rss_2.0Journal of Veterinary Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Veterinary Research of Veterinary Research 's Cover leishmaniasis prevalence in the Slovenian dog population<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_005_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c11b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Leishmaniasis is a life-threatening zoonosis of which dogs are the major reservoir and sandflies are the vectors. Until now, the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in the Slovenian dog population was unknown.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_006_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c11b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Epidemiological data, eye swabs and blood samples were taken from 465 dogs born in Slovenia and older than one year. Commercial ELISA kits and real-time PCR were used. For ELISA-positive samples, an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was performed. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise the samples. The one-sample nonparametric chi-square test was used to test whether the categories of a variable were equally distributed.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_007_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c11b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>A 59.9% proportion of the recruited dogs had travelled to endemic regions and 62.1% of them had not been protected by insect repellents. Skin symptoms that might be CanL-related were described in 109 of the dogs’ histories (23.4%), inappetence and/or weight loss in 25 (5.4%), and anaemia, intermittent fever, and/or lymphadenopathy in 19 (4.1%). At the time of recruitment, all dogs were asymptomatic. All samples were PCR negative, nine (1.9%) were ELISA positive, but none were IFAT positive. Five of the nine ELISA-positive dogs were non-travellers.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0028_s_008_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c11b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>We conclude that the seroprevalence of canine leishmaniasis of 1.9 % in the autochthonous Slovenian dog population may pose a risk of endemic spread of the disease.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00High-throughput sequencing in vaccine research<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The world of vaccines has changed tremendously since the time of Louis Pasteur. In the present day, it is regarded as vaccinology, a discipline which includes not only the knowledge of vaccine production, strategies for its delivery and influence on the clinical course of disease and the response of the host immune system but also regulatory, ethical, economic and ecological aspects of their use. A hundred years after Pasteur created the first vaccine, there was another scientific breakthrough of great importance in this field, <italic>i. e</italic>. Sanger sequencing. Progress in genome sequencing and other molecular techniques over the intervening 40 years has been enormous. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) platforms and bioinformatics tools are becoming widely available, falling in cost, and results are achieved very quickly. They enable the construction of modern vaccines, as well as the assessment of their safety, effectiveness and impact on the host organism and the environment. These techniques can also provide a tool for quality control of vaccines. Unprecedented possibilities are opened up by the HTS technique, but limiting factors on its implementation have to be contended with such as lack of reference materials and problems with method optimisation or validation. In the face of the current COVID-19 pandemic, a significant role is allotted to this sequencing technique while an effective vaccine against the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is sough.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of chicken immune responses after inoculation with H5 avian influenza virus-like particles produced by insect cells or pupae<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Novel clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) outbreaks have occurred since early 2015 in Taiwan and impacted the island economically, like they have many countries. This research investigates the immunogenicity of two HPAIV-like particles to assess their promise as vaccine candidates.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>The haemagglutinin (HA) gene derived from clade H5 HPAIV and matrix protein 1 (M1) gene were cloned into the pFastBac Dual baculovirus vector. The resulting recombinant viruses were expressed in <italic>Spodoptera frugiperda</italic> moth (Sf)21 cells and silkworm pupae to generate Sf21 virus-like particles (VLP) and silkworm pupa VLP. Two-week-old specific pathogen–free chickens were immunised and their humoral and cellular immune responses were analysed.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The silkworm pupa VLP had higher haemagglutination competence. Both VLP types elicited haemagglutination inhibition antibodies, anti-HA antibodies, splenic interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression, and CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> ratio elevation. However, chickens receiving silkworm pupa VLP exhibited a significantly higher anti-HA antibody titre in ELISA after vaccination. Although Sf21 VLP recipients expressed more IFN-γ and IL-4, the increase in IFN-γ did not significantly raise the CD4<sup>+</sup>/CD8<sup>+</sup> ratio and the increase in IL-4 did not promote anti-HA antibodies.