rss_2.0IZA Journal of Development and Migration FeedSciendo RSS Feed for IZA Journal of Development and Migration Journal of Development and Migration 's Cover migration as a mechanism for lasting cultural change: evidence from Nepal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>When a husband migrates, his wife may control more household resources and therefore change how the household spends income. Given the prevalence of seasonal migration in developing countries, even these temporary changes could affect economic development. The extent to which these changes persist after migration spells will magnify these consequences. Using panel data on rural households in Nepal, we examine how a husband's migration interacts with intrahousehold decision-making and consumption patterns both <italic>during</italic> and <italic>after</italic> migration spells. We find that a husband's absence is associated with a 10 percentage point increase in the expenditure decisions over which the wife has full control. This coincides with a shift away from expenditures on alcohol and tobacco in favor of children's clothing and education. Importantly, we find that migrant husbands resume their role in decisions following their return, but decisions are more likely to be made jointly. These persistent effects are consistent with a model in which households are pushed to a new, more-equitable equilibrium and then are driven to form habits, which, in turn, cause the new equilibrium to stick, thus facilitating long-term cultural change in gender norms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Conflict and the composition of economic activity in Afghanistan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite informality being the norm in conflict-affected countries, most estimates of the impact of conflict on economic activity rely on formal sector data. Using high-frequency data from Afghanistan, this paper assesses how surges in conflict intensity affect not only the formal sector, but also informal and illicit activities. Nighttime light provides a proxy for aggregate economic activity, mobile phone traffic by registered firms captures fluctuations in formal sector output, and the land surface devoted to poppy cultivation gives a measure of illicit production. The unit of observation is the district and the period of reference is 2012–2016. The results show that an increase in conflict-related casualties has a strong negative impact on formal economic activity in the following quarter and a positive effect on illicit activity after two quarters. The impact on aggregate economic activity is negative, but more muted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Supply of immigrant entrepreneurs and native entrepreneurship<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Using nationally representative data from the United States, the author estimates the causal impact of immigrant entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial propensities of natives. The author draws data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey and uses within-state variation in supply of immigrant entrepreneurs for identification. To address concerns of endogeneity in the supply of immigrant entrepreneurs, the author takes advantage of a quasi-experiment provided by the State Children's Health Insurance Program. While the Ordinary Least Squares estimates indicate a positive effect, the Two Stage Least Squares estimates suggest that, on average, there is no significant effect of immigrant entrepreneurs on native entrepreneurship. Moreover, there is no net effect on subgroups of natives separated by skill level. There is also some evidence that immigrant entrepreneurs may “crowd-in” Blacks into certain types of self-employment. These results are in contrast to the significant negative impact suggested by the previous literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Queuing to leave: A new approach to immigration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper uses queuing theory to examine the linkages between legal and illegal immigration. This approach is particularly appropriate for periods of mass migration and can be used to look at how the <italic>magnitude</italic> of people trying to migrate affects the choice between legal and illegal channels. An empirical illustration shows how origin-country conflict and past migration differently affect current legal and illegal flows. With data for Schengen countries from Eurostat for documented immigration and the European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex) for illegal border crossings (IBCs), I implement a generalized method of moments (GMM) strategy using different estimates of conflict-related deaths and lagged flows of immigration as external and internal instruments, respectively. Violent conflict has a positive and significant effect on IBCs but not on documented migration flows. I find evidence of positive spillovers from the legal channel of immigration into the illegal channel but not vice versa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Women’s economic rights in developing countries and the gender gap in migration to Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a large variation across countries of origin in the gender composition of migrants coming to Germany. We argue that women’s economic rights in developing countries of origin have three effects on their migration prospects to a place like Germany that is far away and difficult to reach. First, the lower are women’s economic rights the fewer women have access to and control over the resources needed to migrate to Germany. Second, the lower are the rights the lower is women’s agency to make or otherwise influence migration decisions. These two constraining effects on the female share in migrant populations dominate the opposing third effect that stems from low levels of women’s economic rights generating a potentially powerful push factor. We find corroborating evidence in our analysis of the gender composition of migration to Germany over the period 2009–2017.