rss_2.0Journal of Veterinary Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Veterinary Research of Veterinary Research 's Cover of topical treatment of foot rot in sheep using ozonated olive ointment<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Foot rot in small ruminants is highly contagious, causes severe lameness, and impairs fertility and wool and meat production. It is usually treated with parenteral antibiotics, with attendant antibiotic resistance risk, and with bactericidal footbaths, potentially harmful to humans and the environment. An alternative treatment in sheep is proposed based on repeated topical ozonated ointment application. Its effectiveness and safety were evaluated by estimation of acute-phase response, biochemical indicators of organic damage, and antioxidant/oxidant balance (AOB).</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The study was conducted on ten sheep with Egerton scale 2–3 lesions. Ozone application was repeated every day for seven days. Blood was drawn first (T0) after foot cleaning and before ozonation, then (T1) seven days after the first ozone application, and finally (T2) four days after the last application.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>High clinical effectiveness was observed, with total recovery by 28 days from the start of treatment. A significant increase in antiradical activity was noted on the basis of a 2,2ʹ-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay from 1.16 ± 0.04 μmolTe/mL at T0 to 1.23 ± 0.03 μmolTe/mL at T1, with a slight decrease in oxidative stress. Calculated on the basis of antiradical capacity, AOB was higher at T1 (130 ± 19%) and decreased to 110 ± 16% at T2. Calculated on the basis of reducing power, it was 169 ± 22% at T1 and 131 ± 17% at T2.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0050_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>These results indicated that the AOB is efficient enough to prevent oxidative organ injury and the applied doses of ozone are safe for animals.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A preliminary study on semen collection, its evaluation, and testicular and sperm morphometries in the wild proboscis monkey ()<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>The proboscis monkey (<italic>Nasalis larvatus</italic>) is an endangered species with a declining population. This article describes the first successful attempt at sperm collection and evaluation, and the testicular and sperm morphometries of the wild proboscis monkey in Sabah, Malaysia.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>Eight semen collection procedures using electro-ejaculation and digital manipulation were conducted in three wild adult male proboscis monkeys. A total of 21 ejaculates were collected. The testicular biometry was measured with the aid of ultrasonography. Sample evaluation included semen volume and pH and sperm concentration, viability, and abnormality. The sperm morphometry was undertaken using phase contrast microscopy.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The mean (±SD) total testicular volume of these animals was 5.77 cm<sup>3</sup> (±1.58). Semen collection by electro-ejaculation resulted in an 84% success rate, while digital manipulation did not result in any ejaculation. Each animal showed different semen characteristics, where the volume was 5–540 μL, pH 8–9, and sperm concentration 0.041–83.00 ×106/mL. The percentage of abnormal sperm was high at 76.8% (±89.60), largely due to midpiece abnormality. Normal sperm had a spherical head and long tail with a head : midpiece : tail length ratio of 1 : 2: 8.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0048_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The social status of these animals may contribute to the generally low quality of the semen. The techniques and data from this study are useful for future conservation and application of assisted reproductive technology in this species.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00 study of the oestrogenic activity of milk<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p>Milk has been suggested to be a possible source of oestrogenically active compounds. In order to assess the health risk for milk consumers and ensure the safety of this staple part of the human diet, it is important to study the effect of xenooestrogen mixtures present in milk. This investigation used the available <italic>in vivo</italic> model to learn to what extent such compounds may be endocrine disruptors.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>The recommended immature golden hamster uterotrophic bioassay was chosen. A total of 132 animals were divided into nine groups of experimental animals and positive and negative control groups, each of 12 animals. The experimental females received <italic>ad libitum</italic> either one of five samples of raw cow’s milk from individual animals or one of four samples of pasteurised or ultra-high temperature treated cow’s milk as retail products. After 7 days, the animals were sacrificed and necropsied. Uterine weight increases were measured as the endpoint of oestrogenic activity in milk.