rss_2.0Journal of Military Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Military Studieshttps://sciendo.com/journal/JMShttps://www.sciendo.comJournal of Military Studies 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/608cac7f66e75927c4a7af19/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220520T094722Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220520%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=38c5beea754cba00e56c4e97247588161d5eef65c2ad327aac684404efc7b734200300Advanced education for NCMs’ professional career development: a conclusive experience?https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jms-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research which assessed whether the Knowledge Acquisition Programme and the Non-Commissioned Member Executive Professional Development Programme contributed to the Non-Commissioned Members’ effectiveness as senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. Thirty-seven Programme graduates from 2006 to 2015 received a questionnaire containing seven closed-ended general information questions and twelve open-ended programme/course specific questions. Seventeen graduates responded to the questionnaire. Manual coding was used to identify main themes and sub-themes. The research findings determined that both Programmes contributed to the effectiveness of senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, some caveats were expressed, and recommendations brought forward to enhance the Programme and to improve its future deliveries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Introduction to the Special Issue on Military Sociology: Distinctions and dynamics between military and civilian sphereshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2019-0001ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Saying no to military service – obligation, killing and inequality as experienced problems in conscription-based military in Finlandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2019-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>While studying citizen-soldiers, their dual identity as a soldier and a civilian have been highlighted. A citizen-soldier’s role is linked to citizenship and its obligation. The dual identity or critical voices of conscription or reserve forces have neither been recognized in research nor been debated publicly in Finland. The aim of this article is to analyse the reasons why some conscripts raise critical voices concerning their relationship with conscription and their role as reservists. The study is based on the interviews of 38 non-military service men and 33 men who resigned from the reserve in 2017. The data was analysed using content analysis. According to the results, the main problems with regard to conscription and armed defence, among the conscripts, relate to inequality of the conscription system, obligation to serve and lack of discretion. For individual conscripts as citizen-soldiers, the problem of killing has special weight when they reflect upon their own role in the possible act of war. Conscripts and their expertise could be used more extensively in a wider range of security-related issues than in armed defence alone.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Warrior and peacekeeper role identities: associations with self-esteem, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2019-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article focuses on military role identity by assessing the relations between demographic variables and warrior and peacekeeper role identities and by examining the potential influence of these role identities on self-esteem, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a cross-national sample. A questionnaire was distributed to military members in four participating countries: Belgium, Estonia, Canada and the Netherlands (<italic>n</italic> = 831). The findings show that demographic variables (i.e., age, gender, marital status and unit) are related to military role identity, and that military role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB. In particular, multiple regression analyses demonstrate that peacekeeper role identity predicts self-esteem, organizational commitment and OCB, whereas warrior role identity only predicts organizational commitment and OCB, and further, that peacekeeper role identity is a stronger predictor of the outcome variables measured. The theoretical and practical implications, including providing commanders with information to assess their units’ mindsets, and mechanisms to improve self-esteem, commitment, OCB, are discussed. Finally, the limitations of this study and its potential for future research are described.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Boots on the streets: a “policization” of the armed forces as the new normal?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2019-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article analyses how the boundaries of postmodern military organizations are changing and how these evolutions affect their relations with the civilian society. The case of the Belgian Defence and the deployment of its military personnel in the streets are used as a case study to illustrate this transformation. Since January 2015, in response to the imminent terrorist threat in Belgium, military units have been deployed in support of the police to monitor sensitive areas, guard buildings and patrol the streets. The article analyses, first, how the population reacted to these new “proximity” roles and, second, the impact of these homeland deployments on the expeditionary readiness of the Belgian Defence and its capacity to carry out its primary missions.