rss_2.0Journal of Landscape Ecology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Journal of Landscape Ecologyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/JLECOLhttps://www.sciendo.comJournal of Landscape Ecology 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60afb237fed6e94115627a8d/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210919T142252Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604799&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210919%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=f2f29c468cbc8d2344d86cf59a383e35d0775546fe12ee7a03d01517afd699db200300The Effect of Reynoutria × Bohemica on the Condition of Capreolus Capreolus and Cervus Elaphushttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the work is to evaluate the effects of a granulated feeding mixture enriched with knotweed (<italic>Reynoutria</italic> × <italic>bohemica)</italic> on roe deer (<italic>Capreolus capreolus</italic>) bred at a closed farm and red deer (<italic>Cervus elaphus</italic>) bred at a farm. Based on both biochemical and haematological blood analysis, the knotweed is expected to have an influence on the microbiome in the digestive system as well as allowing better utilisation of fodder and lower manifestation of pathogenic organisms. The results are of practical use mainly on farms and in hobby breeding but also in deer parks. Furthermore, the results may be used for feeding deer in open hunting grounds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Forest Species- Diversity and Composition Inside and Outside of the Holedná Game Reserve (The City of Brno, Czech Republic)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The impact of ungulates on the forest vegetation has far-reaching consequences: it decreases species diversity and the production of biomass, causes soil dehydration, erosion and eutrophication the entire forest community. The article addresses the influence of fallow deer and mouflon on the forest vegetation in the Holedná game reserve (western border of the city of Brno, South Moravia, Czech Republic) and compares differences with the forests adjacent to the game reserve. Sixty localities were distributed randomly and phytosociological relevés subsequently recorded there according to the age of the stands inside and outside of the game reserve. The differences in floristic composition were compared for trees, shrubs and herbs, the herb layer species number, the diversity indices and the values of Ellenberg indicators. In the game reserve, a significant difference was found in the coverage of the herb and shrub layer, which was significantly lower than outside the territory. Furthermore, the increased amount of nitrophilous, heliophytes and ruderal herb species inside the game reserve exhibited affiliation to the interior of game reserve. Besides, young trees and woody sapling were less abundant or even missing inside of game reserve. By contrast, the frequency of typical species of oak-hornbeam forests was higher outside game reserve. Due to the higher number of animals and consequent disturbances, nitrophilous plant species dominate in the herb layer of the game reserve, while forest species are more often represented outside it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00State of the Landscape and Dynamics of Loss and Fragmentation of Forest Critically Endangered in the Tropical Andes Hotspot: Implications for Conservation Planninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, there is no precise information on the degree of transformation of Tropical Andes hotspot landscape and native ecosystems due to the intensification of agricultural and urban land-use. Proper knowledge of these changes would provide crucial information for planning conservation strategies. We evaluated the impact of the intensification of agricultural and urban land-use on the Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest, both of which are categorized as Critically Endangered, and the state of the landscape in the High Rio Guayllabamba watershed, Ecuador, during the periods 1991–2005 and 2005–2017. The evaluation was carried out using Landsat satellite images of 30 x 30 m pixels and landscape metrics. We found an advanced state of landscape transformation. Since the 1990s, the loss of both ecosystems was largely caused by the conversion of forest to agriculture, resulting in substantial changes in the spatial configuration of these ecosystems. From 1991 to 2017, 19.8 % and 16.1 % of Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest respectively, were converted to agriculture. The loss of Inter-Andean Dry Forest was 28 % and the number of forest patches increased by more than 150%. The loss of Tropical Montane Forest was 16.5 % and the number of forest patches increased by more than 300 %. The largest loss and fragmentation of forest cover occurred from 1991 to 2005. We suggested planning landscape-scale conservation, using the patch-corridor-matrix model. This model is appropriate given the current configuration of the landscape studied, with Inter-Andean Dry Forest and Tropical Montane Forest restricted to small patches sparsely distributed across the landscape.