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The milk samples from individual cows and the retail milk samples did not show oestrogenic activity. However, in three groups, decreased uterine weights were observed.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0049_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Considering that milk supplies are beneficial to health, contamination in this food should be avoided. There is a need for further animal experiments and epidemiological studies are warranted to evaluate any causative role of milk in human endocrinological disorders.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The presence of in ticks collected from ungulates in continental Eastern Europe<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_005"> <title style='display:none'>Introduction</title> <p><italic>Rhipicephalus bursa</italic> is a common tick parasite of small-to-medium size ungulates, principally in warm, temperate, and subtropical areas. Although common in livestock and showing a wide geographic distribution, its epidemiological role in tick-borne bacterial disease is barely known. This study addressed the knowledge gap and aimed to screen for the presence of <italic>Anaplasmataceae</italic> and spotted fever group (SFG) <italic>Rickettsia</italic> species in <italic>R. bursa</italic> ticks collected from domestic animals in Romania, Eastern Europe.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_006"> <title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title> <p>A total of 64 pools of <italic>R. bursa</italic> ticks collected from small ungulates were tested by PCR for <italic>Anaplasmataceae</italic> DNA presence using group-specific primers. Specific testing was performed for <italic>Anaplasma marginale/A. centrale/A. ovis</italic>, <italic>A. platys</italic>, <italic>A. phagocytophilum</italic>, <italic>Ehrlichia canis</italic>, and SFG <italic>Rickettsia</italic>. The positive samples were purified and sequenced, and sequences analysis was used to identify the species and to confirm the PCR results.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_007"> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The only pathogen identified in this study was <italic>E. canis</italic>. The obtained sequences confirmed the PCR results. The presence of <italic>E. canis</italic> in <italic>R. bursa</italic> in Romania and in ticks from sheep was shown for the first time in this study.</p></sec> <sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0044_s_008"> <title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>Based on these findings, it may be presumed that the <italic>E. canis</italic> DNA originated from ticks; however, the vectorial role of <italic>R. bursa</italic> (and other arthropod species) in the transmission of <italic>E. canis</italic> should be proved experimentally.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterisation of Pasteurella Multocida Strains Isolated from Pigs in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> A total of 319 <italic>Pasteurella multocida </italic>(<italic>Pm</italic>) strains isolated from pigs in Poland were examined. Phenotypic characterisation included: biochemical tests (to determine species, subspecies, and biovar), capsular typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Genotypic characterisation included detection of the <italic>toxA </italic>gene by PCR. All tested <italic>Pm </italic>strains were classified as <italic>Pm </italic>subsp. <italic>multocida</italic>: 87.2% biovar 3, 10.7%-2 and 0.9%-12. One strain was classified as biovar 1. Three strains of <italic>Pm </italic>did not suit any of the biovars. Using capsular typing methods, 77% of <italic>Pm </italic>strains isolated from nasal swabs belonged to type D and 33% to type A. Among <italic>Pm</italic> strains isolated from internal organs, 59.5% belonged to type A and 40.5% to type D. All the isolates showed a high susceptibility to β-lactams: ampicillin and amoxicilin with clavulonic acid (97.8%), penicillin (86.7%), doxicilline (100%), oxytetracycline (97.8%), and tetracycline (93.2%). It was found that all strains were susceptible to norfloxacin, 97.8% to enrofloxacin, and 95.6% to SxT. 24.4% and 15.6% of the strains were resistant to linco-spectin and tiamulin, respectively. The presence of <italic>toxA </italic>gene was confirmed by PCR in 20.8% of the strains isolated from nasal swabs and 29.1% of isolates from internal organs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Serum Concentration of Free Amino Acids in Dogs Suffering From Perianal Tumours<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of the study was to determine serum free amino acid concentration in male dogs suffering from benign and malignant perianal tumours. Serum concentrations of cysteic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, aspartic acid, glycine, γ-aminobutyric acid, tryptophan, methionine, arginine, taurine, threonine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine