rss_2.0European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning 's Cover’ Digital Competence in Swedish Rural Schools<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents a survey census study performed in a small, remotely located municipality with four rural schools in the north of Sweden. The study is part of a larger project, Remote Consulting in special needs education between special educators and class teachers, the aim of which is to increase the equivalence between the municipality’s schools by giving more class teachers improved access to special needs education (SNE) consultations provided by special educators via remote consulting.</p><p>Prior to the start of the project, a questionnaire was sent out to all the class teachers in the participating schools. All the teachers approached answered the questionnaire. One of the aims of the survey was to gain increased knowledge about the teachers’ self-efficacy in their use of ICT. The most intriguing result was that three of the five 50-59 year-old teachers estimated their knowledge about ICT to be above average compared to that of their colleagues. A similar pattern was identified in the teachers’ use of ICT in their teaching. Of those who used ICT every day, three were 30-39 years old, three were 50-59 years old and one was 40-49 years old, while all of those who used ICT less than once a week were younger than 39. The results of the study indicate that the teachers in this study are adequately equipped to proceed from physical counselling to remote consulting in special needs education.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Developing E-Authentication for E-Assessment – Diversity of Students Testing the System in Higher Education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>E-authentication is one of the key topics in the field of online education and e-assessment. This study was aimed at investigating the user experiences of students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) while developing the accessible e-authentication system for higher education institutions. Altogether, 15 students tested the system (including instruments for face recognition, voice recognition, keystroke dynamics, text style analysis and anti-plagiarism), developed as part of the TeSLA project. Students also completed pre-questionnaires and post-questionnaires and attended individual interviews. The findings reveal positive expectations and experiences of e-authentication. Students believed that the e-authentication system increased trust and, thus, diversified their possibilities for studying online. Students found some challenges and emphasized that the e-authentication system should be reliable and easy to use. The possibility to use different kinds of instruments was perceived as an important feature. Students’ willingness to use these instruments and share their personal data for e-authentication varied due to their disabilities or individual preferences. The results suggest that students should have options for what kind of e-authentication they use.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Transcripts and Accessibility: Student Views from Using Webinars in Built Environment Education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Transcripts and captions make videos more accessible to everyone. However, the time and resources required for manual transcription are a known barrier in creating accessible videos. This paper presents a small study where students (283) and tutors (27) reported their views on automatic transcriptions for recorded webinar videos. Despite not having perfect transcription accuracy, many students who have used the automatic transcripts found them to be useful. Students were also asked how they used transcripts and this included: to find specific information in a video, as a learning aid, as an accessibility aid, to compensate for the speaker’s accent and pace, to study on the go, to compensate for poor audio and/or connectivity and as an aid for non-native English speakers.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Vector AR3-APP – A Good-Practice Example of Learning with Augmented Reality<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>After a discussion about the possibilities and status of augmented reality in education, a good practice example of an augmented reality application is presented. This case study examines the use of an augmented reality app in higher education to support abstract STEM content, such as vectors. Based on this example, the implementation of such apps in didactic concepts and self-directed learning will be discussed. Furthermore, aspects of integration into digital learning and teaching will be addressed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultivating Self-Regulated Learning in Flipped EFL Courses: A Model for Course Design<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices in English Foreign Language courses (EFL) in universities. Flipped classroom model transforms passive listeners into active learners in school and home activities pace. Flipped classroom model and the foreign language teaching methods are student-centred learning environments in which students should have a certain level of self-regulated learning skills. The study suggest a model for flipped classroom implementations with regard to self-regulated learning strategies in order to keep students more active in the EFL courses. Students were allowed to apply goal setting and planning, rehearsing, help seeking, monitoring, testing, time management, organising, regulating and note taking strategies within the model in online and face to face sessions. We hope the suggested model can contribute to improve listening, reading, writing and speaking skills of students in EFL courses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Proposition for the Introduction of the Concept Telemathesis in Videoconferencing in Distance Education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The development of technology and the widespread application of digital tools, such as teleconference (or videoconference), has led researchers to reflect on traditional theories and models of learning concerning Distance Education, as well as the formulation of new ones. The aim of this study is to propose the introduction of the concept tele-mathesis in Distance Learning, in order to describe the learning process by videoconferencing in Distance Education, which has features of an “embodied” and “integrated” way of learning. This is a theoretical study based on Illeris’ Theory of “Integrated” Learning that has been adopted in Distance Learning, using elements of the Theory of Tele-proximity concerning learning by videoconferencing in Distance Education. According to the developed argumentation the importance of the senses, emotions and “techniques of the body” is revealed in both the educational and learning process by videoconferencing, in order to reduce the transactional distance between the teacher and the learner, as well as, to lead to a positive distance educational experience. Thus, the cognitive, emotional and social factors involved in “tele-mathesis”, turn videoconferencing into an “embodied” and “integrated” way of learning. At the same time, it is showed that the empowerment of “tele-mathesis” requires appropriate planning and specific management methods. It is therefore proposed to introduce the term telemathesis in Distance Education so as to fully attribute this specific learning process of Distance Education.