rss_2.0Journal of Horticultural Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Horticultural Researchhttps://sciendo.com/journal/JOHRhttps://www.sciendo.comJournal of Horticultural Research 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/605812adb15e73048ebbb6bf/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20221007T061931Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20221007%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=fabe63fa24b041c29fcef264a6615f1ba346ad215dd07be770e525467ff4dddd2003001-Methylcyclopropene Maintains Firmness and Peel Color and Reduces Decay Area of Artificially Wounded Fruits in Mature Japanese Pear ( Nakai ‘Shizukisui’)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recently, there has been an increasing need to prolong the quality of matured fruits to promote the distribution of fresh fruits to consumers and processing facilities. Studies have shown that 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene, can maintain the firmness and quality of several fruits for a long duration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effect of 1-MCP treatment on the firmness, rind color, and decay rate of the Japanese pear ‘Shizukisui’. Results showed that 1-MCP treatment alone and 1-MCP treatment after precooling significantly maintained the firmness of mature fruits compared with untreated fruits. However, the presence or absence of ethylene addition did not significantly affect fruit firmness; moreover, 1-MCP treatment after precooling tended to reduce moisture loss in immature fruits. Regarding the peel color of the fruits, 1-MCP treatment alone and 1-MCP after precooling treatment increased the L*, b*, and C* values of mature fruits but reduced the values in immature fruits. Compared with the control group, the 1-MCP treatment caused a decrease in the decay area of wounded ‘Shizukisui’ and ‘Kosui’ fruits and decreased the decay rate of wounded ‘Kosui’. Overall, this study showed that 1-MCP treatment maintained the firmness and peel color of Japanese pear and reduced its decay rate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Modeling and Analysis of Root Branching Plasticity Based on Parrondo's Gamehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For different kinds of plants, the distribution of lateral roots is highly plastic in different growth environments. In particular, the branching distance of the roots plays a decisive role in the formation of the root system architecture. In many root-system architecture models, constant branching distances of different branching orders usually are used to simulate the dynamics of a root system architecture. However, little is known about the formation of lateral roots, and branching distances for different branching orders are variable in the actual root system. The resource allocation model for predicting the lateral root distribution in individual plants has been established based on Parrondo's game. The root branching data predicted by the model is compared with the actual root branching data. The results show that the proposed method can cause serious changes in the spacing and distribution of lateral root formation. A parameter called development window can be used to override interbranch distance in the root-system architecture models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Plant Parasitic Nematodes on in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Short-rotation woody plants of the genus <italic>Paulownia</italic> are attracting more and more attention as trees that produce biomass and reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. However, plants growing in monoculture affect the properties and condition of the soil. One of the effects of changes in the soil environment is the growing population of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). The article presents information about the PPN inhabiting the root zone of the <italic>Paulownia tomentosa</italic> plantation in Poland. In this study, the frequency and density of nematode populations in samples from seven plantations in Poland were determined. The extracted nematodes were identified at the species level on the basis of the male and female morphological characteristics according to several available identification resources. A total of 20 nematode species were identified, of which 9 were classified as accessory and 11 as occasional. Among them, <italic>Trichodorus viruliferus</italic> and <italic>Longidorus attenuatus</italic> belonging to the group of viral messengers were identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Environmental Stresses on the Growth of Rosette Leaveshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plant growth is constantly affected by biotic and abiotic stresses, which are especially expressed in plant leaves. Therefore, leaf phenotype is considered to be an important indicator of phenotypic plasticity in plants. The effects of various growth environmental factors on the final size of <italic>Arabidopsis thaliana</italic> rosette leaves and the number of leaves were analyzed in orthogonal tests using image analysis, and growth curves were estimated statistically. Finally, the optimum growth environment for <italic>A. thaliana</italic> Col-0 was determined. In this study, temperature, humidity, and light intensity were chosen as factors and