were significantly changed in dogs suffering from benign and/or malignant tumours when compared to the control group (P&lt;0.05). Serum concentration of serine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine was not influenced in dogs with neoplastic disease (P&gt;0.05). The evaluation of serum free amino acid concentration, has shown that threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and glycine have the highest diagnostic and prognostic value in dogs suffering from benign and malignant perianal tumours. Highly diagnostic and prognostic value in relation to benign tumour growth was also found while evaluating branched chain and acidic groups of amino acids. Serine, phenylalanine, lysine, and histidine, as well as alkaline amino acids were proved not to have diagnostic and prognostic value in dogs with the tumours. Thus, the evaluation of free amino acid concentration may serve diagnostic purposes and help in tumour malignancy differentiation. The elaborated experimental model may be used in further studies on neoplastic disease development and monitoring of applied treatment efficiency.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of a new Non-Classified Chlamydia Species in Hens in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The outbreak of chlamydiosis in one of the western provinces of Poland, was diagnosed accidentally as a concurrent infection in a commercial laying hen flock during an outbreak of fowl pox. For histological examination, skin and subcutaneous tissue samples from lesions on heads of the birds were collected. Swabs from throat and trachea have been examined by nested PCR, real-time PCR, and partial <italic>omp</italic>A sequencing. Detailed electron microscopy analysis revealed fowl pox intracytoplasmic inclusions, called <italic>Bollinger bodies</italic>, and the presence of other intracytoplasmic inclusions; specific for <italic>Chlamydia </italic>sp. Results of nested PCR confirmed the presence of <italic>Chlamydiaceae </italic>sp. in two tested samples. Surprisingly, one of the two <italic>Chlamydiaceae</italic>-positive cases turned out to be infected with a non-classified strain. Results of real-time PCR and sequencing confirmed the presence of a new <italic>Chlamydia </italic>species that has not been found in Poland to date. Partial sequencing and BLAST analysis of <italic>omp</italic>A gene sequence confirmed the highest homology to non-classified poultry strains of <italic>Chlamydia </italic>sp. that were previously detected in Germany and France. The zoonotic potential and the exact taxonomic status of this atypical strain have yet to be defined.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Quantitative Changes in Selected Lymphocyte Subpopulations after Administration of a Soluble Parasitic Antigen of Babesia Canis to Dogs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Changes in selected blood lymphocyte subpopulations in dogs administered with a soluble parasitic antigen (SPA) derived from a supernatant of 18S RNA-A and 18S RNA-B <italic>Babesia canis </italic>cell culture were investigated. The studies included 20 dogs divided into three groups: group I (n=8) - comprised of dogs receiving SPA twice, at 3 week intervals; group II (n=5) - nonvaccinated control dogs, and group III (n=7) - dogs vaccinated twice with a commercial <italic>B. canis </italic>vaccine. Cytometric analysis revealed that vaccination with SPA derived from <italic>B. canis </italic>culture had similar effects to the vaccination with a commercial vaccine. The vaccination lowered the percentage of T lymphocytes (CD3+), T helper cells (CD4+), cytotoxic/supressor T cells (CD8+), B lymphocytes (CD21+), and MHC II lymphocytes in the blood in comparison to non-vaccinated dogs. Statistical analysis of the results demonstrated that mean values of the tested parameters at each stage of the study were similar in groups I and III and significantly higher in group II. The lowered level of the lymphocyte subpopulations in groups I and III persisted during the whole period of the study. The results presented that SPA has immunosuppressive effect in the first period after being administrated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Induction of Apoptosis in MDCK, RK13, and Neuro-2A Cells Infected with Equine Influenza Virus<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The purpose of the experiment was to compare apoptosis induced by equine influenza virus (EIV A1 and EIV A2) infection in MDCK, RK13, and NEURO-2A cell lines. Flow cytometry was used to observe two symptoms of apoptosis: phosphatidylserine translocation in plasmalemma (annexin V assay) and the fragmentation of DNA generated by endonuclease activity (TUNEL assayterminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labelling). The differences in the onset of apoptosis in the studied cells was observed. In MDCK cells infected with EIV A1 and A2, a weak signal of the phosphatidylserine translocation was observed but more cells showed the DNA fragmentation. An opposite effect was observed in case of RK 13 cells. NEURO-2A cells displayed a similar number of annexin V and TUNEL positive cells after the infection with EIV A2, while in case of EIV A1 infection, only the early symptoms of apoptosis were noted. Differences between both viral serotypes could originate from functioning of viral proteins responsible for induction or inhibition of apoptosis. The differences between cell types may result from the activation of cellular pro or anti-apoptotic mechanisms.