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Relationship Between Landscape Diversity and Crops Productivity: Landscape Scale Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study evaluates the relationship between the crops productivity and ecosystem diversity. The spatial variability in ecosystem diversity was measured using the Shannon landscape diversity index and distance from biodiversity hotspots that are nature conservation areas. Three crops were selected for the study: soybeans, sunflowers and winter rye. The initial data included the average crops yields in administrative districts within 10 regions of Ukraine. It was found that the studied crops yield dynamics from the mid-90s of the previous century to the current period could be described by a sigmoid curve (log-logistic model). The parameters of the yield model are the following indicators: the minimum level of yield (Lower Limit); maximum level of productivity (Upper limit); the slope of the model, which shows the rate of change in yields over time; ED50 - the time required to achieve half, from the maximum yield level. Our studies have shown that there is a statistically significant regression relationship between the yield parameters of all the studied crops and biodiversity, even at the landscape level. Among the studied crops, soybean shows the strongest regression relationship between yields and indicators of landscape diversity. Sunflower yield is the least dependent on landscape diversity. Most of the established dependencies are nonlinear, which indicates the existence of an optimal level of landscape diversity to achieve the maximum possible crop yields. Therefore, the obtained patterns can be the basis for land-use planning and management, especially while creating new natural protected areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Rapid Decreasing of a Selected Plant Species Distribution Within Recent Decades as an Illustration of Gradual Local Extinction of Low-Productive Wet Meadow Species in Central Europehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study provides an illustration of the contemporary extinction trend of a selected wet grassland species, <italic>Pedicularis sylvatica</italic>, within a region of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic. Historically, it was a relatively common species in the study region, but it has been severely reduced in recent decades due to the abandonment of the traditional management of the grasslands, or inappropriate management practices, including extensive drainage, fertilisation, and liming. Low precipitation in recent years, a depleted soil seed bank, inbreeding in small, isolated populations, the inability to germinate, and the emergence of seedlings can also play an important role. After personal resurvey, <italic>P. sylvatica</italic> was not confirmed on 28 % of the localities where it was documented between two and 20 years ago. In a selected south-eastern subregion, only one of 19 localities persist nowadays. A steep decrease of local subpopulations of <italic>P. sylvatica</italic> points to the holistic problem of both the low-productive wet meadow species’ extinctions and their habitat collapses in central Europe. Without proper protection and management, it is likely that low-productive wet meadows will continue to decline and, in the next few decades, only a fraction of today’s already faint frequency will remain within a few higher-elevated subregions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Dynamism of Landscape Transformation in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Studies have shown that information on landscape transformation is an important benchmark data set because of its value as an environmental change indicator. Therefore, dynamism of landscape transformation over a 34-year period are analysed for a case study in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed method consisting of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis, and semi-structured interviews covering 400 households while factors contributing to landscape structures and changes are studied. The results point out three main driving factors responsible for the landscape transformation in the study area: agricultural practices which lead to intensification of forest resources, riparian vegetation, vegetated wetlands and non-vegetated wetlands; urbanization which modifies the structure and morphology of the landscape, and finally, population growth directly related to massive infrastructural development which encroached on all other land spaces. GIS-based analysis of remotely-sensed data showed that built-up area had increased by 7535.2 ha between 1986 and 2020; shrub and arable land by 1343.9 ha and light forest decreased by 4998.3 ha. While bare-land reduced by 1522.1 ha; vegetated wetland reduced by 1092 ha; water body coverage reduced by 168 ha and non-vegetated wetland size also reduced by 2029.4 ha. Analysis of household survey results revealed that the perceptions of respondents validate the observed patterns during the remotely-sensed data analysis phase of the research, with 54 % (n=400) of respondents reporting a decline in agricultural land use, and 19.3 % (n=400) observing a decline in forest areas in the study area. Furthermore, agricultural intensification, urban development, timber exploitation, firewood collection and increase in settlements were identified as the proximate drivers of these observed landscape transformation dynamics in the study area. The study concluded that the variation in landscape transformation of the study area are clear indication of the extent of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in the study area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Does Experimental Non-Reclaimed Sites Differ from Technically Reclaimed Areas in the Risk of Artificial Bird Nest Predation?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Areas left to natural development have been found to be sites with higher diversity and conservation value of local communities, including bird communities, compared to artificial reclamation of post-industrial areas. Most of the studies conducted so far have focused primarily on bird communities of post-mining areas, in terms of the diversity and richness of species. Our study dealt with bird nest predation on specific case of two experimental sites (20 and 32 ha) with more than a 20-year history of primary spontaneous succession established within the technical reclamation of the Radovesická spoil heap (approx. 