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0026_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Both VLP systems possess desirable immunogenicity <italic>in vivo</italic>. However, in respect of immunogenic efficacy and the production cost, pupa VLP may be the superior vaccine candidate against clade H5 HPAIV infection.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of oxidative stress parameters in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome before and after surgery<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_005_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Canine brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is a conformation-related respiratory disorder of dog breeds having congenitally flattened facial and skull anatomy. The aim of the study was to determine oxidative stress parameters, the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase in BOAS patients before and after surgical treatment and in healthy brachycephalic dogs.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_006_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Nine healthy brachycephalic dogs that had not undergone surgery and 39 BOAS patients were included in the study. The BOAS patients were classified as grade 1 (5/34), grade 2 (16/34), and grade 3 (13/34) based on the decrease in the radius of the airway in the larynx. In BOAS patients, oxidative stress parameters were determined before and two weeks after surgery, while in control dogs, blood samples were collected only on inclusion to the study.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_007_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>All BOAS patients showed various degrees of improvement in clinical signs after surgery. Significantly lower (P &lt; 0.05) SOD activity was found in grade 2 and 3 BOAS patients than in grade 1 patients. Two weeks after surgery, a significant (P &lt; 0.05) increase in SOD activity in grade 2 and 3 patients was observed.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0027_s_008_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Antioxidant enzyme SOD may play an important role in BOAS and can be used as a biomarker of antioxidant status assessment in BOAS patients.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the usefulness of image reconstruction in the oblique and double-oblique sagittal planes for magnetic resonance imaging of the canine cranial cruciate ligament<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_005_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The aim of the study was to determine the quality and significance of the magnetic resonance image of the canine knee after reconstruction in the oblique and double-oblique sagittal plane. This reconstruction and 3D images are rarely used in common protocols due to the longer study time they require. The study aimed to demonstrate significance for such diagnostic images in specific sequences in order to stimulate consideration of their more frequent use in diagnosis of diseases of the cruciate ligament in dogs.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_006_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>All tests were carried out using an open magnetic resonance tomography scanner with magnetic field induction. The images obtained from the 30 canine patients examined were reconstructed and evaluated by independent appraisers. Statistical analysis was performed.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_007_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The study showed that MRI of the stifle joint using 3D sequences provides higher quality images of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs. The results of the statistical analysis showed that multi-faceted reconstruction allows the secondary determination of the oblique imaging planes and obtains images of adequate quality.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0024_s_008_w2aab3b7ab1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>It can be concluded that multi-faceted reconstruction facilitates the secondary determination of oblique imaging planes. This reconstruction additionally makes images available of better quality compared to the 2D sequence.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of serum and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and cystatin C as biomarkers of acute kidney injury in horses<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in horses is difficult at the subclinical stage, due to nonspecific clinical signs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of selected serum and urinary biomarkers in healthy horses, horses at risk of AKI, and those with clinical AKI.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Thirty healthy horses, 30 horses at risk of AKI and 11 horses with clinical AKI and azotaemia were included in the study. Serum and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cystatin C were measured using commercially available enzyme immunoassay tests.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The median and (in parentheses) first and third quartile concentrations of selected biomarkers in healthy horses, horses at risk of AKI and horses with AKI were respectively as follows: serum cystatin C – 0.25 (0.19–0.37), 0.23 (0.15–0.37) and 0.61 (0.37–1.13) mg/L; serum NGAL – 50.5 (38.8–58.8), 51.1 (40.4–66.9) and 98.1 (59.4–128.2) ng/mL; urinary NGAL – 20.7 (17.9–24.5), 32.3 (32.7–55.8) and 36.6 (26.8–89.9) ng/mL; and urinary cystatin C – 0.1 (0.07–0.13), 0.13 (0.1–0.2) and 0.34 (0.22–0.37) mg/L. There were significant differences in the concentration of all biomarkers between the healthy and AKI-affected horses.