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification as a Simple Molecular Method for the Detection of Derzsy’s Disease Virus<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The objective of the study was to develop a simple and rapid molecular method for the detection of GPV. Twenty seven goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates collected from geese flocks in Poland were examined. Three pairs of specific primers: two outer primers (F3 and B3), two inner primers (FIP and BIP), and two loop primers (FL and BL) were used to accelerate the reaction. The optimum temperature and time of the reaction were 60°C and 30 min. The sensitivity of the method was 10-times higher than PCR. The method proved to be a sensitive, rapid, and specific assay for detecting GPV.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Physiological Values of P-Wave Dispersion in Silesian Breed Horses and Polish Primitive Horses<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Electrocardiographic examinations were performed on 45 Silesian breed horses (group K, 3-16-year-old, 16 stallions, 29 mares) and on 25 Polish Primitive breed horses (group P, 1.5-19-year-old, two stallions, six geldings, 17 mares). Einthoven and chest leads were used. P-wave dispersion was electronically evaluated. There was no correlation between P-wave dispersion and other ECG parameters, age, sex, body mass, or month of pregnancy. The average value of P-wave dispersion for all horses was 30.77 ms (SD 3.92 ms), however in particular groups it was: in group P - 31.89 ms (SD 3.07 ms), and in group K - 30.15 ms (SD 4.27 ms). The maximum value of P-wave dispersion in the studied population was 40 ms, in groups P and K - 37,6 ms and 40 ms, respectively. The physiological value of P-wave dispersion for the group of horses was below 45 ms.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Elastase, Myeloperoxidase, and Alkaline Phosphatase Release and Free Radical Generation in Neutrophils Isolated from Blood of Sows at Different Stages of Oestrous Cycle<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of the study was to assess the influence of the oestrous cycle phase on neutrophil secretory activity and to extrapolate it to susceptibility to uterine infections. The obtained results indicate that the highest enzyme release seen in the late follicular phase (elastase release was 42.18 ±3.11% of maximal release, myeloperoxidase was 45.0 ±5.12%, and alkaline phosphatase was 44.75 ±9.0%) was related to the level of 17β-oestradiol in plasma. Similarly, a free radical generation was also the most enhanced during this phase. Significantly lower values were obtained from sows during the luteal phase in regard to both enzyme release (36.62 ±3.58% for elastase, 27.87 ±8.7% for myeloperoxidase, and 22.12 ±2.4% for alkaline phosphatase), and that of free radicals (2.28 1.6 μM/106 cells for nitric oxide and 2.47 0.6 nM/106 cells for superoxide).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Calcium Sulfate as a Biomaterial in the Treatment of Bone Fractures in Rabbits – Preliminary Studies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper presents preliminary results of the implantation of calcium sulfate type Hartform HF1 developed at the Institute of Glass and Ceramics in Warsaw. The study was conducted on 10 New Zealand White rabbits, in which after tibial osteotomy the biomaterial was implanted directly into the fracture site. The animals were divided into two groups based on the method of fracture stabilisation: intramedullary pinning using Kirschner wires in one group and acrylic external fixator in the other. After 12 weeks, bone union was observed in all animals as estimated by clinical and radiological findings. Histological tests revealed resorption of the biomaterial into the bone fracture area. It was concluded that type Hartform 1 calcium sulfate can be used as a biomaterial in veterinary orthopedics. Due to the lack of observable side effects during implantation and resorption, the material can be considered as a valuable ingredient in composite biomaterials containing calcium sulfate.