1,200 ha, North Bohemia, Czech Republic). In the spring of 2018, we conducted a predation experiment using artificial nests (ground and elevated), installed within both succession areas and beyond, in the adjacent artificially reclaimed areas. We monitored the way of restoration and the distance of the nest placement from the succession-reclamation sites edge. The rate of predation was very high: 92.5 % in reclaimed area and 89.4 % in spontaneous successions. None of the observed factors analysed in the generalised linear model (GLM) have conclusively explained the risk of predation. The two experimental succession sites did not differ from the surrounding reclaimed sites in terms of the risk of predation, nor did they significantly influence predation risk on reclaimed sites. We believe that both relatively small and mutually isolated areas do not provide enough of an inner environment without or with at least a limited effect of predation pressure coming from adjacent reclaimed areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Public Perception of Biodiversity: A Literature Review of Its Role in Urban Green Spaceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The significance of biodiversity in the survival of human beings and enhancing the urban quality of life is evident from the empirical measurements and qualitative studies carried out across the globe. Despite its importance and value, burgeoning population and growing urbanization are posing a serious threat to biodiversity leading to biodiversity homogenization and ecosystem fragmentation. Moreover, studies reveal that management practices of biodiversity hardly take into account perception, needs, and knowledge of urban residents regarding biodiversity. Urban green spaces have a major role to play in the conservation of urban biodiversity. However, the triangular relationship between biodiversity, urban green spaces, and public perception is still unexplored.</p><p>With this aim, the paper attempts to compile, analyze, and synthesize the empirical findings to understand the state-of-the-art knowledge regarding public perception of biodiversity in urban green spaces. The search strategy acquired for the selection of papers resulted in 43 papers from 22 different countries of the world. The paper focuses upon an inclusive definition of urban green spaces, thus encompasses a wide variety of urban and peri-urban green spaces, parks, gardens, and waterfront urban spaces. The analysis of literature pattern reveals a recent increase in studies related to biodiversity perception over the last 10 years. It indicates a strong geographic bias in publications as well. Studies of animals including birds, insects, and reptiles are found scarce compared to plant species. The study could identify potential variables affecting human biodiversity perception which include species literacy, visitation rate, preferences, recreational, health, and restorative benefits, vegetation characteristics, nature connectedness, and conservation support. The paper also proposes a framework for understanding biodiversity perception in urban green spaces that can assist in improving our understanding of the relationship between human interactions and natural environments and framing strategies for urban development, landscape planning, and community health promotions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving the Condition of European Hare Through Nutritionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2021-0009<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of the article is to evaluate the effects of a newly designed granulated mixture enriched with Bohemian knotweed (<italic>Reynoutria</italic> x <italic>bohemica</italic>) on European hare (<italic>Lepus europaeus)</italic> kept at closed farms. The positive influence of knotweed on the microbiome in the digestive system and better usage of the fodder were proven based on biochemical and haematological analysis of blood. Lower manifestation of pathogenic organisms is also expected. Finally, the positive influence on higher weight gains in baby hares was proven, which improves their condition. The results can be used in practice at closed farms breeding European hare focused on releasing bred young hares into open hunting grounds where it is possible to obtain a monetary contribution for the releasing of hares from a grant of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic in the field of hunting. Furthermore, the results can be used for feeding hares in open hunting grounds.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Ecosystem Services Loss Due to Urban Sprawl on Agricultural Land in the Context of Sustainable Developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the ecosystem services which are provided by agriculture land and on the urban sprawl in the study area of municipality with extended powers Třebíč. The main focus of this article is to evaluate what ecosystem services are provided to Czech society by the agricultural land and assess their financial value and also evaluate which ecosystem services disappear or are limited due to urban sprawl on agricultural land. Generally, the topic of ecosystem services in agriculture comes under focus especially in view of the recurring drought in Europe and on-going climate change. Also the subject of urbanization and decreasing area available for agriculture is a wide-spread phenomena in Europe. The practical output of this paper will comprise of better insight on function and value of land under agriculture use which is lost due to urban development and raising the awareness amongst the society on the fast-growing trend of unsustainable urban sprawl.