rss_2.0Gestalt Theory FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Gestalt Theory Theory 's Cover von der 21. Internationalen Arbeitstagung der GTA in Warschau (2019) Simplicity: The True Role of Prägnanz and Occam<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>In recent years, the concept of simplicity in perception has acquired a leading role, above all thanks to scholars linked to Bayesian modeling and to theories like structural information theory derived from information theory. Unfortunately, two misleading ideas made their way into the discussion: that in perception, simplicity is equivalent to Prägnanz and that Occam’s razor plays a role in the simplicity of percepts. Here it is shown that in Gestalt theory, simplicity is only one of the factors of Prägnanz and that the use of Occam’s razor is improper, because it applies only to the theories that generate, in this case, a percept, and not to the product of the theory.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-11-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial and Mandelbaum on the Phenomenology and Ontology of Value<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>In this article the ethical systems of Risieri Frondizi and Maurice Mandelbaum, both decisively influenced by Wolfgang Köhler, are investigated for the first time. Each writer took different things from Köhler, Frondizi the idea of value as a Gestalt quality and Mandelbaum the idea of value as a felt demand. Their positions are highly complementary and Frondizi’s axiological approach enlightens the ontology of value whereas Mandelbaum’s phenomenological approach clarifies the nature of “requiredness” (Köhler) or “fittingness.”</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-11-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Manifest Dream/Association Comparison: A Criterion to Monitor the Psychotherapeutic Field (2nd part) Field Transformations: A Clinical Case<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The present work focuses on the transformations of the psychotherapeutic field through the relationship dynamics that occur within it.</p><p>The first part of this article starts with a brief outline of the Gestalt psychological understanding of the field concept, also in its application to the psychotherapeutic situation, followed by a brief review of the introduction of the field concept into the psychoanalytic theory formation.</p><p>After this, the first author first presents the theoretical concept underlying a new approach he has developed for observing the relationship dynamics in psychotherapy. Mirroring a formation both psychoanalytic and gestaltic of the main author, this new approach is based on the combination of psychoanalytic and Gestalt psychological concepts. According to the clinical experience and insights of the author, the phenomenological and relational approach of Gestalt theory fits well with the psychoanalytic approach; on this basis, a criterion for recording the progress of therapy can be developed. This criterion is the phenomenology of the development of the qualities of the relationships of the client, as they become visible in his dream narrations and the subsequent associations in the analysis room, and continue to develop during the session and the further course of therapy. The relationship dynamics in the dream narration is thus compared with those that develop in the course of the subsequent associations.</p><p>This is demonstrated and further elaborated in the second part of this paper on the basis of a clinical case. The clinical example shows how the relationship dynamics develop in this sense in the individual therapy sessions and over a longer course of therapy. The associated transformations of the therapeutic field give a good indication of the progress of therapy. The main author gained such insights into the transformations of the therapeutic field and the progression of therapy, which are visible in the course of therapy, from the careful application of the criterion “manifest dream/associations comparison of relational dynamics”. In the specific case, there was also a high degree of correspondence between the results of the application of this phenomenological criterion and the empirical evidence of the symptom questionnaire, a self-report measure requested by the patient himself during the course of the therapy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-11-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Paul Tholey (2018): Gestalttheorie von Sport, Klartraum und Bewusstsein. Ausgewählte Arbeiten, herausgegeben und eingeleitet von Gerhard Stemberger. Wien: Krammer Verlag, 310 Seiten, € 36. ISBN: 978-3-901811-76-0. to a Great Gestalt Psychologist Anna Arfelli Galli 1933-2019, Ground and the Notion of Equilibria in the Work of Gilbert Simondon and Gestalt theory<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Based on Clausius’ phrasing of a “transformational content” and the resulting 2nd law of thermodynamics, I demonstrated that Gilbert Simondon’s <italic>On the Mode of Existence of Technical Objects</italic> is historically situated at the threshold of understanding open systems thermodynamics and the related concepts of balance. Furthermore, I showed that Gestalt theory, as represented by Wolfgang Köhler, at least reproduced, if not partially anticipated or even prepared this development of 20<sup>th</sup> century thinking. Finally, I gave some short examples of how Simondon applied the figure/ground distinction to human perception, memory, and a general theory of becoming and I introduced his proposal to analyse “the grounds” just as thoroughly as the laws of figuration.