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Building Digital Capacity for Higher Education Teachers: Recognising Professional Development Through a National Peer Triad Digital Badge Ecosystem<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Digital Badge design and practice at a national level is a relatively new field of scrutiny and this study reports on a sector-wide initiative for building digital capacity with the design, and implementation of an ecosystem of 15 open courses in teaching and learning with digital badges to recognise the professional development of teachers in Irish higher education. Each course is provided in three delivery modes and mapped to Ireland’s National Professional Development Framework for teachers. This enables multiple access points for teachers to engage in professional development via the Framework and recognize their engagement through peer triads and a digital badge ecosystem. The paper critically discusses and reflects on the study of the complex phenomena of the application of the open courses within professional contexts. A novel dimension is the implementation of a peer triad system for recognition of PD. Implementing the open courses digital badges ecosystem was challenging as this different form of assessment required a clear understanding of all stakeholder expectations, the language of recognition and how the learning outcomes could be met and validated using a peer triad assessment. This paper concludes with sectoral learning on nationally recognized open course development, including success factors for building digital capacity, challenges encountered and transferability to other contexts.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-10T00:00:00.000+00:00International Online Graduate Students’ Perceptions of CoI<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>With the current issue of student retention and attrition as a major aspect of online education, this interpretivist qualitative case study sought to determine whether online facilitators and online student-to-student relationships affect online graduate students’ ability to complete their modules and achieve student learning objectives and outcomes (LOO). This study encompassed CoI (Community of Inquiry) and surveyed 54 participants who indicated that the three interdependent presences that form part of CoI (cognitive, social, and teaching) were instrumental in helping them to complete their modules and to achieve student learning objectives and outcomes (LOO). Students’ feedback on online facilitators exemplified their cognitive presence in the form of statements linked to triggering events and exploring of ideas. However, there were few statements connected to integration and none linked to resolution. Overall, most of the data collected connected to subsets of teaching and social presences rather than cognitive presence. Additionally, students’ feedback on their peers suggests that social presence that fosters group cohesion is the most critical factor to assist in completion of the modules and achieving student LOO. Open communication was also indicated and, to a lesser degree, personal/affective subsets of social presence were evident. The findings of this study suggest that more research is needed on the components of the three presences and their relationship to students’ ability to complete the module and achieve student LOO.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Five Learning Design Principles to Create Active Learning for Engaging with Research in a MOOC<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Creating a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) based on analysis from research requires the adaptation of MOOC pedagogies. For example, course designers need to follow certain design principles and adapt learning content to the pedagogies and constraints of a MOOC platform. That said, this paper outlines five different learning design principles that create active learning in a MOOC. These emerged when adapting knowledge from a research case study. To exemplify the adaptation, this paper examines how research from a sociological, qualitative classroom study about a teacher who used digital technologies in foreign-language training at a Norwegian high school was adapted for a MOOC that ran on FutureLearn.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Virtual International Exchange as a High-Impact Learning Tool for More Inclusive, Equitable and Diverse Classrooms<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>While technology-assisted learning has become commonplace in education, its applications are rarely examined along geopolitical and cultural perspectives that reveal certain shared and vastly distinct localized practices in evolving pedagogy and cultural dynamics. For developing countries such as Uzbekistan, collaborating virtually with a university in the U.S. may represent both a technological and socio-cultural challenge. Conducting a virtual international project, nonetheless, offers a unique chance to experience <italic>another</italic> culture in real time through its people, exposing reductionist perceptions of <italic>other</italic> cultures and humanizing that <italic>other</italic> through community-generated dialogue. Virtual intercultural exchanges advance intercultural communicative competency and constitute an effective format for high-impact learning practices that advance students’ understanding and appreciation of diversity, equity and inclusion in traditional and online classrooms. This surveys student evaluations of a pilot Virtual International Exchange (VIE) completed between U.S. and Uzbek students in 2018, and underpins a theoretical framework for the benefits of concurring <italic>cognitive dissonance</italic> for the benefit of open, equitable and inclusive pedagogical models.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Connecting Multiple Intelligences through Open and Distance Learning: Going Towards a Collective Intelligence?