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Retractionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0022ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Forest Transformation Urgency for Topsoil Diversity Optimization During Environmental Changehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Combined effect of environmental change and management variability leads to reduced soil diversity in homogenous forest stands. On the other hand, forest soil diversity is maintained with rich tree species composition. In this study, focus has been put on deriving urgency to change forest tree species composition in order to increase soil diversity in biogeographic regions with uneven impact of environmental change. The relation of forest tree species and soil diversities was compared between the periods of dominant sulphur deposition (1985–1994) and the period of regional environmental change (2003–2012) in the Czech Republic (Central Europe; 78 866 km<sup>2</sup>; 115–1602 m n.m.). Forest tree species and soil diversities were assessed using linear regression, discrimination analysis and geographically weighted regression including residue analysis. The effect of spatial differences of acid deposition on soil properties, though, decreased, still dependencies between the diversity of bedrock, soils and forest tree species increased significantly. Only 12.9 % of forests in the territory of the CR have optimum tree species diversity. The total of 65.9 % of forest require highly or moderately urgent transformation. An increase in spatial dependencies between soil and tree species diversities confirms the importance of site differentiation in forest transformation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes in the Secondary Landscape Structure in Hruby Jesenik Mountains (Czech Republic)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study deals with the analysis of changes in the secondary landscape structure of the territory of the Jeseniky Mountains (Czech Republic) monitored in the years 1946, 1953, 1962, 2000, and 2016. The study analysed georeferencing aerial geodetic images in the QGIS 2.18 program. On the basis of the land use classification key that was created, historical changes were identified in the following categories of land use; forest, arable land, orchards, water surfaces, wild life refuges and scattered greenery, river networks, permanent grass stands, meadows and pastures, gardens and built-up areas, courtyards and hard surfaces. The surface areas of land use categories were utilized for the calculation of change indicators regarding the structure of the landscape (landscape similarity index, coefficient of ecological stability, and change index). The maps for land use created for individual historical periods functioned as the starting point for a comprehensive assessment of the landscape by means of a SWOT analysis, which created the basis for a proposal for permanently sustainable utilization of the landscape in the area that was monitored. The study results indicate that the analysis of the historical development of the secondary landscape structure may be utilized as a decision support tool when planning sustainable landscape management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Stress Ecology in Mining Landscape: Postindustrial Deposits in Comparison with their Surroundings as the Environments for Selection of Plants with Small and Large Genome Size https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This pilot case study compares genome sizes of two groups of species (conspecific plants) which spontaneously colonize interior space within abandoned industrial area and/or deposits, and those ones occurred in adjacent vicinity. Testing of the hypothesis “There is functional significance of small versus large genomes of plant species by comparing their occurrence in unreclaimed toxic deposits as an example of stressed environment and in their populations from neighbouring habitats” confirmed this idea.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Landscape Change of Lesser Himalayan Road Corridor of Uttarakhand, Indiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The spatio-temporal monitoring and understanding of the pattern of land-use and land-cover (LULC) change in the Himalayas are essential for sustainable development, especially from environmental planning and management perspective. The increasing anthropogenic activities and climate change in the Siwalik and Lesser Himalayas have substantially experienced rapid change in the natural landscape; however, detailed investigation and documentation of such observed changes are limited. This study aims to assess the LULC changes along the Kalsi-Chakrata road corridor located in the Lesser Himalayan region of Uttarakhand state of India using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) for the periods 2000-2010 and 2010-2019. The LULC maps were generated from multi-temporal satellite images of the Landsat -7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM<sup>+</sup>) series for 2000 and 2010, and the Linear Imaging Self-Scanning System IV (LISS IV) images from Resourcesat-1 for 2019. The extent of spatial landscape changes occurred in different LULC classes was performed through the cross-tabulation change matrix in the GIS module up to the individual village level. The results indicate that the forest