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0025_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Horses with AKI all had biomarker concentrations higher than the healthy horses. None of the biomarkers made azotaemia recognisable in all affected horses. The obtained results indicate the need to create a serum and urinary biomarker panel to detect AKI.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Acute and sub-chronic toxicity study of recombinant bovine interferon alpha in rodents<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0023_s_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Recombinant bovine interferon alpha (rBoIFN-α) has been demonstrated to have antiviral activity. However, no conduct of acute or chronic toxicity tests has been reported.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0023_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Specific pathogen-free Sprague Dawley rats were administered doses at different concentrations through intraperitoneal or intravenous injection. After the administration (single for an acute toxicity test over 14 days or daily for a sub-chronic toxicity test over 30 days), the rats’ behaviour and other indicators and the degree of toxic reaction were continuously monitored. Blood was collected for haematological and serum biochemical examinations. At the end of the experiments, the rats were sacrificed for necropsy and histopathological tissue analysis.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0023_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The external performance, behaviour characteristics, and changes in body temperature and body weight of the rats in each subgroup were comparable to the normal control subgroup. Except for a few cases, there were no lesions in the viscera’s pathological structures, and the blood parameters and biochemical indicators were not noticeably different from those of the control subgroup.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0023_s_009_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>This study suggests that rBoIFN-α seems to be safe for rats, and its use may foster the development of the cattle industry in China by protecting livestock health.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental contamination of free-range hen with dioxin<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a contaminated environment into the food chain is a serious consumer safety problem. As part of the Polish National Surveillance Program of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in food of animal origin, a concentration of PCDD/Fs of 4.61 ± 0.75 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat was determined in a sample of free-range eggs, which exceeded the permitted limit of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ/g. The aim of the study was to investigate the source of the egg contamination and the risk for the eggs’ consumers.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Materials and methods</title><p>Eggs, muscles, feed and soil from the place where backyard waste burning had been carried out in the past and ash from a household stove tipped onto the paddock were analysed using the isotope dilution technique with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The concentration in ash was low at 0.20 pg WHO-TEQ/g and the congener profile did not indicate the source of contamination. The dioxin content in soil from the backyard waste-burning site was 2.53 pg WHO-TEQ/g dry matter (d.m.) and the soil’s profile of PCDD/F congeners matched the profile of the contaminated eggs.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0022_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>By reason of the congener profile similarity, the investigation concluded, that the cause of the contamination was the backyard waste-burning site soil which the animals had access to. Frequent consumption of contaminated eggs from the analysed farm could pose a health risk due to chronic exposure, especially for vulnerable consumers.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the morphometry of heads of normal sperm and sperm with the Dag defect in the semen of Duroc boars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The Dag defect is one of the primary morphological defects in sperm correlating with reduced fertility. This defect is found in the spermatozoa of many livestock species. The aim of the study was to assess the morphometry of the heads of normal sperm and sperm with the Dag defect in the semen of Duroc breeding boars.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Sperm morphology was examined in ten ejaculates each from 12 Duroc boars. In total, 3,600 morphologically normal sperm and 838 sperm with the Dag defect were evaluated. The area, perimeter, length and width of the sperm head were measured and these basic morphometric parameters were used to calculate four additional shape indices characterising the sperm head, i.e. ellipticity, elongation, roughness and regularity.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Sperm with this defect had markedly smaller heads, 0.32 μm shorter and 0.19 μm narrower than the heads of sperm with normal morphological structure. The heads of sperm with the Dag defect also had a 1.1μm smaller perimeter and a 2.5 μm<sup>2</sup> smaller surface area than the heads of morphologically normal sperm.