studied at the three levels each (temperature: 22 °C, 25 °C, 28 °C; humidity: 50%, 65%, 80%; light intensity: 92 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>; 184 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>; 278 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>). The results showed that light intensity was a major factor in the final leaf size, whereas for the number of plant leaves the most important was temperature. According to the major and minor order of environmental factors, the following scheme appeared to be optimal for <italic>A. thaliana</italic> growth: temperature 22 °C, humidity 50%, illumination intensity 184 μmol·m<sup>−2</sup>·s<sup>−1</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Plant and Human Pathogenic Bacteria Exchanging their Primary Host Environmentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Adaptation of plant and human pathogenic bacteria to niches of existence differing from their original ones is a sophisticated mechanism for survival. Research indicates that certain plant bacterial pathogens are capable of causing disease in humans, and some human bacterial pathogens can inhabit the plant environment and cause disease in plants. The infection of humans by plant bacteria may occur at direct physical contact with diseased plants and/or via the respiratory tract in mainly immunocompromised or otherwise stressed individuals. Indirect transmitters of plant and human microbes can be wind, rain, dust, insects, and animals. Human pathogenic bacteria may contaminate the soil and irrigation water, colonize the rhizosphere, more rarely also the phyllosphere, and can survive as epiphytes. Thus, the plant environment may become a reservoir of human pathogens. A source of foodborne human pathogenic bacteria can be unprocessed or unwashed fruits and vegetables. Especially during the last decade, the processes underlying the cross-kingdom performance of pathogenic bacteria are intensively researched. However, in reality, the risk for human health at infections by plant bacteria and by human bacterial pathogens surviving in the plant environment is still underestimated. The goal of the current review is to increase the interest in these issues in agricultural and general environments. Some basic strategies for infection and symptoms of diseases caused by the microorganisms under consideration are described. The potency of certain plant bacterial pathogens to surpass barriers towards humans and the interaction of human bacterial pathogens with the plant environment are addressed and the existing information is critically discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Seed Germination of Raspberry ( L.) Depending on the Age of Seeds and Hybridization Partnershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research was carried out on the germination of seeds obtained from crossings between the cultivars of red raspberry (<italic>Rubus idaeus</italic> L.) ‘Sokolica’, ‘Willamette’, ‘Veten’, ‘Canby’ and ‘Glen Ample’ depending on the age of the seeds. The crossings were performed in the winter–spring of 2015–2018 in a heated greenhouse. The obtained seeds were stored dry in paper bags at a temperature of 4–5 °C. In January 2019, seeds were scarified and then cold stratified for 50 days and seeded in pots in a greenhouse. The seedling emergence was assessed 60 days after sowing. The seeds produced in 2015 had the lowest germination percentage (14% on average for all combinations of crosses), while the seeds produced in 2018 had a germination rate of 44.9%. Significant differences were also observed in the emergence of seedlings from different combinations. On average, the fewest seedlings were obtained from the combination ‘Glen Ample’ × ‘Willamette’ and the most from ‘Sokolica’ × ‘Willamette’.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Shelf-Life Prediction of Citrus Lemon Using a Multivariate Accelerated Shelf-Life Testing (MASLT) Approachhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The shelf life of agricultural products is characterized by several quality parameters simultaneously. Estimating the shelf life using the multivariate accelerated shelf-life testing (MASLT) approach is expected to provide a more accurate shelf-life prediction. This research aims to examine the effect of temperature storage on lemon fruit quality and predict their shelf life with the MASLT approach. A total of 21 lemons for each treatment (storage temperatures) were washed and stored at 25, 35, and 45 °C. Changes in the quality of lemons were observed every day for 7 days, including moisture content, weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, and color. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to simplify many experimental lemon quality parameters to form a new coordinate system with maximum variance through linear transformation to form a new coordinate system with maximum variance. The results showed that 91.3% of the variance of all observational data could be explained by the first principal component (PC<sub>1</sub>). Multivariate kinetics of quality parameter changes following a zero-order reaction. The plot of ln k<sub>m</sub> against 1/T shows a multivariate activation energy value (E<sub>a</sub>) of 62.99 kJ·mol<sup>−1</sup> with a pre-exponential factor (k<sub>0</sub>) of 3.87 × 10<sup>10</sup> PC<sub>1</sub> score per day. The reaction acceleration factor (Q<sub>10</sub>) based on storage temperatures of 35 °C and 45 °C is 2.17. The results of the predicted shelf life at cold temperatures (10 °C) and room temperature (25 °C) were 60.0 days and 18.8 days, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Ability of Three Species for Effective use of Giant Grass Composthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Pennisetum sinese</italic> is a giant grass with a fast-growing and high rooting rate, high sugar, protein content, and high biomass yield, which causes it to be an efficient and economic energy crop of high productivity, application in phytoremediation, and fodder production. The composting system of this grass that is adapted to the simplest formulation is easy and economically feasible in small farms for cultivating oyster mushrooms. In this study, giant grass compost was employed as a substrate for cultivating three <italic>Pleurotus</italic> species: <italic>P. florida</italic>, <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>, and <italic>P. ostreatus</italic> to assess their enzyme activities, growth, and yields. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) was the most active enzyme in each species, while other enzymes were differently expressed between species and developmental phases. The average mass of fruiting bodies formed on the giant grass compost was 173.4 g, 166.5 g, and 152.2 g. The biological effectivity was 82.6%, 78.6%, and 72.5% for <italic>P. pulmonarius</italic>, <italic>P. ostreatus</italic>, and <italic>P. florida</italic>, respectively. The obtained results indicate the usefulness of giant grass compost for the cultivation of the three studied <italic>Pleurotus</italic> species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The Improvement of Tomato Shelf Life using Chitosan and Starfruit Leaf Extract as Edible Coatingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the high degree of perishability and vulnerability to spoilage, tomatoes have limited marketability, which leads to extensive postharvest losses. The edible coatings are generally used to extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables; therefore, this study investigated the use of chitosan and starfruit leaf extract (SFLE) in the composition of edible coatings for tomato fruit. Firmness, total titratable acidity, reducing sugar content and microbial load were measured every 5 days for 25 days. The results showed that the addition of SLFE to chitosan did not enhance the antimicrobial effect or firmness over the effects made by a separate use of chitosan and SFLE. Both components improved the shelf life of tomato fruits compared to untreated tomatoes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Occurrence of Associated with Wood Rotting of Olive Trees in Iranhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In summer 2021 (June–July), disease symptoms on trunks and shoots were observed in olive groves in the Tarom Sofla region, Qazvin province, Iran. The symptoms were light-pink discoloration and surface depression in the external layers of the wood. As the disease progressed, brown streaks of tissue appeared on the longitudinal sections of the wood. The identification of fungus was made based on PCR amplification of the rDNA-ITS region with the universal fungal primers ITS5 and ITS4. BLAST searches revealed 99.52% identity to <italic>Stereum hirsutum</italic>. Several species of basidiomycetes are known to live on wood as saprobionts or parasites. On olive trees, they cause white rot symptoms. Although they are not directly responsible for tree mortality; however, they can lead to structural deterioration of woody tissues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of <italic>S. hirsutum</italic> associated with wood rotting of olive trees in the world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Postharvest Loss, Causes, and Handling Practices of Fruits and Vegetables in Ethiopia: Scoping Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fruits and vegetables are the horticultural crops playing a significant role in Ethiopia's food security, livelihood, and economy. However, the postharvest loss results are a severe challenge for the producers, and this review summarizes this problem. The total postharvest loss of horticultural crops, including fruits and vegetables, at various stages: harvesting, storage, transportation, and marketing ranges from 15 to 70%. Postharvest loss of vegetables alone is about 40%. Fruits like mango, banana, papaya, avocado, sweet orange, etc., take the largest share of the total postharvest loss. The postharvest causes of losses are diseases, insects, rodents, thefts, mechanical damage, premature harvesting, harvesting of overmature crops, improper harvesting and storage techniques, shortage of appropriate packaging and marketing system, seasonal fluctuation of the products, and gender inequality. Therefore, applying a possible and convenient loss reduction strategy is imperative to increase the supply of fruits and vegetables in the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Development and Optimization of a System for the Extraction, Filtration, and Concentration of Date Fruit Syrup to Produce High-Quality Dipshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A system for the extraction, filtration, and