>Kritik und Rezeption</italic> (1959) lässt sich verdeutlichen, dass das Konzept zwischen Kontinuität und Diskontinuität einerseits, zwischen Textzeugnissen und Latenz andererseits vermittelt. Blumenbergs früher Rezeptionsbegriff ist nicht nur, wie von Hans Robert Jauß später nahegelegt, ein Baustein der Vorgeschichte der Konstanzer Rezeptionstheorie; neben der konzeptuell-heuristischen Funktion ist mit seiner Perspektive vielmehr ein grundlegendes verfahrenstechnisches Problem verbunden, das hier als Vorform einer Philologie der Unbegrifflichkeit gefasst wird.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Ole Nymoen/Wolfgang M. Schmitt (2021): Influencer – Die Ideologie der Werbekörper, Berlin: Suhrkamp, 192 S, ISBN: 978-3-518-07640-8, 15,- Euro. Deutsche in der Landschaft – Borchardt und Benjamin<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Taking its cue from Walter Benjamin's methodological critique of Rudolf Borchardt's anthology <italic>Der Deutsche in der Landschaft</italic>, the article demonstrates how these different approaches connect ‘intellectual history’ and a specific idea of nature. While Borchardt proposes a unifying vision of nature (modelled after Goethe's) that leads to a concept of history as continuity and a tradition that ist to be regained; with Benjamin the idea of a conceptual continuum and organic culturality collapses in the wake of fascism: ‘Heimat’ becomes precarious intellectually and naturally. Being-in-landscape as a saturated experience is furthermore only possible in a mode of remembrance, that is, as a testament to its own demise.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Die Semantik von ‚Heimat‘ in Zeitschriften/Literatur des späten 19. Jahrhunderts<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article analyzes how the concept of ‘Heimat’ was established and shaped in the second half of the 19th century in the contemporary mass medium of the journal. In the context of the universal claim and the miscellaneous structure of periodical publications, the locally focused discourse on the home-land serves as a centralizing element. Based on this centripetal function, the article discusses the role of literary publications in these periodicals. A comparison of Adalbert Stifter's canonized <italic>Nachkommenschaften (Descentants)</italic> with the today unknown <italic>Der Schütz’ von der Pertisau</italic> by Herman Schmid, editor of the the journal <italic>Heimgarten</italic>, shows that “Heimat” refers not only to geographical and cultural, but also to genealogical complexes. Furthermore, Stifter's satirical revision of Schmid's demonstrates that irony can also be part of he discourse on the homeland – a tendency which only becomes apparent when we analyze literary texts within the context they were first published in.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Totale Entheimatung, oder: Die Vertreibung des Menschen von der Erde. Zur Aktualität von H.G. Wells’<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Based on an analysis of H.G. Wells’ <italic>The War of the Worlds</italic> (1898), this contribution deals with the fragile relationship of humans to their supposedly “natural” home planet in a war scenario that points to the World Wars of the 20th century. Already at the end of the 19th century, Wells’ novel makes us aware of the complex framework within which mankind regards the earth as a “natural” habitat. At the same time, the novel demonstrates the consequences of a war of annihilation and the resulting collapse of all social, political and institutional security systems. The article shows that Wells’ text remains still highly relevant in an age of global refugee flows and elementary ecological changes.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Beyond Sedentarism and Nomadology: Yaa Gyasi's and the Ambivalent Desire for Home<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Home is an auratic term that is often connected to positive feelings and experiences like comfort, warmth, or safety. In such associations, home is set up as a pre-existing space, an organic community, and an inborn feeling, i.e. an allegedly natural experience that can become threatened by hostile outside forces. Such a sedentarist metaphysics sees mobility as a pathology or threat and rejects both homelessness and alternative notions of home. However, ideas of home have been ‘mobilised’ in nomadological approaches to home and mobility. Here, home is reassessed as a dangerous fantasy, and a radical homelessness and nomadic subjectivity turns into a progressive source of resistance to essentialist sedentarism and state control.</p><p>This binary opposition has led to certain impasses in the discussion of home that the article traces, to then propose a third way of conceptualising home in a close reading of Yaa <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_kwg-2020-0030_ref_001_w2aab3b7c36b1b6b1ab2ab1Aa">Gyasi's novel <italic>Homegoing</italic> (2016)</xref> along the lines of Brah's notion of a ‘homing desire’ (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_kwg-2020-0030_ref_010_w2aab3b7c36b1b6b1ab2ac10Aa">1996</xref>). Using the initial two protagonists, the two sisters Effia and Esi, and their respective chapters as representative examples for the novel as a whole, the close readings show that Effia's story critically comments on organic, sedentarist notions of home, while Esi's story underlines that celebrations of nomadism and homelessness are equally problematic. For both characters and their descendants, home is elusive, fluid, and far from unproblematic, but at the same time, home is something longed for and desired.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Prekäre Heimat. Programmatik und Scheitern eines Entstörungsversuchs<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>‘Heimat’ is booming to a degree that can rightly be called a renaissance. Noticeable is not only the variety of claims to “readjust” and “reframe” the concept, but its role within a conservative attempt to recalibrate societal conditions as well as the circumstances of the humanities and cultural studies. The ‘not-newness’ of the expression, thus, forms the core of an attitude of enlightenment and rehabilitation which attempts to rearticulate ‘Heimat’ in order to affirm a sense of ‘natural’ belonging, whether on a local, regional or global scale. In view of a global debate about experiences of precarity and insecurity towards the future, the return to strate-gies of naturalization and embeddedness may not be all too surprising, but from a cultural studies perspective it is no less unsettling. It is by no means a harmless reactivation of tradi-tion(s), but unveils a will to naturalization whose normative force must not be underestimated. The current political climate calls for the cultural studies to observe and describe ‘Heimat’ using methods and media to analyze and account for its normative implications. However, this examination can only show the desired effects if it makes transparent its own conditions and strategies. This special issue on “precarious Heimat” assembles disruptions of ‘natural’ belonging and inquires after the techniques, the places, the discourses and actors of this particular way of producing human-nature-relationships and reality. In their opening essay, Solvejg Nitzke and Lars Koch discuss the objectives and failures of ‘Heimat’ as a device of renormali-zation and disruption management, thus opening the floor for a collection of ‘Heimat’-analyses, which spans dinosaurs, primordial humans and extraterrestrial beings; covers Germany, Austria, France, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Senegal and the United States of America and even a view of the whole Earth.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1