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0019_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title><p>The Dag defect is found in boar sperm irrespective of the age of the individual. It affects the morphology of the sperm head.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Embryo transfer as an option to improve fertility in repeat breeder dairy cows<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Repeat breeding is a serious reproductive disorder in dairy cattle. The causes of repeat breeding are multifactorial and there are two main mechanisms: failure of fertilisation or early embryo death, mainly due to poor quality of oocytes and an inadequate uterine environment. Many methods have been used to increase the pregnancy rate for repeat breeder cows, such as intrauterine infusion of antibacterial agents or antibiotics, hormonal treatments for oestrus synchronisation and induction of ovulation, and progesterone supplementation or induction of accessory corpus luteum; however, the results were inconsistent between studies. Embryo transfer (ET) has the capability to minimalise the effects of poor oocyte quality and unfavourable uterine environments on early embryo development during the first seven days after ovulation in repeat breeder cows, and several studies showed that ET significantly improved the pregnancy rate in this group of animals. Thus, ET can be considered an option to increase the conception rate in repeat breeder dairy cows.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility patterns of dermatophytes isolated from companion animals with clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Dermatophytosis is a common skin disease in cats and dogs caused by <italic>Microsporum</italic> and <italic>Trichophyton</italic> fungi. Species identification and knowledge of their antifungal susceptibility are therapeutically and epidemiologically important. This study assessed the prevalence of feline and canine dermatophytosis in Iran, identified the aetiological agents molecularly and tested their antifungal susceptibility.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>A total of 308 companion animals (134 dogs and 174 cats) with skin lesions were examined from March 2015 to March 2018. Hair and skin samples were examined by microscopy with 20% KOH and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Fungal isolates were confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) r-DNA region. The antifungal susceptibility of dermatophytes was tested by broth microdilution assay using standard drugs.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>Dermatophytes were found in 130 (42.2%) samples, 62 of them feline and 68 canine. Based on sequencing of all strains, <italic>M. canis</italic> (78.5%, P&lt;0.05), <italic>M. gypseum</italic> (10.7%), and <italic>T. mentagrophytes</italic> (10.7%) were the dermatophytes isolated. The non-dermatophyte species <italic>Nannizziopsis vriesii</italic> was also isolated from two feline dermatomycosis cases. Dogs and cats younger than one year (61.5%) showed a statistically significantly higher prevalence of infection (P&lt;0.05). Caspofungin produced the lowest geometric mean MIC at 0.0018 μg/mL, followed by ketoconazole, terbinafine, itraconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin, clotrimazole and fluconazole, in a 0.038–1.53 μg/mL range.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0020_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>This is the first molecular study to identify the causes of pet dermatophytosis in north-western Iran. ITS-PCR was shown to be a useful and reliable method for the identification of closely related species of dermatophytes in clinical and epidemiological settings. The lowest MIC of caspofungin indicated that this drug was the most potent <italic>in vitro</italic>.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the prevalence of in Southern Xinjiang, China<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_005_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>It is very important to monitor the infection of <italic>Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae</italic> as a potential threat to the sheep industry. Southern Xinjiang is a major sheep breeding base in China, however, there is no relevant information concerning the infection of the region’s ovine stock with this bacteria at present. This study aimed to address this knowledge gap.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_006_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>A total of 824 nasal swabs and the lungs of six sheep that died of pneumonia were collected in four regions between 2018 and 2020. Primers specific for <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> and universal ones for the genus were used for PCR. Sequencing was undertaken of 159 universal primer-positive samples (153 nasal swabs and 6 lungs) and of 84 specific primer-positive samples (80 nasal swabs, 20 per region; and 4 lungs, 1 per region). The lungs were also sampled for the isolation of <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic>. A phylogenetic tree based on partial sequences of the <italic>Mycoplasma</italic> 16S rRNA gene was built.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_007_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The overall nasal swab positive rate for <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> was 40.78%; the rate of animals older than 12 months was significantly different to those of younger sheep (&lt; 3 months, 53.39%; 3 – 12 months, 46.01%; &gt;12 months, 31.76%). Four strains of <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> were isolated from six lungs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated their origin outside southern Xinjiang. Two other species were also detected: <italic>M. arginine</italic> and <italic>M. conjunctivae</italic>.