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This theoretical essay is a learning approach reflexion on Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the possibilities provided by the education model known as open and distance learning. Open and distance learning can revolutionize traditional pedagogical practice, meeting the needs of those who have different forms of cognitive understanding. This tool has in itself the potential to build knowledge collectively. The conclusions raise new questions for future discussion, shedding some light on the open and distance learning not as a mere tool to spread education, but as a means to reach new levels of comprehension and consciousness, reflecting on the role of education itself.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00An Exploratory Study of Emotional Affordance of a Massive Open Online Course<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This exploratory study examines emotional affordance of a massive open online course (MOOC). Postings in a discussion forum of a MOOC in computer science are analysed following a research design informed by virtual ethnography. Emotional affordance is investigated, focusing on nonachievement emotions which are not directly linked to achievement activities or outcomes. The study identifies two non-achievement emotions in the MOOC. First, altruistic emotion evolves with the collaborative learning community and possibly compensates for teachers’ minimal emotional intervention in a large, diverse class. Second, intergenerational emotional resonance is observed and this bears a key implication on managing age diversity for the future MOOCs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Knowledge and Creativity in Digital Society<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This work deals with the topic of creativity understood as a complex path carried out along all lifetime and that cannot be attributable to the mere accumulation of concepts. The changing social scenario promotes the dimension of the possible, the nonlinearity, the overcoming of preestablished trajectories of knowledge by triggering processes of meta-knowledge and metarepresentation, a dimension in which the creative mind finds a breeding ground. </p><p>The work explores the relationship between technology and creativity in consideration of the peculiar segment, the artistic one, where with greater evidence the work of the creative is unfolded.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00B-learning Quality: Dimensions, Criteria and Pedagogical Approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Measuring the quality of a b-learning environment is critical to determine the success of a blearning course. Several initiatives have been recently conducted on benchmarking and quality in e-learning. Despite these efforts in defining and examining quality issues concerning online courses, a defining instrument to evaluate quality is one of the key challenges for blended learning, since it incorporates both traditional and online instruction methods. For this paper, six frameworks for quality assessment of technological enhanced learning were examined and compared regarding similarities and differences. These frameworks aim at the same global objective: the quality of e-learning environment/products. They present different perspectives but also many common issues. Some of them are more specific and related to the course and others are more global and related to institutional aspects. In this work we collected and arrange all the quality criteria identified in order to get a more complete framework and determine if it fits our b-learning environment. We also included elements related to our own b-learning research and experience, acquired during more than 10 years of experience. As a result we have create a new quality reference with a set of dimensions and criteria that should be taken into account when you are analyzing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating a b-learning environment. Besides these perspectives on what to do when you are developing a b-learning environment we have also included pedagogical issues in order to give directions on how to do it to reach the success of the learning. The information, concepts and procedures here presented give support to teachers and instructors, which intend to validate the quality of their blended learning courses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Intercultural Blended Design Considerations: A Case Study of a Nordic-Baltic Course in Autism Intervention<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Specialized educational programs previously unavailable to many students are now accessible to students spread throughout the world. In particular, this globalization presents new opportunities and challenges for universities educating professionals in the field of autism treatment. The aim of the present case study is to analyse the experiences of students who participated in an intercultural graduate level blended learning course in applied behaviour analysis with an autism focus. Students were enrolled in universities in four Nordic-Baltic countries. Country based focus group interviews and surveys were used to explore student’s experiences and perceptions. Results indicate that access to expertise and interacting with other cultures were noted to positively affect learning experience. Risk for cultural divide due to discrepancies in technology, differing pedagogical traditions, and understanding of English were also reported. Implications regarding the potential risks and benefits inherent in intercultural blended learning courses are discussed and suggestions are offered for enhancing the success of such courses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Cross-Cultural Communication and Collaboration: Case of an International e-Learning Project<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Communication is an indispensable part of international cooperation and it requires managing different cultures. Being prepared to see and understand different values, trying to understand contrasting views in a consortium, can decrease the potential of misperception which otherwise may act as a real barrier to cooperation. This is why international cooperation necessitates negotiation across cultures. In the case of collaboration, parties come together for a joint work which itself may create common values/understanding, besides the set goals. This is because collaboration requires strong we-feeling and commitment. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural communication and collaboration in the area of Open and Distance Learning (ODL), concentrating on the communication processes in project management. Cross-cultural studies point to different communicative behaviours of individuals in multinational work environments e.g. the cultural characteristics affect the preferences towards the use of the media. For the purposes of this paper, the authors make a phenomenological-oriented case study of project management based on interviews with partners of a multilateral Grundtvig (adult learning) project, affiliated with distance education institutions in eight different countries. The authors test their assumptions for constructive and cooperative communication in e-Learning projects; delineating the effects of different cultures as regards the expectations from (1) international projects and (2) communication media.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Design and Development of a Self-Assessment Tool and Investigating its Effectiveness for E-Learning<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> One of the most effective tools in e-learning is the Self-Assessment Tool (SAT) and research has shown that students need to accurately assess their own performance thus improving their learning. The study involved the design and development of a self-assessment tool based on the Revised Blooms taxonomy Framework. As a second step in investigating the effectiveness of the SAT, 1st year student of the BSC Educational Technology program from the VCILT, University of Mauritius were used as testing sample. At this stage the SAT was provided to only half of the sample who were randomly chosen and placed into a treatment group. The remaining half (Control Group) had the normal conditions on the E-learning platform. A semester exam was devised and administered to the whole sample to find out if there was a difference between the scores of both groups. Lastly a feedback form was given to only the treatment group to find out their views on the SAT. The results indicated a significant difference in scores between the treatment and the control groups when the Student’s Independent T-test was used. Group A percentage of passes were higher compared to Group B. Failures were recorded for both groups with an increased rate of failure for Group B compared to Group A. Moreover, most of the respondents’ feedbacks suggested that SAT was a useful guide with helpful feedbacks. The findings concluded that SAT was viewed more as a revision tool that allowed them to assess their own learning.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Transactional Distance among Open University Students: How Does it Affect the Learning Process?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This study examines the presence of transactional distance among students, the factors affecting it, as well as the way it influences the learning process of students in a blended distance learning setting in Greece. The present study involved 12 postgraduate students of the Hellenic Open University (HOU). A qualitative research was conducted, using information collected via individual semi-structured interviews. Content analysis of the gathered information provided evidence regarding the existence of student-student transactional distance for several reasons, such as geographical and relatively limited face to face interaction. The role of the tutor as well as of the course provider were also examined in this respect. Finally the study indicated that the existence of perceived transactional distance among the students has a negative effect on their learning process.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Predicting Dropout Student: An Application of Data Mining Methods in an Online Education Program<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This study examined the prediction of dropouts through data mining approaches in an online program. The subject of the study was selected from a total of 189 students who registered to the online Information Technologies Certificate Program in 2007-2009. The data was collected through online questionnaires (Demographic Survey, Online Technologies Self-Efficacy Scale, Readiness for Online Learning Questionnaire, Locus of Control Scale, and Prior Knowledge Questionnaire). The collected data included 10 variables, which were gender, age, educational level, previous online experience, occupation, self efficacy, readiness, prior knowledge, locus of control, and the dropout status as the class label (dropout/not). In order to classify dropout students, four data mining approaches were applied based on k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN), Decision Tree (DT), Naive Bayes (NB) and Neural Network (NN). These methods were trained and tested using 10-fold cross validation. The detection sensitivities of 3-NN, DT, NN and NB classifiers were 87%, 79.7%, 76.8% and 73.9% respectively. Also, using Genetic Algorithm (GA) based feature selection method, online technologies self-efficacy, online learning readiness, and previous online experience were found as the most important factors in predicting the dropouts.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00A preliminary Exploration of Operating Models of Second Cycle/Research Led Open Education Involving Industry Collaboration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Scientists from five Swedish universities were interviewed about open second cycle education. Research groups and scientists collaborate closely with industry, and the selection of scientists for the study was made in relation to an interest in developing technology-enhanced open education, indicated by applications for funding from the Knowledge Foundation 2013. The study is founded on Conole’s (2012) seven organizational purposes for open education, Coursera’s eight models (Daniel, 2012), and Clarke’s (2013) four strategies for open education, and raises the question whether open education and MOOCs might be a way to reinforce research collaborations and research environments. The researchers displayed a positive attitude towards expanding the technology-enhanced learning and openness, and foresee few problems with openness when industry participates in teaching. Nonetheless, the scientists’ operating models and strategies for developing technology-enhanced learning and open education, are vague. Conclusively: although the interest is obvious, in order to succeed with technology-enhanced open education and strengthening the research groups, the variables for purposes, operating models, strategies, pedagogic models, and obstacles need to be calibrated and made more deliberated, preferably in collaboration between the scientists and industry.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-12-11T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1