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Polymorphisms of Growth Hormone Gene in a Native Chicken Population: Association with Egg Production<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> A total of 142 chicken blood samples were collected and a specific primer set was used to amplify a fragment of growth hormone locus using PCR. PCR products were digested with <italic>SacI </italic>and <italic>MspI </italic>restriction endonucleases. The amplified fragment digested with <italic>SacI </italic>enzyme revealed two “+” (wild type) and “-” (normal type) alleles with the frequency of 0.898 and 0.102, respectively. The amplified fragment digested with <italic>MspI </italic>enzyme revealed three A, B and C alleles with the frequency of 0.599, 0.102, and 0.299, respectively. Frequencies of +/+, +/- and -/- were 0.817, 0.162, and 0.021, respectively, and those of AA, AB, AC, BB, BC, and CC were 0.338, 0.113, 0.409, 0.007, 0.070, and 0.063, respectively, in the studied population. The results of 2 and likelihood ratio tests showed that this population was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to the marker locus. Marker-trait association analysis revealed statistically significant differences between “<italic>SacI</italic>-RFLP” genotypes for egg production and rate of laying eggs. The relationship between the molecular marker and these traits can be useful to improve the chicken breeding programmes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Ultrastructure of Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Of Rat’s Kidneys after Administration of L-Arginine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Sixteen white Wistar female rats were divided into two equal groups. Experimental group received <italic>per os </italic>40 mg/kg b.w. of L-arginine, every other day for 2 weeks and were decapitated after 3 weeks of the experiment. Control rats received in the same manner 2 ml of distilled water and were decapitated after 3 weeks of the experiment. The renal lesions observed under electron microscope were of focal character and concerned only the experimental group. The tubules with necrotic cells were observed among normal tubules or single normal epithelial cells of the tubular wall. The boundaries between epithelial cells of the tubule wall were blurred. The mitochondria indicated abnormal structure. Numerous lysosomes and peroxysomes with dark, homogenous content were observed. The rough endoplasmic reticulum had widened channels and was focally completely destroyed. The nucleus of damaged cells was most commonly located in one of the cell poles; its shape was changed and visibly smaller than the nuclei of normal cells. Condensation and peripherally located chromatin were noticed. The lesions observed were characteristic for apoptotic cells.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Adriamycin activity's durational governance of different cell death types and zonality in rat liver acinus. Immunohistochemical studies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of this study was to develop and examine a model of apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes induced by a damaging factor - adriamycin, correlating time after its administration with cell death type, and to investigate the localisation within the liver acinus of hepatocytes dying in these two ways. The results obtained in the present and previous studies were compared in order to make a map of cell death localisation in the liver acinus, showing the effect of time in action and dose of adriamycin. The experiment was performed on 32 female Wistar rats, divided into four groups: I and II - experimental, and III and IV - control. Adriamycin (3 mg/kg b.w.) was administered intraperitoneally to rats in groups I and II, and the rats were decapitated after four (group I) and eight (group II) weeks. Animals in control groups III and IV were given 0.5 mL of 0.9% NaCl solution, and decapitated after four and eight weeks respectively. Sections of the liver were examined with a three-stage immunohistochemical method. This method allowed to examine hepatocytes qualitatively and quantitatively for the presence of proteins involved in three types of apoptosis: induced by the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 3, 9), the intrinsic pathway related to endoplasmic reticulum stress (caspase 3, 12), and the extrinsic pathway (caspase 3, 8). One of the inflammatory markers, caspase 1, was also examined. The zonal localisation of all three types of apoptosis was assessed in the liver tissue. More oxidated hepatocytes indicated only signs of the internal mitochondrial pathway, whereas less oxidated hepatocytes induced the internal reticular pathway and the external apoptotic pathway. The period between adriamycin administration and hepatic cell investigation was a main factor of the process. A longer period post insult resulted in a more pronounced effect of the activation of apoptosis. Sections explored eight weeks after treatment with different doses of the drug (3 and 5 mg/kg in the previous study) showed a similar intensity of apoptosis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-03-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of the Addition of Magnesium Salt to a Feed Mixture on Intestinal Microflora, Health, and Production of Sows<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The effect of feed mixture supplementation with MgCl2 on alimentary tract microflora, haematological markers, and selected parameters of reproductive performance of sows was investigated. The animals were divided into control group (K) and two experimental groups (E1 and E2). The sows from the experimental groups were receiving 1 g of MgCl2 6H20/100 kg b.w./day, which constituted 120 mg of pure magnesium, administered in a small portion of a feed mixture. The sows from group E1 were receiving MgCl2 every day for 30 d, whereas sows from group E2 for 60 d. A significant decrease in the count of <italic>E. coli, Providencia </italic>sp<italic>.