rss_2.0Logistics & Sustainable Transport FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Logistics & Sustainable Transporthttps://sciendo.com/journal/JLSThttps://www.sciendo.comLogistics & Sustainable Transport 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005f770e797941b18f2c699/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210916T100632Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210916%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=ae28acd73debf1662087cbab0e70be3631f01ef5177da316f76ec91c7e4135f4200300Analysing picking errors in vision picking systemshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Vision picking empowers users with access to real-time digital order information, while freeing them from handheld radio frequency devices. The smart glasses, as an example of vision picking enabler, provide visual and voice cues to guide order pickers. The glasses mostly also have installed navigation features that can sense the order picker’s position in the warehouse. This paper explores picking errors in vision systems with literature review and experimental work in laboratory environment. The results show the effectiveness of applying vision picking systems for the purposes of active error prevention, when they are compared to established methods, such as paper-picking and using cart mounted displays. A serious competitor to vision picking systems are pick-to-light systems.</p><p>The strong advantage of vision picking system is that most of the errors are detected early in the process and not at the customer’s site. The cost of fixing the error is thus minimal. Most errors consequently directly influence order picker’s productivity in negative sense. Nonetheless, the distinctive feature of the system is extremely efficient error detection.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods and Models for Electric Load Forecasting: A Comprehensive Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Electric load forecasting (ELF) is a vital process in the planning of the electricity industry and plays a crucial role in electric capacity scheduling and power systems management and, therefore, it has attracted increasing academic interest. Hence, the accuracy of electric load forecasting has great importance for energy generating capacity scheduling and power system management. This paper presents a review of forecasting methods and models for electricity load. About 45 academic papers have been used for the comparison based on specified criteria such as time frame, inputs, outputs, the scale of the project, and value. The review reveals that despite the relative simplicity of all reviewed models, the regression analysis is still widely used and efficient for long-term forecasting. As for short-term predictions, machine learning or artificial intelligence-based models such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Fuzzy logic are favored.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Key Performance Indicators of Logistics Firmshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Key Performance Indicators (KPI) has been outlined for implementing total quality management (TQM) across logistics sector. This study constituted on the quality values of logistics firms in the logistics sector, which is examined with key performance indicators through the integrated method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and SMART Goal Setting. The calculations were performed for logistics firms. The method used in this study is the integrated method of the AHP Method and SMART Goal Setting. The results highlight the most mentioned key performance indicators in the literature in a prioritized version also during the prioritizing process via AHP Method, the SMART Goal Setting approach also is applied.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Intra-City Mobility and Characterization in a Fast-growing City of Lagos, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Effective urban transportation no doubt serves as engine room and catalyst for driving national economic development. Significantly, the purpose of urban transport is to provide both passenger and freight mobility over specific parts of urban areas including cities, and its efficiency is characterized upon transporting effectively and achieving economies of scale. Hence, this study examined intra-city mobility and characterization in Lagos, Nigeria. The data was sourced from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data detailed the use of two sets of questionnaires administered to commuters and motorists. 182 copies of questionnaire were randomly administered to commuters, while 60 units of the questionnaire were purposively and conveniently administered to motorists. Descriptive and inferential techniques were used for data analysis. Major findings revealed obvious variations in socio-economic parameters of intra-city trip makers and factors influencing trip making. It was observed that journey to work, school, shopping cum business constituted the major trips characterizing in Lagos. Findings also revealed that high patronage priority was given to most used and preferred means due to vehicle travel speed, trip purpose, and availability than safety and comfortability of modal choice. Regression analysis result revealed that commuters’ modal choice and patronage is statistically influenced by operational attributes of mode (e.g. transit time, delay duration, safety, vehicle condition and transit fare etc.) at Sig. p=0.000 and F<sup>14</sup><sub>165</sub> 15.667 which is greater than table value at 5% significant level. The study recommended among others the formulation and implementation of effective policy for urban transport activities; standardization of service operations and expansion of infrastructural facilities including the last-mile in the city.