rss_2.0Gestalt Theory FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Gestalt Theory Theory 's Cover the autopoiesis of imagination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Already in the romantic it has been assumed, that there is an existential interrelation between nature, human being and mind. According to this idea, there is a narrow interrelation of creation between literature, science, dream and reality, which should be expressed in a progressive universal poetry. Gestalt theory and the concept of autopoiesis, developed by Maturana and Varela, could be regarded as a scientific enhancement of this approach and are united in that sense. By analyses of dreams, it becomes evident, that neurobiological and mental processes are determined by the same principles of self-constitution and gestalt production. They are attending in equal measures to homeostatic conditions. The interaction of living systems with their environment as well as their evolution base on recursive reorganisation. Following this principle, imagination, speech and self-reflection are developed. The observer comes to existence by his own distinctions. Phenomenal appearance and real existence, poetry and scientific findings are results of the autopoietic organisation of living, of which we form a part.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Helmut Seel. 28. Februar 1933 – 14. April 2021Éric Trémault: Structure and sensation, Vrin, Paris, 2020, 196 pp in Motion: Slurs in Indirect Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Slurs are pejorative epithets that express negative attitudes toward a class of individuals sharing the same race, country of origin, sexual orientation, religion, and the like. The aim of this paper is to show what happens in communication when slurs are reported. It focuses on the derogatory content of such expressions and on the persistence of their performative effects in reported speech. In this respect, the question concerning the attribution of responsibility for the derogatory content conveyed by the slurs is relevant. Indeed, reporting a slur involves quoting not only the content but also the speaker’s personal commitment and (negative) attitude. Different theories on the status of the derogatory component of slurs make different predictions about their offensiveness in reported speech and about the speaker’s “responsibility” for the attitude and feelings conveyed by that word, be she the original speaker or the reporter. The results of a questionnaire show empirically that no single theory can provide a conclusive statement on this matter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Max Wertheimer (2020): Productive Thinking. New edition by Viktor Sarris. Birkhäuser/Springer Nature, ix + 257 pages, 485s/ w- Abbildungen; Paperback/Euro 35, 30 – ISBN 978-3-030-36065-8, eBook/Euro 26,75 – ISBN 978-3-030-36063-4. affordances in gestalt perception as well as in emotional facial expressions and gestures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Methodological problems often arise when a special case is confused with the general principle. So you will find affordances only for ‚artifacts’ if you restrict the analysis to ‚artifacts’. The general principle, however, is an ‚invitation character’, which triggers an action. Consequently, an action-theoretical approach known as ‚pragmatic turn’ in cognitive science is recommended. According to this approach, the human being is not a passive-receptive being but actively produces those action effects that open up the world to us (through ‚active inferences’). This ‚ideomotor approach’ focuses on the so-called ‚epistemic actions’, which guide our perception as conscious and unconscious cognitions. Due to ‚embodied cognition’ the own body is assigned an indispensable role. The action theoretical approach of ‚enactive cognition’ enables that every form can be consistently processualized. Thus, each ‚Gestalt’ is understood as the process result of interlocking cognitions of ‚forward modelling’ (which produces anticipations and enables prognoses) and ‚inverse modelling’ (which makes hypotheses about genesis and causality). As can be shown, these cognitions are fed by previous experiences of real interaction, which later changes into a mental trial treatment, which is highly automated and can therefore take place unconsciously. It is now central that every object may have such affordances that call for instrumental or epistemic action. In the simplest case, it is the body and the facial expressions of our counterpart that can be understood as a question and provoke an answer/reaction. Thus, emotion is not only to be understood as expression/output according to the scheme ‚input-processing-output’, but acts itself as a provocative act/input. Consequently, artifacts are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions for affordances. Rather, they exist in all areas of cognition—from Enactive Cognition to Social Cognition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Mauro Antonelli (2018): Vittorio Benussi in the History of Psychology. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-96682-3, ISBN 978-3-319-96684-7, , 384 Seiten, 106,99 Euro (hardcover), 85,59 Euro (ebook).änomenologischer Realismus. Voluntative und intentionalistische Realitätsbegründung bei Scheler und Husserl<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this text I argue that a phenomenological conception of reality cannot simply consider ‚reality’ to be a feature of the objects of our experience, nor can ‚reality’ be understood as a somehow subconscious experience of resistance, as Max Schelers notion of a „primary resistance“ tries to show. In opposition to these insufficient conceptions I suggest – following some husserlian inspirations – that the notion of ‚reality’ is to be understood as a elementary feature of our <italic>experience</italic> of objects – not of the objects of our experience. Is this perspective accepted, a minimal ‚realism’ appears as a presupposition of the concept of intentionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Verfahrensintegrierende Verhaltenstherapie bei Angsterkrankungen -Lernen und Verlernen von pathologischer Angst als ganzheitlicher Prozess<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nicht zu Unrecht gilt die Behandlung von Angsterkrankungen als die Paradedisziplin der Verhaltenstherapie (VT). Hier wie auch generell zeigt sich die VT dabei aber als zersplittert in eine Vielzahl von Einzelmethoden: Verschiedene Lernformen – Einsichtslernen, Konditionierungslernen und Habituationslernen - werden in ihrem Beitrag zu Angsterkrankungen isoliert voneinander konzipiert. Entsprechend stehen auch auf diesen Lernformen basierende Therapiemethoden für sich. Dadurch werden