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Spaniards in the wider world: the role of education in the choice of destination country<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the relationship between the education level of Spanish emigrants and their destination country. Since Spanish emigrants were born under the same laws and institutions, the differences in their destination countries can be due to dissimilarities in their level of education. To explore this, we use census microdata, covering the period from 2000 to 2007, of 21 countries with Spanish emigrants. Results suggest that with low unemployment rates, English- and Spanish-speaking countries are the most likely to become the host countries for more educated individuals, regardless of their location.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender wage gap across the distribution: What is the role of within- and between-firm effects?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper studies the role of within- and between-firm effects on the gender wage gap (GWG). Using linked employer–employee data for Turkey for 2006 and 2014, we show that the wage gap among comparable men and women is much wider within establishments than between establishments. Our distributional analysis shows a more pronounced gap among highly paid workers, consistent with the presence of a glass-ceiling effect. This effect, however, is more apparent within establishments than between establishments, and it is the former that drives the economy-wide glass ceiling that women face. We also find that between 2006 and 2014, the GWG in Turkey widened at all points in the wage distribution, and that this widening was more pronounced within establishments than between establishments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender gaps in education: The long view<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many countries remain far from achieving gender equality in the classroom. Using data from 126 countries, we characterize the evolution of gender gaps in low- and middle-income countries between 1960 and 2010. We document five facts. First, women are more educated today than 50 years ago in every country in the world. Second, they remain less educated than men in the vast majority of countries. Third, in many countries with low levels of education for both men and women in 1960, gender gaps widened as more boys went to school, then narrowed as girls enrolled; thus, gender gaps got worse before they got better. Fourth, gender gaps rarely persist in countries where boys attain high levels of education. Most countries with large, current gender gaps in educational attainment have low levels of male educational attainment, and many also perform poorly on other measures of development such as life expectancy and GDP per capita. Fifth, in the youngest cohorts, women have more education than men in some regions of the world. Although gender gaps in educational attainment are diminishing in most countries, the empirical evidence does not support the hypothesis that reducing the gender gap in schooling consistently leads to smaller gender gaps in labor force participation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Better together: Active and passive labor market policies in developed and developing economies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We investigate the macroeconomic impact of public expenditure in active labor market policies (ALMPs) and passive labor market policies (PLMPs) on main employment indicators (i.e., unemployment, employment, and labor force participation) for a large and novel panel database of 121 countries (36 developed, 64 emerging and 21 developing economies). Compared to previous studies, we include for the first time evidence from developing and emerging economies and explicitly examine the possible presence of complementarities between active and passive policies. We find that the interaction between interventions is crucial, as the effect of spending in either of the two policies is more favorable the more is spent on the other. Even the detrimental labor market effects of passive policies disappear on the condition that sufficient amounts are spent on active interventions. This complementarity seems even more important for emerging and developing economies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Introducing the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper introduces the 2018 wave of the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS), previously fielded in 1998, 2006, and 2012. The ELMPS has already become the primary source of data for a large number of scholarly and policy studies on the labor market and human development issues in Egypt, and this new wave will further enhance its value as a critical data public good. This longitudinal survey is nationally representative, tracking both households and individuals over two decades. In this paper, we describe the key characteristics of the 2018 wave, including sampling, fielding, and questionnaire design. Changes in the collection of retrospective data starting in 2018 are discussed, and we demonstrate that they improved the data quality. We examine the patterns of attrition and present the construction of weights designed to correct for attrition, as well as to ensure that the sample remains nationally representative. We compare the ELMPS data with other Egyptian data sources, namely, the 2017 Census and various rounds of the Labor Force Survey (LFS). The data provide important new insights into Egypt's labor market, economy, and society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Bilateral labor agreements and the migration of Filipinos: An instrumental variable approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bilateral labor agreements (BLAs) are preferred policy models for regulating migration by many governments around the world. The Philippines has been a leader in both agreement conclusion and exporting labor. A recent Congressional evocation is pushing