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Problems Affecting the Accessibility of Physically-Challenged Individuals to Intermediate Public Transport Services in Oyo State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The greatest challenge of physically-challenged individuals is mobility, thereby making access to public transportation essential to independent living for these individuals. The study was conducted in Oyo State. Multistage sampling method comprising purposive and simple random sampling was used to select a sample size of 226 students from three special education centres in the state. Findings revealed that factors such as operators’ impatience/discrimination, waiting time and lack of assistance were major problems that affects accessibility to IPTs. Furthermore, results showed that difficulties experienced by the physically-challenged individuals differ significantly by the nature of disability as evidenced by a chi-square value of 37.218, p&lt;0.05. It was therefore recommended that government should listen more to these transport disadvantaged people living with disabilities and integrate their concerns/suggestions in the design, implementation and monitoring of transport infrastructure and services as well as providing sustainable transport means to their transport challenges.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Developing an Integrated Framework for Supplier Evaluation based on Relevant Attributes and Performance Measureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Supplier evaluation and selection is essential to any organization, and planning an effective and comprehensive approach to that end seems inevitable. Meanwhile, determining the requisite criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers is probably one of the most important steps to be taken towards developing an evaluation and selection model in the organization. In this article, first a review of the literature on the criteria and the field of supplier evaluation and selection are provided. These criteria are then placed into proper categories. In order to formulate a supplier evaluation and selection framework for the manufacturing organization under study, the implemented categorization is applied where a list of fifteen attributes and performance criteria is created; where upon it is secured with the help of a designated panel (project team). These features are then screened using Lawshe’s method the “social attribute” is removed from the list of fifteen. The remaining 14 other criteria are configured within the SEAP (Suppliers Evaluation based on Attributes and Performances) framework. The framework follows the objective of continually evaluating suppliers, both potential and actual ones through incorporating their performances into their qualification ratings. Based on the proposed framework, suppliers are evaluated on the basis of two types of criteria, - feature (attribute) and performance.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00An Assessment of Agricultural Freight Transportation in Saki Area of Oyo State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Transportation no doubt remains a catalyst for all aspect of socio-economic and environmental development. Without its singular significance of mobility and accessibility for farmers, agricultural produce will rot on farms, while efforts in providing food would be fruitless. This paper assessed agricultural freight transportation in Saki area of Oyo State with a view of enhancing better product delivery mechanisms for farmers. It examined farmers’ socio-demographic; nature of farming and farm characteristics; and appraised the relationship between attributes of agricultural production and freight movement. Primary data employed consists of a questionnaire designed for farmers, structured interview for government officials complemented with personal field observations of agricultural freight transportation. 225 farmers were randomly selected for questionnaire administration. Major findings revealed that food crops, vegetables, fruits and poultry products are in persistent motion in the study area and that agricultural freight is a neglected sector with significant consequences on the access to cheap and affordable urban wellbeing. Findings also revealed that agricultural freight transportation within the study is very poor and uneconomical, as this depletes farmers’ profit-making. Regression analysis results show a significant relationship between attributes of agricultural freight and transport cost (F<sup>19</sup><sub>205</sub> 11.916= P&lt;0.05). The study recommends extensive road rehabilitation and constructions within the study area; provision of technological driven distribution and storage infrastructural facilities; creation of a databank for agricultural freight transport; reorganization and empowerment of farmers and improvement of rural infrastructure in Oyo state and Nigeria as a whole.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Multicriteria Evaluation of Intermodal (Rail/Road) Freight Transport Corridorshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2020-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper deals with the multi-criteria evaluation of the intermodal (rail/road) freight corridors as competing transport alternatives. For such a purpose, the methodology has been developed consisting of two main components; i) the analytical models for estimating the indicators and measures of the corridors’ physical/spatial or infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, social, and environmental performance; and ii) the MCDM (Multi-Criteria Decision Making) method using the above-mentioned indicators and measures of performance as the evaluation attributes/criteria in ranking and identifying the preferred among the several mutually competing freight transport alternative corridors.</p><p>The proposed methodology has been applied to two Trans-European intermodal rail/road freight transport corridors. As such, it has shown to be of use, in addition to the researchers, also to the other potential DMs (Decision Maker(s)). These could be, for example, the freight shippers/receivers as the users of the already existing intermodal (rail/road) transport services, the transport and intermodal terminal operators and infrastructure providers, and the business and policy makers facing with the problems of allocating the usually limited investments in the social-economic feasible way to the corresponding infrastructure at the local, regional, national, and international scale.