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-11-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural–Historical Gestalt Theory and Beyond: Toward Pragmatic Anthropology–Historical Gestalt Theory and Beyond: A New History (and Theory) of the “Informal Personal Network” of Intellectuals Is Needed Images and Gestalt Theory: Introspective Musings About a Series of Digital Art-works<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In this paper, the author shares his thoughts about the precedents, process, and significance of a series of “digital montage” artworks that he originated during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, he talks about the indebtedness of these works to Gestalt theory, and particularly their use of what is sometimes known as “laws of seeing,” “unit-forming factors,” or inherent “grouping tendencies.”</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Gibt es eine Gestalttheorie der Emotionen? Ein Diskussionsvorschlag<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An emotional episode consists of psychological, physiological, motor and expressive components that are tied together. Present theories and previous contributions by gestalt theorists to emotions are discussed. It is shown that the synergetic system theory represents a fruitful model for emotional processes, in which self-organisation plays a central role. Also, a selection of neuropsychological findings in this context is taken into account.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Announcements - Ankündigungen Hartmann und die Gestalttheorie. Ein Vergleich unter dem Aspekt “Kausalität”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In 1919 Nicolai Hartmann (NH) convincingly justified that there cannot exist a “general law of causation” as A. Meinong had in mind. For him Meinong’s understanding of causation (linear, successive in time) was bound on the region of the physical layer of being, simultaneously postulating it as the only possible causation there.</p> <p>This is the starting point of the comparison between N. Hartmann‘s understanding of causation and that of the Gestalt Theory, for which neither in psychic nor in natural (physical) context linear-successive causality plays a part. Therefore NH’s conception of 1919 was still completely incompatible with that of the Gestalt Theory despite the fact that he was distancing himself from the “general law of causation” <italic>sensu</italic> Meinong.</p> <p>20 years later he changed this by adding the “Wechselwirkung” (interaction) to the linear successive causation in the physical layer.</p> <p>In doing so he approached the Gestalt theoretical position but failed it insofar as for it his linear-successive understanding of causation generally has had its day with regard to natural processes, also consequently for the physical (instead interaction between <italic>system</italic> and <italic>border conditions</italic> applies, an <italic>interaction of field forces</italic>). Thus the term “causation“ had become free for a dynamic concept of causation which is equally appropriate for the physical and the psychic.</p> <p>NH makes this move not until 1949, shortly before his death, by writing: ... (see original quotation in the German summary above).</p> <p>It is the opinion of the author of this work that the ingenious systematics of NH‘s Critical Ontology (which is not a closed system) should make it possible to execute the necessary corrections in some details of his theory of layers without questioning the structure of his systematics, thus carrying out what NH was not able to do himself due to his death.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural–Historical Gestalt Theory and Beyond: “The Russians Are Coming!” the autopoiesis of imagination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Already in the romantic it has been assumed, that there is an existential interrelation between nature, human being and mind. According to this idea, there is a narrow interrelation of creation between literature, science, dream and reality, which should be expressed in a progressive universal poetry. Gestalt theory and the concept of autopoiesis, developed by Maturana and Varela, could be regarded as a scientific enhancement of this approach and are united in that sense. By analyses of dreams, it becomes evident, that neurobiological and mental processes are determined by the same principles of self-constitution and gestalt production. They are attending in equal measures to homeostatic conditions. The interaction of living systems with their environment as well as their evolution base on recursive reorganisation. Following this principle, imagination, speech and self-reflection are developed. The observer comes to existence by his own distinctions. Phenomenal appearance and real existence, poetry and scientific findings are results of the autopoietic organisation of living, of which we form a part.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Helmut Seel. 28. Februar 1933 – 14. April 2021Éric Trémault: Structure and sensation, Vrin, Paris, 2020, 196 pp in Motion: Slurs in Indirect Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Slurs are pejorative epithets that express negative attitudes toward a class of individuals sharing the same race, country of origin, sexual orientation, religion, and the like. The aim of this paper is to show what happens in communication when slurs are reported. It focuses on the derogatory content of such expressions and on the persistence of their performative effects in reported speech. In this respect, the question concerning the attribution of responsibility for the derogatory content conveyed by the slurs is relevant. Indeed, reporting a slur involves quoting not only the content but also the speaker’s personal commitment and (negative) attitude. Different theories on the status of the derogatory component of slurs make different predictions about their offensiveness in reported speech and about the speaker’s “responsibility” for the attitude and feelings conveyed by that word, be she the original speaker or the reporter. The results of a questionnaire show empirically that no single theory can provide a conclusive statement on this matter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Max Wertheimer (2020): Productive Thinking. New edition by Viktor Sarris. Birkhäuser/Springer Nature, ix + 257 pages, 485s/ w- Abbildungen; Paperback/Euro 35, 30 – ISBN 978-3-030-36065-8, eBook/Euro 26,75 – ISBN 978-3-030-36063-4.