cover of the area was intensively converted to open areas, sparse vegetation, and different land-use categories. These included agricultural land, built-up areas, and decreased from 47.27 % in 2000 to 36.66 % in 2019. During the same period, the open areas and agricultural areas were increased by 15.86 % and 4.49 %, respectively. Moreover, the built-up areas (both urban and rural settlements) were progressively increased from 0.33% in 2000 to 0.56 % in 2019. The conversion of forests and sparsely vegetative areas to agricultural land and rural settlements is closely associated with the increasing anthropogenic activities due to population growth, tourism, movement of heavy vehicles for mining and other economic activities. The changes in land-cover to land use classes are more prominent in Samalta Dadauli, Nithala, Bhugtari, and Udapalta villages located between Kalsi and Sahiya town. The reported maximum transition of forest areas into the open area, agricultural land, and sparse vegetation indicates the possible scarcity of water, which could link with the incidence of climatic or seasonal variation in the Lesser Himalayan terrain to the hydro-geomorphic and anthropogenic processes. The trend in LULC change at the village level gave the insight to help to prioritize future mitigation planning and sustainable development that are exceedingly convenient for the planners, policymakers, and local authorities for comprehensive forest management, biodiversity strategies, and necessary conservation</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Formation of Land Conservation Principles as the Framework for the Implementation of the Concept of Sustainable Development of Societyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The interest in the experience of legislative solutions to problems connected with the design and development of legal institutions in environmental protection in foreign countries, at first glance, is not directly related to the study of the laws of functioning and development of this legal institution. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that such an interest appears as rather justified and even logical, if one is to proceed, firstly, from general ideas about the development of land legislation in the context of globalisation, and secondly, if one is to consider the desire of countries to more widely implement global and European standards of environmental policies and rights and approaches to environmental protection in general. The purpose of this article is determined by the identification the main problems of land protection legislation in the field of and form on their basis the effective system of environmental regulation, combining administrative and legislative instruments with economic, regulatory and market mechanisms. Analysis of international legal acts is used as the leading research method. It was determined that the positive experience in foreign countries related to the legal regulation of relations in legal protection of the environment allows transferring the theoretical ideas about the legal structures existing in other countries to the practical plane, which, in turn, allow to optimally regulate the appropriate circle of public relations, taking into consideration the relevant historical traditions, the internal structure of national legislation, the features of the development of environmental legislation of the respective country. The concept of protecting land from pollution by hazardous substances and ways of improving and adapting legislation in the field of waste management were proposed. The practical significance of the study is determined by the need to integrate the land legislation industry into national environmental legislation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Remote Sensing to Assess the Biophysical Characteristics of Palm Oil Trees for Ecological Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Oil palms are an important crop for Malaysia as the main crop cultivated from agricultural lands for economic purposes. The livelihood of small growers is, in fact, very dependent on that industry. The present study employs the application of remote sensing of higher resolution to assess the biophysical characteristics of oil palms stands for a plantation in Lenggeng, Negeri Sembilan, Malay Peninsula. Band combination with the use of natural, red, blue bands and red-edge spectrum was employed to obtain early information on the oil palm stands at the site. We subsequently employed fish eye camera to collect information on leaf area index at the field. The study also measured the height and diameter at breast height of all plots established in the site. Finally, correlation was performed to establish the relationships between height-to-leaf area index relations. Diameter at breast height measuring points was scattered at the upper part of the line that formed negative relationships (R<sup>2</sup> = -0.0313). Height was positively associated with leaf area index, a bit weaker (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.2323). Interpolation found plots at varying elevation level. Maximum height of the trees was recorded at the highest elevation in the site, presumably due to the higher solar radiation that enhances photosynthesis. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of the finding for implementation elsewhere in assessing the biophysical characteristics of oil palm trees. The study leads to further understanding of oil palms, specifically the biophysical characteristics associated with plant productivity assessment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Urban Features Identification from Dual-Pol SAR Images with Filter Propertieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/jlecol-2020-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is no formal definition of feature identification but it depends on the application and context of the problem. This feature acts as primary elements for execution of several algorithms, hence feature identification is one of the significant steps for has been very interesting for several research groups. Various researchers have attempted in this regard for feature identification. The current work presents an approach for urban feature identification from satellite datasets for a detailed analysis of the features for better management of the resources. Several features based feature extraction approach has been attempted to identify the compare with statistical profiling. Microwave remote sensing is one of the significant methods of remote sensing to get the data where our optical sensors usually failed or less capable to provide accurate and timely sensed data. In today’s world, active remote sensing is one of the greatest technologies which is used widely in many application areas. Synthetic aperture radar is the main object to get the actively remote sensed images. Either it’s optical or microwave data, the satellite images has its many errors, in SAR, while receiving the reflected echoes from the target the trouble has occurred in the form of Speckle Noise in an image. In this paper, the focus is on about the Speckle Noise, SLC &amp; GRD data, the filtered images performance with Boxcar and Median filter, degraded and preserving information of an image, reduce speckle noise effect of an image.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Adopting the Precautionary Principle in Designing and Managing Natura 2000 Areas (Exemplified by the Conservation of the Butterfly in a Rural Landscape North of Dresden (Saxony))https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/v10285-012-0002-7<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Adopting the Precautionary Principle in Designing and Managing Natura 2000 Areas (Exemplified by the Conservation of the Butterfly <italic>Maculinea Nausithous</italic> in a Rural Landscape North of Dresden (Saxony))</title><p>The precautionary principle is more and more incorporated into national law and decision-making on natural resource management and biodiversity conservation. In the coherent European network of protected areas Natura 2000, the precautionary principle finds expression in the obligation to provide favourable conditions for the long-term survival of species and habitats, especially of the priority ones listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive and the Birds Directive. After describing principles, structure, implementation and procedures of this rather new instrument for nature conservation using the example of one of the various Natura 2000 areas in Saxony (Germany), opportunities and problems for biodiversity conservation are outlined with particular regard for the situation in an agricultural landscape. Special attention is given to the following questions: requirements of and actual threats to the target species (the butterfly <italic>Maculinea nausithous</italic>), legal means and economic incentives for suitable measures, the management plan, and the role of stakeholders. It turns out that Natura 2000 could be an effective tool to advance nature conservation, and with special regard to the precautionary principle. Every effort is necessary to gain more public acceptance of Natura 2000, as well as to improve scientific knowledge concerning species and habitats under protection.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring of Biodiversity Changes in the Landscape Scalehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/v10285-012-0005-4<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Monitoring of Biodiversity Changes in the Landscape Scale</title><p>The monitoring and evaluation of changes in biodiversity is a subject for many biological and ecological disciplines. Biodiversity loss has become a social and political issue over the last few decades, and protection of biological diversity has emerged as one of the main subjects within national nature conservation policies as well as international conventions, conservation targets and political programmes (e.g. the Convention on Biological Diversity, Target 2010, SEBI 2010, CITES, Ramsar Convention, European Landscape Convention). The establishment of a monitoring scheme based on an appropriate set of indicators is vital for precise assessment of the effectiveness of measures applied within biodiversity protection (e.g. action plans for endangered species, agro-environmental and landscape protection programmes). Many indicators of biodiversity change have been proposed, but their representativeness and applicability frequently suffer from poor available data or local circumstances. The concept of species and landscape diversity evaluation using a fixed set of indicators has been developing in other European countries for some two decades, but this approach is still sporadic in the Czech Republic.</p><p>This paper provides a review of the current state of this topic in the Czech Republic, discusses the concept of establishing a future national biodiversity monitoring network, and proposes a self-contained set of indicators covering all organizational and spatial levels. These proposals will enable scientifically based and sufficiently accurate evaluation of existing trends in biodiversity and its projection into the future based on foreseeable land-use changes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2012-08-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1