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of an Electrostatic Discharge Protective Biodegradable Packaging Foam in the Logistic Chainhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jlst-2015-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Since the beginning of the 20th century, logistics has undergone a huge technological development, which has, however, resulted in many negative effects as well. The industry, particularly in the packaging industry has been a massive waste producer, although recently it has forced the use of new materials and it started to focus on environmentally friendly technologies. During the transportation of finished and semi-finished Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) sensitive products, the product packaging system has a vital role. These kind of packaging materials must be suitable to both logistic (protection against mechanical and environmental stresses) and special ESD protection requirements. During the transportation of printed-circuit electronic products, ESD defense is then of primary significance. However there is a huge disadvantage for the use of various shield bags. Namely, this kind of associated packaging is particularly pollutant, it causes a lot of inconvenience in the form of waste. In order to rule out these materials from the packaging system, new innovative solutions have to be found. The investigated TPS (thermoplastic starch biodegradable foam) is subjected to a validation, a long process to certify that this material unites properties of two types of packaging materials at the same time. On the one hand, this packaging foam has to meet the requirements product defense. On the other hand, the material must be anti-static under the logistic stress effects. In case it is found suitable, it can be an alternative of the conventional materials. In this article, we investigate the ESD characteristic of TPS foam. As this material sensitive for environmental parameters during transportation, we make the relevant Surface Resistance (Rs) tests on different temperature and humidity conditions. Based on result, the decision of the application can be done, as an ESD packaging material.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Measurement of the Logistic Customer Service Level in Commercial Cargo Motor Transport Companieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jlst-2015-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The term of logistic customer service is defined as the abilities or skills to meet the customer’s requirements and expectations, chiefly in terms of the time and place of deliveries, while using all available forms of logistic activity, including transport, storage, and the management of inventories, information and packages. As each of the logistic activities has an effect on the customer receiving right product or service, in its proper condition, in the correct time and space, and at reasonable costs, so seeking the proper service comes down to managing logistic activities in such a manner, as to achieve the essential level of customer satisfaction at the lowest possible costs. </p><p>The identified elements of logistic customer service in an organization are placed on a specific level, as assessed from the perspective of the purchasers' expectations. Among various methods for measuring customer service level, or quality, which are described in the literature on the subject, the SERVQUAL is recognized as one of the most effective. The SERVQUAL method relies on measuring the differences that exist between the quality, as perceived by a customer, and the quality demanded by that customer from a specific service. In order to determine the difference, both the customer's expectations for the service level, and their fulfilment by a specific organization need to be examined at the same time. </p><p>The elements of logistic customer service of the Silesian Province’s (region in southern Poland) commercial cargo motor transport enterprises under study are placed on a measurable level, as evaluated from the perspective of the recipients of offered transport services. The measurement of the logistic customer service level, as found in the entities examined, was made using the SERVQUAL method. The survey questionnaire used in the study was constructed based on 22 logistic customer service determinants. Questionnaire forms were filled by 294 customers of 147 Silesian Province’s commercial cargo motor transport enterprises examined, i.e. two customers of each enterprise. </p><p>The article presents theoretical basis for the measurement of the logistic customer service level by the SERVQUAL method, description of acquiring the research material, analysis of examination results and conclusions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Bullwhip Effect in the Information Flow of a Supply Chain: A Role of Culturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jlst-2015-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The main goal of our research is to analyze and display causes of a bullwhip effect formation within a supply chain, as well as to provide the appropriate solutions to limit the occurrence of the bullwhip effect by using the proper information flow and partners’ cooperation within the supply chain. The bullwhip effect is one of the most important issues in the supply chain management and it is present in many companies. It preserves a character of invisibility because there are lots of causes for its formation and they are usually difficult to discern. The bullwhip effect is a phenomenon of an increase in the order variability within a supply chain. The higher we are within the supply chain, the higher is the order variability. The company encountered with the whip effect can successfully reduce its impact by improving the information flow, as well as improving partners’ cooperation within the supply chain. In this way the company can limit its negative repercussions and increase the profit. The article focuses on the overview of the bullwhip effect within a distribution chain, from its causes to suggestions and measures how to ease its negative repercussions on the organisation. Part of the causes could be found in the market demand variability and in the lack of communication about the actual marked demand within the supply chain. The rest of the causes are related to obstacles that emerge among different partners within the supply chain (role of culture). A qualitative analysis is applied on the basis of the selected cognitions from the supply chain management. The quantitative analysis is based on the