bureaucrats and academics alike to investigate this policy strategy for outcomes and effectiveness. The following analysis answers the question “Do BLAs affect the migration outflows of Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs)?” using a plausibly exogenous variation to isolate a causal effect. I test for effects of BLAs using two instrumental variables (IVs), such as Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) and Formal Alliances, and an original dataset of land-based and sea-based Filipino BLAs and migrant stock in 213 unique areas from 1960 to 2018. I do not find any empirical evidence that these treaties drive migration. However, BLAs have statistically significant effects on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and exports, suggesting other important channels through which these agreements affect economic outcomes. These null results are critically important for policymakers and diplomats because the resources spent on negotiation are wasted if the primary goal is to increase migration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Introducing the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper introduces the 2016 wave of the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey (JLMPS). It is an essential reference for users of this innovative and valuable dataset, which adds to the growing series of labor market panel surveys (LMPSs) produced by the Economic Research Forum (ERF). The 2016 wave is a follow-up on the initial 2010 wave. There has been substantial turmoil in the region since 2010, including the onset of the Syrian conflict and the influx of refugees into Jordan. The 2016 wave over-sampled areas with a high proportion of non-Jordanians to be able to represent and examine this important population. The paper describes this sampling strategy, attrition from 2010 to 2016, and weighting that corrects for attrition and accounts for the sampling strategy. We compare key demographic measures and labor market statistics with other sources of data on Jordan to demonstrate the sample's representativeness. The data provide an important opportunity for a detailed analysis of Jordan's changing labor market and society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Migrating out of mega-cities: Evidence from Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Traditional economic models predict rural to urban migration during the structural transformation of an economy. In middle-income countries, it is less clear which direction of migration to expect. In this article, the author shows that in Brazil as many people move out as into metropolitan cities and they mostly move to mid-sized towns. The author estimates the determinants of out-migrants’ destination choice accounting for differences in earnings, living costs, and amenities and tested whether the migrants gain economically by accepting lower wages but enjoying lower living costs. The findings suggest that in their destination choice, out-migrants aim to minimize costs of moving. On average, city-leavers realize higher real wages, including low-skilled migrants who would lose in nominal terms. The article thus provides new evidence on economic incentives to leave big cities in a middle-income country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Working beyond the normal retirement age in urban China and urban Russia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The incidence of working for earnings beyond the normal pension age of 55 for females and 60 for males in urban China and Russia is investigated using micro-data for 2002, 2013, and 2018. Estimated logit models indicate that, in both countries, the probability of working after normal retirement age is positively related to living with a spouse only, being healthy, and having a higher education level. It is negatively associated with age, the scale of pension, and, in urban China, being female.</p> <p>We find that seniors in urban Russia are more likely to work for earnings than their counterparts in China. Two possible reasons that are attributable to this difference are ruled out, namely cross-country differences in health status and the age distribution among elderly people. We also demonstrate that working beyond the normal retirement age has a much stronger negative association with earnings in urban China than in urban Russia. This is consistent with the facts that the normal retirement age is strictly enforced in urban China and seniors attempting to work face intensive competition from younger migrant workers. We conclude that China can learn from Russia that it has a substantial potential for increasing employment among healthy people under 70.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender Imbalances and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Large-Scale Mexican Migration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We study the consequences of international migration on labor market outcomes in a developing country. Specifically, we look at the case of Mexico, where large-scale international migration has led to significant declines in the male/female ratio. We explore whether this results in Mexican women entering high-skilled and better paying jobs over time. This question is relevant since there has been an increase in women's education and labor force participation across the developing world, but less evidence of improvements in the gender wage gap. Using an instrumental variables strategy that relies on historical migration patterns, we find that when there are relatively fewer men, women are more likely to work, have high-skilled jobs, and some earn higher wages. These results are robust to the inclusion of state, age group, and year fixed effects, and to different measures of migration and data sources. We explore investments in human capital as a key mechanism. We find that the gains in schooling are concentrated among women with the same average level of education of the men who migrate. From an aggregate perspective, these improvements in job type and wages are important given that higher female income may benefit the status, education, and health of both women and children, which in turn increases a country's development and growth. Our findings are among the few that show some movement toward improvements in the gender wage gap in a developing country setting.