</p><p>The empirical analyses are, based on several quantitative and qualitative surveys, carried out among the Belgian population and the personnel of the Belgian Defence. In particular, the impact of the evolution of the public’s support over time on the blurring of the traditional roles of the military and the use of the military for internal security tasks is analysed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Integrated defence workforces: Challenges and enablers of military–civilian personnel collaborationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2019-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Defence organisations are unique in that they comprise integrated military and civilian personnel working in partnership with each other (e.g., in headquarters, on bases, on missions, in academic settings). Many defence civilians are supervised by military supervisors and managers, while others are themselves responsible for managing military personnel. At the same time, despite often high levels of partnership and integration, military and civilian personnel are governed by very different personnel management systems, and have distinct cultures. These factors can affect the nature and quality of the collaboration and influence personnel outcomes and organisational effectiveness. Indeed, defence organisations are increasingly recognizing the importance of optimizing integration between their military and civilian workforces, with many adopting organisational terms implying that the military and civilian workforces form a cohesive whole: the <italic>Defence Team</italic> (Canada), the <italic>Whole Force Concept</italic> (United Kingdom), <italic>One Defence Team</italic> (Sweden), and <italic>Total Defence Workforce</italic> (New Zealand).</p><p>This paper presents results from the Military–Civilian Personnel Survey (MCPS), which was administered in 11 nations as part of a NATO Research Task Group on the topic of military-civilian personnel collaboration and integration (NATO STO HFM RTG-226). This survey was the first systematic examination of large samples of military and civilian respondents, and the first to examine military–civilian relations from the perspective of both military and civilian personnel. The results presented here are based on three open-ended questions included in the survey, which asked respondents to identify 1) the most important factors for establishing and maintaining positive military-civilian personnel work culture and relations, 2) the challenges of working in a military-civilian environment, and 3) the main advantages of working in a military-civilian environment. Results of 5 nations, including Canada, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (<italic>n</italic> =1,513 military respondents and <italic>n</italic> = 2,099 defence civilians) are presented. Results indicate that mixed military-civilian work environments present both unique challenges and advantages, and identified the factors considered to be important for enhancing integration and collaboration between military and civilian personnel. Given that many cross-national patterns emerged, these findings provide useful insights for enhancing military and civilian personnel integration and collaboration across nations.</p><p>*Adapted from the material first reported in Goldenberg, I. &amp; Febbraro, A.R. (2018; in publication). <italic>Civilian and Military Personnel Integration and Collaboration in Defence Organizations</italic>. NATO Science and Technology Organization Technical Report - STO-TR-HFM-226. DOI 10.14339/STO-TR-HFM-226. ISBN: ISBN 978-92-837-2092-8.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Predicting army cadets’ performance: The role of character strengths, GPA and GMAhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine how well a set of 12 character strengths (Leadership, Integrity, Open-Mindedness, Bravery, Teamwork, Persistence, Social Intelligence, Love of Learning, Fairness, Self-Regulation, Perspective and Creativity) will predict academic performance (AP) and military performance (MP), compared to high school grade point average (GPA) and general mental ability (GMA). The study sample comprised 123 army cadets of two cohorts from the three-year bachelor's degree programme at the Norwegian Military Academy (NMA). GPA predicted AP (<italic>r</italic> = 0.32, <italic>p</italic> ≤ 0.05), but not MP (<italic>r</italic> = 0.14, <italic>n.s.</italic>), while GMA correlated significantly with neither AP nor MP. All 12 character strengths correlated significantly with MP (<italic>r</italic>s ranging from 0.27 to 0.65), and all except for Fairness correlated significantly with AP (<italic>rs</italic> ranging from 0.18 to 0.58). An average score of the 12 character strengths showed incremental validity beyond GMA and GPA in predicting both AP and MP. Our results suggest that character strengths should be considered when selecting and training army cadets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Siting military base camps through an MCDA frameworkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00An examination of authentic leadership as an individual and social factor of resiliencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Resilient qualities, which derive from protective factors, enable an individual to balance exposure to vulnerabilities in military service and throughout life. Protective factors arise from within an individual, from social factors, and from an individual's environment. Research on social factors, such as strong leadership and peer relationships, continues to emerge and significantly relate to resilience. Of specific interest to organisations is how perceptions of leadership contribute to resilience as an individual and social protective factor. Knowing more about how soldiers perceive themselves on authentic leadership and resilience would better help researchers and practitioners understand the contribution of leadership on perceived resilience. The current study examined the perception of authentic leadership in self and first-line leaders with resilience in a population of 179 soldiers (<italic>N</italic> = 179; <italic>M</italic> = 26.86 years, <italic>SD</italic> = 6.42). The results noted a significant correlation between the perception of authentic leadership in oneself and resilience (<italic>r</italic> = 0.506, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). A subsequent analysis examining the perception of authentic leadership in one's first-line leader and subordinate resilience was also significant (<italic>r</italic> = 0.394, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), supporting previous findings. These results demonstrate that perceptions of leadership matter as an individual and social factor in military personnel.