theoretical research of the effective flow of information among the participants and its contribution to the reduction of the bullwhip impact. The article discusses two research questions: 1) The correct information flow within the supply chain and the improvement of the communication among partners can lead to the bullwhip effect reduction, and 2) A reduction of the bullwhip influence can lead to the increase of cooperation among partners. The results of the analysis can be used for further research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Vertical Marketing Systems, Supply Chains and the New Indicators of Retailing’s Significancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jlst-2015-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In modern vertical marketing systems (i.e., in grocery sector), the greatest power is demonstrated by retail chains, and producers depend thereupon. This paper analyzes vertical marketing systems and the role of retailing therein. Specially analyzed is the power of retail chains’ demand with regard to the entire supply chains they head, as well as the present-day new competition in retailing and modern business concepts related to the vertical marketing systems. Additionally, analyzed are also select indicators to examine the significance of retailing in an individual national economy. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the new indicators of significance of retailing in economy with regard to the realized GDP, as a component of value chains. These indicators complement the usual retailing significance analyses from the point of view of its share in the number of employees and the number of companies. </p><p>From the conducted analysis, one may conclude that the vertical marketing systems become increasingly important, and retailing assumes a new role in economy in that sense. Thus, new indicators of retailing significance might also be necessary.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00From effective accounting and reporting to efficient outsourcinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/jlst-2015-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This study aims to identify an effective management accounting and reporting concept for efficient outsourcing performance in sustainable organizations. Existing reporting norms of the “Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung (SAP)” platform, used in JSC "Russian Railways" (further Russian Railways) were analysed. Thereby, in the paper a method of the formation of internal management accounting and reporting on the costs of outsourcing were developed. Currently, the analysis of the reports and effectiveness of outsourcing is based on the technique comparison “costs on outsourcing should be less than the cost of own units”. Effective analysis should include not one, but several factors and be based on multi-criteria approach. The main influence on the variation of such determinants as cost, productivity and staff members outsourcing has when the volume of production and prices are constant. According to the features of railway transport enterprises, existing method has been completed with statistical. It shows how outsourcing changed the performance of the company and by what factors - the average cost, or productivity, or staffing or due to variations of all three factors simultaneously. Further, the results of quantitative data analysis will be used to identify an effective management accounting in sustainable organizations while supporting the development of outsourcing.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Electric Vehicles as Electricity Storages in Electric Power Systemshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2018-0010<p>Improvements in battery technology make electric vehicles more and more suitable for the use as electricity storages. Many benefits could be achieved by using electric vehicles for storing electricity in their batteries. This paper talks about the idea of electric vehicles as electricity storages in electric power systems. The idea has a great number of supporters, but also a significant part of the professional community believes that is unfeasible. This paper is not classified in either side and strives to give a realistic picture of this idea. For this purpose, findings from papers published in scientific journals are mainly used. There is also some information from websites, mainly for some technical issues. Partly, the opinions of the authors are present. Specificities of EVs and EPSs that enabled the birth of this idea are explained along with proposed concepts through which the idea can be implemented. Keeping with the vehicle to grid concept, issues about the implementation of the idea are considered. Achievements in the practical realization of the idea are also presented.</p>ARTICLE2018-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Lowest-Slot and Nearest-Stack Heuristics for Storage Assignment of Steel Bar Setshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2018-0008<p>Our research objective is to lower intralogistics costs by minimizing the number of shuffling operations in a steel plant company commercial warehouse. The process of dispatching products consists of retrieving set of steel bar (SSB) from a floor stored stack or a special stacking frame by an overhead crane. To retrieve a targeted merchandise all SSB above targeted must be reshuffled. Proper assignment of storage locations is a key logistics problem for efficient order picking. We are comparing two heuristics, that do not require information of dispatching sequence of any stored products. We simulated the problem at hand with both methods. Our objective is to count the number of reshuffles using each heuristic on randomly generated examples and decide which is better in the long run. Our problem has similarities with storage assignment of steel plates or steel coils for minimization of reshuffling operations. The problem is also comparable to storage assignment of containers in a container yard. In our case we are dealing with a special stacking configuration of products, that demands different approach. We want to demonstrate which heuristic should be used in companies that lack necessary storage information infrastructure.