</italic>, and <italic>Proteus </italic>sp<italic>. </italic>was noted in faeces of the swine of both experimental groups. The study has also demonstrated a reduced number of lymphocytes and an increased number of granulocytes in blood of the sows receiving MgCl2. Feeding of pregnant sows with the addition of magnesium salt decreased the mortality rate of newborn piglets, increased the survival rate of piglets until 21 d of their life, and increased body weight values of litters originating from experimental sows, compared to the litters of control sows.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00First Isolation of the HN Swine Influenza Virus in Polish Pig Farm<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paper describes an outbreak of swine influenza, which was the first H1N2 outbreak confirmed in pig farm in Poland. The outbreak occurred in October 2011 in the farrows to finish farm, first in the fattening units, and subsequently in the reproduction and weaning sectors. Samples of the lungs taken from dead gilts were tested by the use of real time and multiplex PCR, sequencing, and virus isolation methods. The amplification of the genetic material extracted from the lungs confirmed the presence of the M1 gene sequence of type A influenza virus. Using multiplex PCR, the bands of 241 bp, typical for HA1 human-like type, and of 791 bp, typical for NA2, were demonstrated. The new isolates of swine influenza virus, named A/swine/Poland/15817/2011, were obtained in embryonated SPF chicken eggs and MDCK cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA and NA genes of the isolate revealed that the virus is of human swine linkage closely related to European human-like viruses. On the basis of such results, it can be stated that A/Swine/Poland/15817/2011 is a new swine influenza virus, representing the H1N2 subtype strain, which emerged in Poland.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficacy of hCG and GnRH with Respect to Follicular Size and Presence of the Corpus Luteum in Cosynch Protocol Integrated with Norgestomet in Lactating Cows<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Efficacies of hCG and GnRH with respect to follicular diameter in Cosynch protocol were investigated. Lactating cows (n=119) received injections of GnRH and PGF2 7 d apart. Norgestomet ear implant was inserted at GnRH administration and removed prior to PGF2 injections. Presence of the corpus luteum (CL) at GnRH and PGF2 injections, and diameter of preovulatory follicle [small (SPF) &lt;8 mm or large (LPF) ≥8 mm] at PGF2 were determined with transrectal ultrasonography (USG). The animals were randomly treated with GnRH (0.01 mg; GPG, n=62) or hCG (1,500 IU; GPH, n=57) at timed artificial insemination (TAI) 56 h after injection of PGF2<italic>α</italic>. Pregnancies were diagnosed with USG 32-35 d after TAI. Pregnancies per TAI (P/TAI) were significantly (P&lt;0.05) lower in GPH cows (28.1%; 16/57) compared to those in GPG animals (46.8%; 29/62). P/TAI with respect to follicular size did not differ between GPG and GPH cows, although P/TAI was numerically higher in LPF (30.0%; 15/50) than in SPF (14.3%; 1/7) in GPH cows. P/TAI in cows without CL at PGF2 was 2.5 (1.0-6.7) times higher (P&lt;0.01) in GPG (20.0%; 3/15) compared to GPH (10.5%; 2/19). In conclusion, use of hCG in milieu of the second GnRH in Cosynch+progesterone insert protocol did not have any advantage in lactating cows.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of Tumours in Domestic Animals in the Lower Silesia (Poland) in 2009–2011<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The study aimed at the analysis of prevalence frequency and localisation of tumours in domestic animals. The research material comprised 4,212 tumours developed in dogs, cats, horses, and exotic animals, isolated during surgery, autopsy or biopsy, performed for the purpose of histopathological diagnosis. The most numerous group involved canine tumours, including 3,585 cases (85.1%), followed by tumours in cats (532 cases, 12.6%), ferrets (34 cases, 0.81%), rats (19 cases, 0.45%), horses (15 cases, 0.36%), and rabbits (14 cases, 0.33%). A significant increase in incidence of tumours was noted, as compared to studies performed in the same region of Poland in 1957-1995 and 2000-2004 or in 2005-2008. This was particularly evident in exotic animals, in which 80 cases (1.9%) were detected in 2009-2011 but only 20 cases (1.2%) in 2005-2008. The most frequent localisation of neoplasia involved the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and mammary gland.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-03-15T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1