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0021_s_008_w2aab3b7b1b1b6b1aab1c10b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Our survey indicated that a high level of <italic>M. ovipneumoniae</italic> asymptomatic colonisation in sheep, especially in lambs, affects southern Xinjiang and also confirmed the existence of <italic>M. conjunctivae</italic> and <italic>M. arginine</italic>. Our results showed that the health of sheep in southern Xinjiang is facing a great threat, and relevant prevention and control measures should be strengthened.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of genetically modified soybean in animal feedingstuffs in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0012_s_005_w2aab3b7c50b1b6b1aab1c14b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Globally, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown on 191.7 million hectares in 2018, which were mostly sown with soybean, maize, cotton, oilseed rape, and rice. The most popular traits introduced through genetic modification include herbicide and pest insect resistance. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify genetically modified soybean used in animal feed in Poland.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0012_s_006_w2aab3b7c50b1b6b1aab1c14b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>This research was based on the real-time PCR technique. All methods for GM soybean events were adopted from the EURL GMFF database of methods and previously verified to meet the minimum criteria of acceptance. Over 15 years of research, 665 samples were examined in total.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0012_s_007_w2aab3b7c50b1b6b1aab1c14b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The most common GM soybean event was MON40-3-2, tested for from the beginning of the investigation. Next, in decreasing order of frequency, were MON89788, MON87701, and A2704-12. In the majority of samples (606; 91%) GM soybeans were identified at a content level above the 0.9% GM content threshold for mandatory labelling. Only 59 soybean samples (9%) were identified as GM negative. GM negative results were mainly identified during the analyses in the last three years of the study, from 2017 to 2019.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0012_s_008_w2aab3b7c50b1b6b1aab1c14b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Our data clearly indicate that the majority of soybean used in Poland for animal feeding was genetically modified.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Expression, purification, and bioactivity of a soluble recombinant ovine interferon-tau in<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0011_s_005_w2aab3b7c43b1b6b1aab1c15b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Ovine interferon-tau (oIFN-τ) is a newly discovered type I interferon. This study used biochemical techniques to transform the oIFN-τ gene into <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> to obtain the mass and soluble expression of the recombinant protein.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0011_s_006_w2aab3b7c43b1b6b1aab1c15b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>First, total RNA was extracted from fresh sheep embryonic tissues with TRIzol reagent and then used as a template to reverse transcribe and amplify the mature oIFN-τ gene with RT-PCR. The amplified product was next digested with the <italic>Hind</italic>III and <italic>Xho</italic>I restriction enzymes and inserted into the pET-32a(+) vector to construct the prokaryotic expression plasmid. The corrected in-frame recombinant plasmid, pET-32a(+)-oIFN-τ, was transformed into <italic>E. coli</italic> Rosetta (DE3) competent cells. After induction with isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), the recombinant protein was detected in bacteria. Finally, the bacteria were lysed by sonication, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography and DEAE anion exchange chromatography.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0011_s_007_w2aab3b7c43b1b6b1aab1c15b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The protein was confirmed to be oIFN-τ, which mainly existed in the soluble lysate fraction, as proven by SDS-PAGE and Western blot assays.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0011_s_008_w2aab3b7c43b1b6b1aab1c15b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Purified IFN-τ exists mostly in a soluble form, and its anti-vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) activity reached 7.08×10(6)IU/mL.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Mink SARS-CoV-2 infection in Poland – short communication<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0017_s_005_w2aab3b7c70b1b6b1aab1c14b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Since April 2020, when the first SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in mink and subsequently in mink farm workers in the Netherlands, it has been confirmed that human-to-mink and mink-to-human transmission can occur. Later, SARS-CoV-2 infections in mink were reported in many European and North American countries.