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Consequences of immigrating during a recession: Evidence from the US Refugee Resettlement program<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Are there long-term labor consequences in migrating to the US during a recession? For most immigrants, credibly estimating this effect is difficult because of selective migration. Some immigrants may not move if economic conditions are not favorable. However, identification is possible for refugees as their arrival dates are exogenously determined through the US Refugee Resettlement program. A one percentage point increase in the arrival national unemployment rate reduces refugee wages by 1.98% and employment probability by 1.57 percentage points after 5 years.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Identifying Syrian refugees in Turkish microdata<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article proposes a strategy to identify Syrian refugees in Turkey’s Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS). Even though Turkey’s HLFS contains information on the migrants’ year of arrival to Turkey, it does not provide details on their nationalities. This unfortunate feature mixes Syrian refugees with the standard flow of migration who arrived to Turkey during the Syrian war. I propose to eliminate the standard flow of migrants arrived between 2011 and 2017 by matching them (based on their characteristics) with the migrants arrived in the 2004–2010 period. This method obtains, indirectly, nonstandard migration, i.e., Syrian refugees. The results show that the age distribution of the nonstandard migrants identified matches the age distribution of Syrian refugees as officially released by the Turkish government. At last, I propose a post-stratification adjustment of the survey weights to find the actual geographical distribution of Syrian refugees in Turkey.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Social Capital in Shaping Europeans’ Immigration Sentiments<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Migration has manifested itself to historic highs, creating divisive views among politicians, policy makers, and individuals. The present paper studies the Europeans’ attitudes toward immigration, focusing particularly on the role of social capital. Based on 267,282 respondents from 22 countries and over the period 2002–2014, we find that despite the eventful past years, Europeans, on average, are positive toward immigrants with the North European countries to be the least xenophobic. A salient finding of our analysis is that regardless of the impact of other contextual factors, namely, a country’s macroeconomic conditions, ethnic diversity, cultural origin, and individuals’ attributes, social capital associates with positive attitudes toward all immigrants, independent of their background. Furthermore, social capital moderates the negative effects of perceived threat on people’s opinions about immigrants.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-03-10T00:00:00.000+00:00New Evidence on International Transferability of Human Capital<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article sheds new light on the portability of human capital. We estimate the returns to source country experiences, viz., general, occupation-specific, and task-specific experiences, using data from the New Immigrant Survey (NIS), conducted in 2003. While the “returns to general experience” has been discussed in the literature, we are not aware of any previous attempt to estimate the returns to source country occupation-specific and task-specific experiences. Our estimates show that even though the returns to source country general experience is negligible, returns to source country occupation-specific experience is economically and statistically significant. We also find that returns to source country abstract (specifically analytical) task-specific experience is substantial and significant. Our results are robust to inclusion of source country wage, which may reflect unobservable characteristics that influence wages. We explore whether returns to work experience vary by income level in the source country or by an immigrant’s skill level.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Informal work along the business cycle: evidence from Argentina<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article sheds light on the dynamics of the Argentine labor market, using quarterly data from the Argentine Labor Force Survey for the period 2003Q3 to 2020Q1. We examine quarterly transition rates in a four-state model with formal employment, informal employment, unemployment, and nonparticipation. We compute the contribution of each transition rate to fluctuations in unemployment and informality rates. We identify five stylized facts: (i) Nearly 40% of the fluctuations in the unemployment rate involves unemployment ins and outs from/to informal jobs. (ii) More than 40% of the fluctuations in informality rate are driven by the variance of the formalization rate (transition from informal to formal employment). (iii) Non-participation matters for the understanding of unemployment volatility but also for the comprehension of the volatility on informality. (iv) Regarding gender differences: transition involving non-participation matters more in the variance of female unemployment and informality rates than for their male counterparts. (v) The informal sector plays an important role as a stepping stone to formal jobs for both men and women. Our article provides empirical targets to discipline theoretical modeling of labor market dynamics with a sizeable shadow economy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-19T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1