wichtige Synergiepotenziale verschenkt. Menschliches Lernen, auch und gerade das Lernen und Verlernen von pathologischer Angst, ist aber immer ein ganzheitlicher Prozess. Der Artikel skizziert eine ganzheitliche Psycho-Logik der Eskalation und Chronifizierung pathologischer Angst unter integrierendem Einbezug der o.g. Lernformen. Hieraus leitet sich eine verfahrensintegrierende VT ab, die die etablierten Behandlungsmethoden so kombiniert, dass Synergiegewinne entstehen, was an einem Fallbeispiel verdeutlicht wird. Den theoretischen Hintergrund bildet die Theorie der Selbstorganisation komplexer Systeme, insbesondere die Synergetik – ein Feld, in dem wichtige Aspekte der Gestalttheorie aufgehoben sind. It is not without reason that the treatment of anxiety disorders is considered the showpiece of behavioral therapy (BT). Here as well as in general, however, the BT shows itself fragmented into a multitude of individual methods: Different forms of learning - insight learning, conditioning learning and habituation learning - are designed in isolation from each other in their contribution to anxiety disorders. Correspondingly, treatment methods based on these forms of learning stand for themselves. This gives away important synergy potential. Human learning, also and especially learning and unlearning of pathological anxiety, is always a holistic process. The paper outlines a holistic psycho-logic of the escalation and chronification of pathological anxiety, integrating the above mentioned forms of learning. This leads to the derivation of a method-integrating BT, which combines the established treatment methods in such a way that synergy gains are achieved, as illustrated by a case study. The theoretical background is formed by the theory of the self-organization of complex systems, in particular synergetics - a field in which important aspects of gestalt theory are implied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Gestalt as a Determinant of Brand Management – A Sociological Perspective on Branding in German-Speaking Discourse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For almost 40 years, a specific form of brand management with scientific and practical resonance has been evolving in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland – along with a multitude of microeconomic schools and authors. This form of brand management goes by the term “Brand Sociology” and sees the brand as a Gestalt system of alliances. Brand Sociology fills a gap in the classical economic approach and makes it possible to understand the central target variables of brand management as social dynamics and to direct them in a targeted manner. The following article traces for the first time the foundations and history of a Gestalt sociological approach to brand research and relates its contribution in the field of interplay between Gestalt research, sociology, and identity-based brand economics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Announcement Principles for Therapeutic Relationship and Practice in Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy, in the broader sense of the term, has developed in various forms on both sides of the Atlantic since the 1920s. Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy, in the narrower sense of the term, came into being in the second half of the 1970s in German-speaking countries. In Austria, it is a state-approved, independent scientific psychotherapy method since 1995, and an integrative psychotherapeutic approach based on the Gestalt theory of the Berlin School. With reference to this comprehensive, consistent, scientific theory, this article presents the basic concepts of therapeutic practice in the field of Gestalt psychotherapy. Starting from the overarching whole to the parts, the paper first examines the concept of therapeutic relationship and therapeutic attitude, and then describes the basic principles of the practical design of the therapeutic process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Relational Determination in Interpersonal and Intrapsychic Experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The task of this article is to review the principle of relational determination, as described by Solomon Asch (1952) which expands over Karl Duncker’s (1939) critique of ethical relativism. Relational determination has much to offer to the therapeutic community first with regard to interpersonal relations and social relations. My main goal is to extend this relational analysis to intrapsychic life, which may expose new potentialities for internal conflict resolution and personal integration, predicated on the cultivation of relational understanding (i.e., recognition of relational determination in organization of conscious experience). But this approach is best illustrated in its application to value differences and conflict across societies, which are typically viewed from the absolutist or relativist perspective.</p> <p>The principle of relationality casts doubt on elementaristic assumptions common to both (e.g., meaning constancy). Such assumptions lead to some ill-considered conclusions: of irreconcilable moral differences dividing both individuals and groups, deprived of any basis in understanding. Those views fail to consider the contexts underlying the meanings and valuations we impute. When these are taken into account, Duncker’s hypothesis of an invariant relation between meaning and value finds support. Value differences (or changes) need not represent fundamental differences in morality, but instead (factual) differences in understanding of the situation. If so, then value differences may indeed be both understandable and reconcilable. Relational determination reveals this same potentiality with regard to intrapsychic conflict, where the same presumption of irreconcilable differences must be overcome. Work by Erich Neumann provides a valuable depth psychological perspective on this inner conflict, which accords surprisingly well with the relationality principle in particular and field theory in general. From that vantage point, psychological defenses may be recognized as structural properties of yet unreconciled psychical fields. Gestalt theory’s relational view, which aligns well with Neumann’s account of a “new ethic” helps to reveal the processes by which these defensive postures might abate, as value realms that earlier dwelt in hostile opposition develop more of a conscious and respectful relation with each other, as the individual inches toward greater wholeness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Nachruf auf Michael Stadler (1941–2020) of Time Perspectives as a Criterion for Therapy Completion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Giancarlo Trombini presents the continuation