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0017_s_006_w2aab3b7c70b1b6b1aab1c14b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>Samples from 590 mink from a total of 28 farms were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Whole genome sequences from one positive farm were generated and genetic relatedness was established.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0017_s_007_w2aab3b7c70b1b6b1aab1c14b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on a breeder farm with stock of 5,850 mink. Active viraemia was confirmed in individually tested samples with Ct values respectively between 19.4 and 29.6 for E and N gene fragments. Further testing of samples from culled animals revealed 70% positivity in throat swabs and 30% seropositivity in blood samples. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length nucleotide sequences of two SARS-CoV-2 isolates revealed that they belong to the 20B Nextstrain clade. Several nucleotide mutations were found in analysed samples compared to the reference Wuhan HU-1 strain and some of them were nonsynonymous.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0017_s_008_w2aab3b7c70b1b6b1aab1c14b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>We report the infection of mink with SARS-CoV-2 on one farm in Poland and the results of subsequent analysis of virus sequences from two isolates. These data can be useful for assessment of the epidemiological situation of SARS-CoV-2 in Poland and how it endangers public health.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-09T00:00:00.000+00:00 extract (cichoric acid) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on yak PBMCs and regulates the TLR4 signalling pathway<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0016_s_005_w2aab3b7c79b1b6b1aab1c14b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Inflammation is one of the main causes of impaired health in livestock and some of its processes weaken animal productivity and impact human health. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of echinacea extract (cichoric acid – CA) on yak peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), inflammatory-related factors, and the toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signalling pathway induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these PBMCs.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0016_s_006_w2aab3b7c79b1b6b1aab1c14b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Yak PBMCs were co-cultured with LPS and CA <italic>in vitro</italic>. The proliferative activity of cells was detected using the cell-counting kit-8 method, the optimal stimulation concentration of LPS was selected, the effect of CA on the content of inflammation-related factors was evaluated using an ELISA kit, and the mRNA expression of these factors was detected by RT-PCR.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0016_s_007_w2aab3b7c79b1b6b1aab1c14b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>CA inhibited the inflammatory response of yak PBMCs induced by LPS. CA inhibited gene and protein expression of key nodes of the TLR4 signalling pathway in yak PBMCs.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0016_s_008_w2aab3b7c79b1b6b1aab1c14b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>It is suggested that CA has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on yak PBMCs <italic>via</italic> the TLR4 pathway.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Characterisation of a new molecule based on two E2 sequences from bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus fused to the human immunoglobulin Fc fragment<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0006_s_006_w2aab3b7c21b1b6b1aab1c14b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Proper conformational arrangement of the E2 molecules of bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease virus (BVD-MDV) is crucial to obtain an effective recombinant vaccine candidate against the disease. In this study, we characterised a new molecule composed of two distinct sequences of the E2 glycoprotein of BVD-MDV and the Fc fragment of human immunoglobulin (BVDE2Fc).</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0006_s_007_w2aab3b7c21b1b6b1aab1c14b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title><p>The chimaeric protein was expressed in mammalian cell lines of different species by adenoviral transduction and purified by immobilised metal-affinity chromatography. The N-glycans were profiled by HPLC, and the BVDE2Fc immunogenicity was assessed in male mice. The antigen-antibody reactions were evaluated by ELISA.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0006_s_008_w2aab3b7c21b1b6b1aab1c14b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The MDBK cell line was selected from among five for the final production of BVDE2Fc. After purification to over 90%, the N-glycan profile showed neutral and complex oligosaccharides. The mouse immunisation induced a strong humoral response, which produced antibodies able to attach to conformational epitopes on E2 molecules, while the Fc fragment barely contributed to the immune response. Additionally, BVDE2Fc attached to antibodies from bovine sera positive to distinct BVD-MDV subtypes, whereas the loss of BVDE2Fc structure during the deglycosylation process considerably diminished those interactions.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0006_s_009_w2aab3b7c21b1b6b1aab1c14b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>These results demonstrate that the structure of E2 molecules arranged in tandem and attached to an Fc fragment could represent a viable design for future vaccine candidates against BVD-MD.