</p>ARTICLE2018-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Attitude of Motorists towards Road Ethics: Empirical Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2018-0009<p>Road traffic safety among socioeconomic issues has become the major concern across the globe due to rise in road crashes attributed largely to human factor. This study tends to address attitudinal behavior of road users towards road ethics in Ilorin metropolis-Nigeria; covering both driver and motorcyclists and perception of motorists on road traffic enforcement agent. Questionnaire was employed as survey tools. Ordered logistic model were used to analyse the data on attitude of motorists and road traffic laws enforcement agents. About 87% of the 440 administered questionnaire were returned valid. A 3-model analysis was carried out and the findings showed that the attitude of the motorists, road traffic law enforcement agents and demographical index (gender, age and education) correlated with, and influence compliance with road traffic laws.</p>ARTICLE2018-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainability Framework for Assessing Urban Freight Transportation Measureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2018-0007<p>The salient scope of this paper is to enable the knowledge and understanding of urban freight transportation and provide guidance for implementing sustainable policies and measures in a city. To achieve this goal, an evaluation framework for city logistics policies and measures is developed, which demonstrates the complexity of urban freight transportation systems, through selected performance indicators, taking into account divergent stakeholders’ interests, conflicting business models and operations. Evaluation follows a hierarchical process; sustainability disciplines (economy and energy, environment, transportation and mobility, society), applicability enablers (policy and measure maturity, social acceptance and users’ uptake), multiple criteria and indicators, capturing the lifecycle impact of policies and measures and multiple stakeholders. Apart from the multicriteria context, the framework embeds methodologies, including, Impact Assessment, Social Cost Benefit Analysis, Transferability and Adaptability, and Risk Analysis. To demonstrate its applicability a case study is set for the City of Graz assessing the establishment of an Urban Consolidation Center. Results show that there is an overall improvement of 2.2% in the Logistics Sustainability Index when comparing before and after implementation cases of the Urban Consolidation Center.</p>ARTICLE2018-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Technical Efficiency of Tunisian Ports: Comparing Data Envelopment Analysis and Stochastic Frontier Analysis Scoreshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2018-0011<p>Maritime transportation for Tunisia plays an important role in trade exchange with other countries. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to measure the efficiency scores of 7 seaports in Tunisia by applying the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with Cobb-Douglas production function and Data envelopment analysis (DEA) with CCR and BCC models. The annual data collected cover the 2007-2017 period for each port. Thus, the sample size for the analysis comprises a total of 77 observations. The empirical result shows that the total average scores of operating efficiency scores were DEA-BCC (0.746) &gt;SFACD (0.536)&gt;DEA-CCR (0.334) from 2007 to 2017. Given these results, the port of Gabes can be considered as the best efficient port in the 3 models (DEA-BCC, DEA-CCR and SFA-CD).</p>ARTICLE2018-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimal Bus Stops’ Allocation: A School Bus Routing Problem with Respect to Terrain Elevationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2018-0006<p>The paper addresses the optimal bus stops allocation in the Laško municipality. The goal is to achieve a cost reduction by proper re-designing of a mandatory pupils’ transportation to their schools. The proposed heuristic optimization algorithm relies on data clustering and Monte Carlo simulation. The number of bus stops should be minimal possible that still assure a maximal service area, while keeping the minimal walking distances children have to go from their homes to the nearest bus stop. The working mechanism of the proposed algorithm is explained. The latter is driven by three-dimensional GIS data to take into account as much realistic dynamic properties of terrain as possible. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an optimal solution with only 37 optimal bus stops covering 94.6 % of all treated pupils despite the diversity and wideness of municipality, as well as the problematic characteristics of terrains’ elevation. The calculated bus stops will represent important guidelines to their actual physical implementation.</p>ARTICLE2018-10-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Road Traffic Safety in Minna Niger State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlst-2018-0003<p>Road traffic accident is one of the major causes of death in Nigeria. Road accidents have taken away so many lives in Nigeria today that hardly does any single disease match its mortality prowess. People have died prematurely and properties worth several millions of Naira have been lost as a result of road traffic accident. This paper gives a full discussion on road traffic safety issues and the methodology used were through the collection of data using questionnaire and accident information from the Nigeria Police Force, FRSC etc. The primary information for this research was sourced through the use of structured questionnaire, personal observation and interviews of road users in the study area. Secondary data emanated from published and unpublished sources such as government records, internet, journals, books etc. The findings were presented in descriptive and inferential form using frequencies, percentages, tables, mean and chi-square analytical techniques. The findings from the study revealed among many others; that Male involved more in road accident compare to female counterpart in Minna Niger State. Private car had more accident compare to Taxi, The number of accident in each zone does not depend on the population of that zone, etc.</p>ARTICLE2018-02-10T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1