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Nuclear warfare beyond counterforcehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A counterforce attack intends to disable an opponent's nuclear arsenal to limit potential damage from that adversary. We postulate a future when hardening and deeply burying fixed sites, transition to mobile strategic systems, and improved defences make executing a counterforce strategy against an adversary's nuclear forces extremely difficult. Additionally, our postulated future has multiple nations possessing nuclear weapons. Consequently, each country needs to consider multiple actors when addressing the question of how to deter a potential adversary's nuclear attack. We examine six nuclear targeting alternatives and consider how to deter them. These strategies include nuclear demonstration, conventional military targets, and attacks consisting of communications/electronics, economic, infrastructure, and population centers that a nation might consider striking with nuclear weapons. Since these alternative strikes require only a few nuclear weapons, executing one of them would not significantly shift the balance of nuclear forces. The attacking country's remaining nuclear forces may inhibit the attacked country or its allies from responding. How can nations deter these limited nuclear attacks? Potentially, threatening economic counter-strikes seems to be the best alternative. How might escalation be controlled in the event of a limited attack? Other instruments of power, such as political or economic, might be employed to bolster deterrence against these types of nuclear strikes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Greece as a frontline state in the historical longue duréehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Greece as a state in South-eastern Europe and the Mediterranean has perceived itself as a frontline state, especially after it became a NATO member in 1952 along with Turkey. The two states formed the south-eastern flank of NATO and along with Iran constituted the Greece, Turkey, Iran (GTI) Corridor, part of Rimland. Greece’s strategic value stemmed from its frontline position in relation to the Eastern Bloc. After the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc, Greece has reinvented itself as a frontline state, this time in the Mediterranean Sea. We use the historical notion of longue durée and loci of Classical Geopolitics, such as Heartland and Rimland, to assess Greece’s strategic value in the long period. We also propose an additional spatial unity, the New Rimland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Military thoracic gunshot wounds: A systematic reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method to investigate the frequency of military thoracic gunshot wounds (GSWs) and deaths in combat theatres since World War Two (WW2). An electronic database search of World of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Microsoft Academic was conducted using the keywords ‘combat, casualties, thorax, gunshot, and military’ to identify peer-reviewed journals and conference papers on the topic. Twenty-three sources relevant to this review were identified and covered multiple theatres of operation. While there is a downward trend in the frequency of thoracic GSWs and fatalities likely due to the improvement of body armour, the improvement in medical treatment and increased frequency of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), the review shows that the advancement has not removed the likelihood of thoracic GSWs, which still accounted for approximately 15% of all thoracic injuries in the most recent combat theatres. The systematic review identifies that GSWs of the thorax continue to be a risk in military theatres and therefore, medical personnel should be aware of the frequency and severity of thoracic GSWs and should be prepared to treat these life-threatening injuries, as timely intervention is essential.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Siting military base camps through an MCDA frameworkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0011<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent commanders: The impact of a cultural paradigm derived from a secularised Christianity on the philosophy of infocentric warfarehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article examines how a religious cultural paradigm deriving from the Humanism of the West affects the modern art and science of War. It was in the framework of a religified Humanism, in which man ‘stole’ God’s capabilities and properties, that the worldview of man-god was created. This worldview permeated the development of military strategy, thereby facilitating its transformation in the worldview of a commander-god; this is the same worldview which today threatens to reach extremes, assisted by technological evolution allowing the development of robust C4ISR networks<fn id="j_jms-2021-0005_fn_001" symbol="1"><p>Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. The acronym today is C5ISR, with the addition of Combat Systems.</p></fn> interconnected with precision guided munitions (PGMs) of various configurations. The article then examines the influence of Western intellectualism, which is a basic element of Western Christianity, over the development of modern theories and perceptions on military strategy and the risks that can arise for future Western armies from this impact. As an antidote to this influence, the article suggests a new perception on military strategy which emphasises adaptability and flexibility and is based on a cultural paradigm from the Orthodox Christian Faith.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Clausewitz and the partisan: Accounting for unlimited enmity in the twenty-first centuryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Napoleon harnessed unlimited enmity to transform wars from limited ones to unlimited ones. Accordingly, Clausewitz developed the Trinity to describe this source of power. However, the increasing destruction due to interstate wars has led to a decrease in this type of conflict. At the same time, there has been an increase in partisan wars. The Trinity cannot explain partisan victories or state defeats. Using social psychology to explain the relationship of the partisan to the group, this research shows how partisans harness unlimited enmity to engage in existential wars. Furthering Clausewitzian philosophy, a new analogy, the singularity, is created to describe this power. Implications and conclusions drawn are at the end of the paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Advanced education for NCMs’ professional career development: a conclusive experience?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research which assessed whether the Knowledge Acquisition Programme and the Non-Commissioned Member Executive Professional Development Programme contributed to the Non-Commissioned Members’ effectiveness as senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. Thirty-seven Programme graduates from 2006 to 2015 received a questionnaire containing seven closed-ended general information questions and twelve open-ended programme/course specific questions. Seventeen graduates responded to the questionnaire. Manual coding was used to identify main themes and sub-themes. The research findings determined that both Programmes contributed to the effectiveness of senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, some caveats were expressed, and recommendations brought forward to enhance the Programme and to improve its future deliveries.