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Microbiological safety of food of animal origin from organic farms<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The organic food sector and consumer interest in organic products are growing continuously. The safety and quality of such products must be at least equal to those of conventional equivalents, but attaining the same standards requires overcoming a particular problem identified in organic food production systems: the occurrence of bacterial pathogens such as <italic>Salmonella</italic>, <italic>Campylobacter</italic>, <italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> and pathogenic <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. These food-borne microorganisms were detected in the production environments of such food. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in organic livestock and products may be higher, but may also be the same as or lower than in like material from conventional farms. Furthermore, the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria was more often detected in conventional than in organic production. The aim of this review was to present the recent information on the microbiological safety of food of animal origin produced from raw materials from organic farms.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytoncides in the prevention and therapy of blackhead disease and their effect on the turkey immune system<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0010_s_005_w2aab3b7c40b1b6b1aab1c14b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>Turkey histomonosis poses a serious threat to poultry production due to the ban on the use of effective drugs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a phytoncidal feed supplement on the course of histomonosis. The preparation was also analysed for immunomodulatory properties.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0010_s_006_w2aab3b7c40b1b6b1aab1c14b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and Methods</title><p>Clinical observations and production monitoring were conducted in a flock of turkeys with histomonosis from their 11<sup>th</sup> to 56<sup>th</sup> weeks of life which were treated with the adiCox<sup>SOL</sup>PF soluble supplement in a dose of 2.5 mL/L water. Later the preparation was used in a preventive dose (1 mL/L). The influence on the immune system was evaluated in broiler turkeys having been given adiCox<sup>SOL</sup>PF for 3 days in doses of 1 or 3 mL/L. The T and B lymphocyte percentages in turkey blood and spleen tissue were analysed with flow cytometry. ELISA was implemented to evaluate antibody titres after <italic>Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale</italic> vaccination, and biochemical analyses were performed to evaluate the supplement’s safety.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0010_s_007_w2aab3b7c40b1b6b1aab1c14b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>AdiCox<sup>SOL</sup>PF was found effective in therapy and prevention of histomonosis. Additionally, adiCox<sup>SOL</sup>PF stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune mechanisms, without impairing the functions of internal organs. The treated turkeys also yielded better production results (eggs/hen, fertility, and hatchability).</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0010_s_008_w2aab3b7c40b1b6b1aab1c14b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>AdiCox<sup>SOL</sup>PF possesses immunomodulatory properties and it can be used successfully in the prevention and therapy of histomonosis in turkeys.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of vitamin C supplementation on the blood oxidative stress and antibody titre against vaccination in calves<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0002_s_005_w2aab3b7b3b1b6b1aab1c14b1Aa"><title style='display:none'>Introduction</title><p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood oxidative stress biomarkers and antibody response to vaccination in calves.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0002_s_006_w2aab3b7b3b1b6b1aab1c14b2Aa"><title style='display:none'>Material and methods</title><p>Thirty-four clinically healthy 2 week old Japanese Black calves were randomly assigned to two groups. Seventeen calves formed the VC group which received 1,000 mg of vitamin C daily from 2 to 8 weeks of age, and the other 17 calves of the control group did not receive supplementation. All calves received an inactivated <italic>Histophilus somni</italic> vaccine at 4 and 8 weeks of age. Blood samples were taken at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age.</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0002_s_007_w2aab3b7b3b1b6b1aab1c14b3Aa"><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The concentration of the serum reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), and the oxidative stress index (OSI), which is calculated from the d-ROMs and biological antioxidant potential, were significantly lower at 8 weeks of age in the VC group than in the control group (P &lt; 0.05). The antibody titres to <italic>H. somni</italic> in the VC group were significantly higher than those in the control group at 12 weeks of age after the second vaccination (P &lt; 0.05).</p></sec><sec id="j_jvetres-2021-0002_s_008_w2aab3b7b3b1b6b1aab1c14b4Aa"><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>Vitamin C supplementation to calves may reduce oxidative stress and enhance the antibody production after vaccination with <italic>H. somni</italic>.</p></sec></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1