concentration of date fruit syrup was developed. The syrup was first extracted under 1000 mbar and under partial vacuums of −1.8, −2.8, and −5.5 mbar in an extractor developed by the authors, then filtered using a filtration ladder of 1.0, 0.25, 0.112, and 0.011-mm pore sizes and finally concentrated to the product known as a dip in the Arab world. The concentration of the syrup to dip was done in a rotary evaporator at 50 °C and 180 rpm for 9–11 hours and under direct sun rays at approximately 48 °C, placed in stainless steel trays (61 × 46 × 5 cm) for 4 hours (12:30–4:30 p.m. The quality of dip produced under sun evaporation was compared to that of a commercial one collected from the markets in Saudi Arabia and was found to be superior due to two decisive criteria, namely color (the appearance) and pH (the taste), and also in terms of other nutritional components.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Physiological and Biochemical Changes During the Growth of Custard Apple ( L.) Fruit Cultivated in Vietnamhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluated some physiological and biochemical changes that accompanied the growth stages of custard apple cultivated in Lang Son, Vietnam. Regarding the pigment content of the peel, the research results showed that the content of chlorophyll a, b, and total reached the highest value at week 13, then decreased rapidly when the fruit entered the ripening stage. Meanwhile, carotenoid content in the peel increased gradually from week 3 until complete ripening at week 16, from 0.014 to 0.063 mg·g<sup>−1</sup> fresh peel. Protein, lipid, and tannin content in the fruit flesh decreased gradually from week 3 to maturity. The vitamin C and reducing sugar content tended to reduce in week 3 to 7, then increased again until the fruit ripened. While the starch content varied quite complicatedly, it decreased from week 3 to 7, increased again from week 9 to 13, then decreased sharply as the fruit entered the ripening stage (down from 10.011% at week 13 to 1.795% at week 16). Regarding enzyme activity, α-amylase and peroxidase activity increased during the fruit development stages, corresponding to week 3 to 15 in this study. At week 16, the peroxidase activity continued to increase, while the α-amylase activity began to decrease. Unlike these two enzymes, catalase activity gradually increased from fruit formation to the 11th-week fruit stage, reaching 11.542 µM H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>·g<sup>−1</sup>·min<sup>−1</sup>, and then decreased rapidly to 3.167 µM H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>·g<sup>−1</sup>·min<sup>−1</sup> in the 16th-week fruit stage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Recent Developments in Edible Coatings for Fresh Fruits and Vegetableshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The world population is elevating rapidly, the demand for fruits and vegetables is increasing due to their nutritional value, and the concerns regarding the quality have been amplified. Therefore, the development of various techniques to retain quality attributes, and shelf-life extension of food has become a focal point for researchers and food industries. One of the economical techniques used for the preservation of food is the application of edible coating onto the surface of fresh or minimally processed fruits and vegetables. The foremost advantage of edible coating is that it is eco-friendly. Edible coatings can improve nutritional quality along with the maintenance of physiological attributes of fruits and vegetables. It can also act as a vehicle to carry active components, such as essential oils and spices that also carry antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The application of nanotechnology for the formulation of edible coating is playing a significant role and aids in the reduction of microbial load on fruits and vegetables. The main aim of this review is to bring up-to-date information regarding various edible coatings used on minimally processed fruits and vegetables – carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, composites, fruit purees, and herb-based edible coatings and their significant effect on the physiological properties of produces. The information will be beneficial for the researchers and scholars to study the various effects of edible coatings on minimally processed fruits and vegetables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Fruit Quality Indicators of Apple ( Borkh.) Cultivars Bred in Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a result of the evaluation of the physical and biochemical quality indicators of the fruit of thirteen apple cultivars of Ukrainian breeding, it was found that the fruits of ‘Teremok’, ‘Skifs’ke Zoloto’, ‘Amulet’, ‘Perlyna Kyieva’, ‘Harant’, ‘Edera’, ‘Radohost’, ‘Todes’ and ‘Askol’da’ are characterized by high stability of market traits based on the maximum diameter of the equatorial dimension, which varies depending on the cultivar, from 70 mm to 78 mm. The firmness of the fruit flesh of the evaluated cultivars in the harvest maturity was over 7.0 kg·cm<sup>−2</sup> but in ‘Solomiya’ and ‘Dmiana’ this indicator was 11.1 kg·cm<sup>−2</sup>. The fruits of ‘Harant’ and ‘Todes’ were distinguished by a high dry matter content (over 18%). The highest content of soluble solids (14.5%) was accumulated