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Imperial Japanese Navy and the battle of the Philippine Sea: An analysis of the main causes of defeathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to demonstrate through mathematical analysis that the primary reason for the defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in the battle of the Philippine Sea during World War II (WWII) was quantitative, and that the defeat is particularly attributable to the lack of force concentration. Scholars have placed much emphasis on the qualitative aspects of the forces involved, such as the skill of IJN pilots or the air defence capabilities of the United States Navy (USN), in seeking to explain the Japanese defeat. We, however, assert that in this naval battle, quantitative factors played a more important role than qualitative ones. Accordingly, we offer an improved version of the mathematical model of Armstrong and Powell, which was previously used to analyse battles between aircraft carriers (CVs). The coefficients in our mathematical model will then be estimated and verified using historical data from the main battles between CVs of the IJN and USN during WWII. Finally, we will analyse the factors underlying the IJN’s defeat in the Battle of the Philippine Sea using the model. This study proposes a useful technique for evaluating quantitative and qualitative aspects of naval forces.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Organizational challenges and leaders’ coping strategies: a qualitative study of Swedish military staff organizationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jms-2017-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Numerous societal change processes such as globalization, professionalization and social and technical acceleration have challenged military organizations. The aims of this study were to (1) gain a deeper understanding of coping strategies used by the military leaders at the strategic level to manage everyday organizational demands and (2) relate these strategies to multidisciplinary models of organizational challenges. Owing to an insufficiently developed base of research, an inductive approach was used. Interviews were performed with 23 Swedish brigadier generals and colonels. Five coping strategies were found for handling the negative organizational aspects: repair work, catching up, reproducing, using formal and informal strategies and managing loyalties. The theoretical concepts of narcissistic, anorectic and greedy organizations were used as a framework when interpreting the inductively generated coping strategies. It was suggested that the specific connection found between individual-level coping strategies and theoretically framed organizational challenges is new. The results of this study are discussed theoretically and may be valuable in educational settings when evaluating the working conditions and performance of high-level officers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2018-05-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Perception of specific military skills – the impact of perfectionism and self-efficacyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2018-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We investigated the development of specific military skills in Norwegian cadets during the three-year military academy training as well as the impact of perfectionism and self-efficacy on the development of these skills. Latent growth-curve models were performed with perfectionism as a time-invariant predictor and with self-efficacy as a time-varying predictor. There were significant increases in the Individual Coping Capacity (ICC) and Cooperation in Difficult Situations (CDS) subscales but not in the Motivation to Achievement (MA) subscale. The initial skill levels were not related to the growth of the skills. Both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism predicted initial values of ICC and CDS, explaining 5% of the variance in the initial ICC levels and 12% of the variance in the initial CDS levels. Perfectionism variables did not explain the development of the three types of military skills over time. Moreover, self-efficacy significantly predicted ICC at all time points and CDS and MA at all time points except at T3. We therefore concluded that cadets with high adaptive perfectionism scores are likely to have higher initial skill levels and that self-efficacious cadets are expected to show a greater development of military skills during military academy training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2018-08-04T00:00:00.000+00:00War as nothing but a duel: war as an institution and the construction of the Western military professionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jms-2018-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Like all repetitive human interaction, even war has been institutionalized and fought according to conventions and norms. Historically, this institutionalization is apparent from the way war has been compared to the duel, first in the 14th century and most famously by Carl von Clausewitz 5 centuries later. This article continues this train of thought and argues that the observed limits of Western “professional orthodoxy” and “strategic vocabulary” can be traced to how war has been institutionalized by the military profession. This offers an alternative explanation to the prevailing views of why the West has struggled in contemporary wars: it is the fundamental mismatch between these professional norms in the West and those held by their opponents that forms the biggest asymmetry in contemporary war. As this asymmetry is unlikely to disappear, these professional norms need to be reconsidered: just like the aristocracy with the duel by the late 19th century, the Western military profession appears stuck in an institution that is increasingly becoming obsolete. Without such reconsideration, the attainment of decision – the central strategic objective in war – and hence victory in future wars will remain uncertain.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-11-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1