of his research on the question of which criteria can be used to assess the progress of therapy in an objectively verifiable way and to make the decision on the completion of therapy. In the first phase of his research, the phenomenological criterion of a qualitative change in the patient’s relations toward the positive and higher complexity was proposed for this purpose. In terms of the working method in analytic therapy, this meant concretely: attention should be paid to what development is shown in the comparison of the relationships that occur in the dream narrative and in the subsequent associations. This criterion was therefore given the name manifest dream/association comparison (MDAC)—comparison between the manifest dream and the subsequent associations. The idea can easily be transferred to those therapy methods, which do not primarily work with reports of dream memories and subsequent associations—also, in other ways of working, it is possible to pay attention, in the way suggested by Trombini, to the qualitative development of the relationships which are thematized by the clients in the course of an hour.</p> <p>To this first criterion, another phenomenological criterion is now added in the present article: that of the “<bold>c</bold>oncluding <bold>t</bold>herapeutic <bold>t</bold>urn” (CTT). If the patient’s development reaches this turn in the course of the therapy in one session, this indicates, according to Trombini, that the therapy can soon be concluded. The fulfillment of this criterion can be recognized by the fact that in the sequence of dream narration and subsequent associations in a session, a relational dynamic toward the positive and higher complexity becomes recognizable and that is, at the same time, connected with a reconciliation of the three temporal reference systems (past, present, and future). The achievement of this CTT indicates that the patient is aware of the changes made in therapy and makes it evident to the therapist that the therapy is nearing completion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Critical Realism: The Epistemic Position of Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In this contribution, I discuss the relevance of epistemological models for psychotherapy. Despite its importance epistemology is seldom explicitly dealt with in the psychotherapeutic landscape. Based on the presentation of “Critical Realism (CR),” the epistemological position of Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy (GTP), I intend to show to which extent this explanatory model supports a differentiated understanding of problems between human beings, arising from the differences in experiencing “reality.” The presentation deals explicitly with some conclusions that can be drawn from the CR model for practical psychotherapeutic work. In particular, the aspects of basic therapeutic attitude, therapeutic relationship, and praxeology are highlighted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Personality Theory in Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy: Kurt Lewin’s Field Theory and his Theory of Systems in Tension Revisited<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>With regard to the dynamics of human experience and behavior, Gestalt theoretical psychotherapy (GTP) relies mainly on Kurt Lewin’s dynamic field theory of personality. GTP is carried out by including a re-interpretation of Lewin’s theory in some aspects of psychotherapeutic practice in relation to critical realism. Human experience and behavior are understood to be functions of the person and the environment (including the other individuals therein) in a psychic field (life space), which encompasses both of these mutually dependent factors. The anthropological model of this approach is, therefore, not mono-personal but, a priori, structural and relational in nature. It does not one-sidedly focus on the “inner components” of a person, but on the interrelation of the individual and a given environment, which affects experience and behavior. After a brief introduction of these basic concepts, this lecture will focus especially on Lewin’s concept of tension-systems, which may be considered as the Gestalt theoretical counterpart of Freud’s drive theory. Further, we define the basic assumptions which underlie GTP and explain how the person moves through her/his life experience in terms of Gestalt psychology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy – A Clinical Example<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The case of an anorectic patient is presented to demonstrate how well-known symptomatic phenomena such as a supposedly distorted body perception can be understood. Further theoretical suggestions are made to explain the motive to starve, without making complicated psychodynamic assumptions. To do so, genuine gestalttheoretical concepts such as ‘centring’ and ‘reference system’ are used. This leads to hints for a temporarily perception-focused formation of the therapeutic relationship.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00In Ugo Savardi’s memory and Self in Gestalt Theory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The paper presents basic Gestalt theoretical concepts of ego and self. They differ from other concepts in the way that they do not comprehend ego and self as fixed entities or as central controlling instances of the psyche, but as one specific organized unit in a psychological field in dynamic interrelation with the other organized units—the environment units—of this field. On this theme, well-known representatives of Gestalt theory have presented some general and special theories since the early days of this approach that could partly be substantiated experimentally. They illuminate the relationship between ego and world in everyday life as well as in the case of mental disorders. Not only the spatial extension of the phenomenal ego is subject to situational changes, but also its place in the world, its functional fitting in this world, its internal differentiation, its permeability to the environment, and much more. The German Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Metzger emphasizes the significant functional role that this dynamic plasticity of the phenomenal world and its continuously changing segregation of ego and environment have for human life by designating the phenomenal world as a “Central Steering Mechanism.” In this article, ego and self as part of this field in their interrelation with the total psychological field will be illuminated from the perspective of the thinking of the Gestalt psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Lewin, Wolfgang Metzger, Mary Henle, Edwin Rausch, and Giuseppe Galli.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1