in the fruits of ‘Dmiana’, and the maximum amount of sugars (11.6%) in the fruit of the ‘Ornament’. The fruits of ‘Teremok’, ‘Skifs’ke Zoloto’, ‘Amulet’, ‘Edera’, ‘Perlyna Kyieva’, ‘Kateryna’ and ‘Dmiana’ were characterized by excellent taste quality based on the values of the sugar-acid index (20–25). In the fruits of ‘Kateryna’, ‘Dmiana’ and ‘Solomiya’, a stable pectin content (over 1%) was found. The fruits of ‘Harant’ accumulated a high content of ascorbic acid (11.5 mg·100 g<sup>−1</sup> of fresh weight), while ‘Kateryna’, ‘Radohost’, ‘Solomiya’ and ‘Askol’da’ contained over 240 mg·100 g<sup>−1</sup> of fresh weight of polyphenols. According to the complex of the quality indices, the fruits of ‘Teremok’, ‘Skifs’ke Zoloto’, ‘Perlyna Kyieva’, ‘Askol’da’ and ‘Dmiana’ were distinguished by high commercial value and excellent consumption properties. The fruits of ‘Kateryna’, ‘Ornament’, ‘Dmiana’ and ‘Solomiya’ were characterized by stable carbohydrate content, while ‘Harant’ and ‘Askol’da’ by a stable high content of ascorbic acid and polyphenols, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Pathway Analysis to Determine Factors Contributing to Overall Quality Scores in Four Berry Cropshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2020-0025<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Fruit quality attributes are influenced by environmental, agronomic and genetic factors; both cultivars and growing conditions can vary substantially between UK production and imported fruit. This study aimed to record and dissect the most relevant fruit quality traits for berries imported into the UK in the winter months. Blackberry, blueberry, raspberry and strawberry fruit were imported from 11 countries into a Kent-based packhouse (UK) or purchased from major retailers between December 2018 and March 2019. Multiple fruit quality components were assessed for relative contribution towards a high “overall assessment” fruit quality score. It was found that strawberry and blackberry overall scores were affected by sweetness perception, whereas blueberry and raspberry organoleptics are more complex, with overall scores influenced by flavor perception. Multiple raspberry and strawberry fruit quality traits were found to be associated with genotypic differences, indicating a promising potential for genetic improvement through breeding. By contrast, the study findings suggest that there is less potential for genetic improvement in blueberry, and that the environment may have a large effect on blueberry fruit quality traits.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Examining Organic Acid Root Exudate Content and Function for Leafy Vegetables Under Water-Stressed Conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2020-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>At the plants’ exposal to abiotic stress, organic acids, including citric acid, are exuded through their roots. Previous studies have suggested that the exogenous application of citric acid increases antioxidant activity within the plant. Thus, we postulated that organic acids released into the surroundings during times of environmental stress may function as signaling molecules to increase antioxidant enzyme activity. To gain further insight into this phenomenon, we identified individual organic acids exuded from the roots of leafy vegetables under drought stress. We then analyzed enzyme activity and the root/shoot lengths of seedlings after treatment with the types of organic acids found to be exuded from the studied leafy vegetables, including acetic, citric, lactic, and tartaric acids. There was a significant increase in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity in Napa cabbage (<italic>Brassica rapa</italic> var. <italic>pekinensis</italic>) after exogenous citric acid application. Root lengths of cabbage (<italic>Brassica oleracea</italic> var. <italic>capitata</italic>) and Napa cabbage seedlings were significantly longer in citric and lactic acids pretreated seedlings compared to those of the control. The above results support the conclusion that exogenous application of citric acid alleviates drought stress. However, there is insufficient evidence to prove that organic acids act as signaling molecules to prime neighboring plants for upcoming stress.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-18T00:00:00.000+00:00 and Activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Oxidase in Germinating Seeds of China Aster ( Nees)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2020-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The activity of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO; EC 1.4.3.3) in germinating seeds of <italic>Callistephus chinensis</italic> was studied. For maximum recovery of ACO activity <italic>in vitro</italic>, the presence of 10% (w/v) insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) and 30% of glycerol in the extraction medium was necessary. The optimum pH for this activity was 7.0. Ethylene production by whole achenes or enzymatic extract increased due to increasing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentrations. Saturation level of ACC for <italic>in vivo</italic> ACO activity was 10<sup>−1</sup> M and V<sub>max</sub> was 10.89 nL C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>·mg protein<sup>−1</sup>·h<sup>−1</sup>. For <italic>in vitro</italic> ACO activity, the saturation level of ACC was 10<sup>−3</sup> M and V<sub>max</sub> was 2.299 nL C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>·mg protein<sup>−1</sup>·h<sup>−1</sup>. Both, <italic>in vivo</italic> and <italic>in vitro</italic> ACO activities did not follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Hill coefficients (<italic>h</italic>) were estimated on the basis of non-linear estimation. Their values were 0.63 for <italic>in vivo</italic> ACO activity and 1.73 for <italic>in vitro</italic> ACO activity. The experimental data show that ACO from <italic>C. chinensis</italic> seeds is an oligomeric enzyme with at least two active sites. During seed germination, <italic>in vitro</italic> ACO activity was detectable after 12 hours of imbibition, while <italic>in vivo</italic> ACC conversion to ethylene was observed after 24 h, i.e. – after radicle protrusion. The activity of ACO in <italic>C. chinensis</italic> seeds is associated with germination <italic>sensu stricto</italic>, and might be a good marker of this process.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficiency of Gaseous Ozone in Disinfection of Mushroom Growing Roomshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2020-0017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Fungal diseases are a persistent problem in the cultivation of white button mushrooms (<italic>Agaricus bisporus</italic>). The chemical control of pathogens is becoming less effective and less desirable, so new ways to limit these infections are urgently required. What is more, the disease is mostly controlled through cultural practices and good hygiene on mushroom farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fungicidal effects of ozone on fungal pathogens of common mushrooms. Experiments with the use of ozone gas for disinfection of growing rooms after the completion of the mushroom growing cycle were carried out. The fungicidal effectiveness of ozone fumigation was evaluated on the basis of the survival rate of the spores of the pathogens tested (<italic>Lecanicillium fungicola</italic>, <italic>Cladobotryum dendroides</italic>, <italic>Mycogone perniciosa</italic>, and <italic>Trichoderma aggressivum</italic>). Spore suspension was applied to aluminum plates and then was exposed to gaseous ozone. The assessment of the growth of colonies of fungal isolates obtained from infected surfaces was carried out using Rodac contact test plates. The results showed that <italic>L. fungicola</italic>, <italic>M. perniciosa</italic>, and <italic>C. dendroides</italic> isolates were sensitive to the gas ozone. In order to achieve 100% efficacy against <italic>Mycogone</italic> strains, a minimum of 6 hours of ozonation had to be applied, whereas for <italic>Cladobotryum</italic> strains, a minimum of 8 hours had to be applied. The <italic>Lecanicillium</italic> species was the most sensitive to ozonation because 30 minutes of ozonation was enough to gain 100% inhibition of its growth. No satisfactory results were obtained in the case of the pathogenic species of <italic>Trichoderma</italic>, regardless of the experimental conditions. Nevertheless, this study has demonstrated the usefulness of ozone as a disinfectant for empty growing rooms after the completion of the mushrooms’ cultivation cycle.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00 Rooting, Acclimatization and Genetic Stability of var. https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/johr-2020-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Ex vitro</italic> rooting and acclimatization of two cultivars ‘Wojtek’ and ‘Zojka’ of blue honeysuckle (<italic>Lonicera caerulea</italic> var. <italic>kamtschatica</italic> Sevast.) were studied. To the <italic>ex vitro</italic> conditions were transferred rooted and unrooted shoots. The post-effect of auxin type and concentration as well as microcutting and soil substrate types were tested. The genetic stability of the plantlets in relation to the mother plants by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers has been also determined. It has been found that <italic>in vitro</italic> rooted cuttings of both cultivars showed a higher survival rate (max. 88%) and better growth and development when they were rooted on a medium containing a low auxin level (1.0 mg·dm<sup>−3</sup>). The results of the second experiment showed successful <italic>ex vitro</italic> rooting of blue honeysuckle shoots without auxin treatment. Higher <italic>ex vitro</italic> rooting and survival rate in the greenhouse have been observed for ‘Wojtek’ (max. 96%) than ‘Zojka’ (max. 88%). Better growth and development of shoots and roots were observed on peat alone or a mixture of peat and perlite as compared to a mixture of peat and sand. The micropropagated plantlets appeared similar to mother plants. Molecular analysis confirmed a high level of genetic stability of blue honeysuckle after 2 years of <italic>in vitro</italic> propagation. However, among the cultivars studied, ‘Wojtek’ showed slightly higher genetic stability than ‘Zojka’ (99.5% and 97.7%, respectively). For ‘Zojka’ plants, the degree of variation was comparable for AFLP and ISSR markers. For ‘Wojtek’, no polymorphism was detected using the ISSR analysis in contrast to the AFLP analysis.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1