rss_2.0European Countryside FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Countryside Countryside 's Cover Index to Measure Rural Diversity in the Light of Rural Resilience and Rural Development Debate<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Diversity has been extensively studied in ecological systems and its relationship with resilience has been well recognized. In social and ecological systems, in fact, diversity is considered key to determining resilience where resilience is defined as system’s capacity to learn and adapt in the face of internal or external perturbations. However, although human and ecological systems are dynamic, interacting and interdependent, little attention has been given to social systems diversity and its implications. The interest in diversity and resilience of social-ecological systems is increasingly growing, particularly in the rural contexts, due to its possible effects on social and economic development and livelihoods. In this paper we define an analytical tool, the Rural Diversity Index (RDI), to assess the role of natural, economic and social diversity in determining alternative rural socio-ecological developmental patterns. The application of the RDI in pilot areas of Southern Italy showed that, in specific socio-ecological systems, higher natural-socio-economic diversity leads to higher degree of rural development, as measured through standard socio-economic indicators.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Rural-Urban Multiplier and Policy Effects in Finish Rural Regions: an Inter-Regional Sam Analysis<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The paper studies rural policies in two Finnish regions, and whether the policy benefits would accumulate to the rural or urban areas. Rural-urban social accounting matrices were built and used as a base data for the SAM multiplier analysis. The output multiplier values demonstrate the important role of agriculture and food industry in both of the study regions. In the urban areas, however, services and construction were among the industries with the highest income generating potential. Whilst urban and rural industries had almost an equal potential for stimulating the whole economies, the results indicate that urban activities spill over welfare to the surrounding rural areas and thus can back up the development of the whole regions. Due to their different economic structures, South Ostrobothnia responded stronger to the agricultural policies while North Karelia was more responsive to the infrastructure and tourism policies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Survival and Growth Rates of Woody Vegetation in the Man-Made Radějov Biocorridor During the Period of 1993 - 2012<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The first biocorridors were established in the territory of the Czech Republic in the 1990s. One of them, planted on a former agricultural land, was the Radějov biocorridor. This paper deals with the growth and development of trees and shrubs on three permanent research plots in 1993 - 2012. Repeated inventories of trees as well as monitoring of their biometrical parameters were carried out in both tree and shrub layers. The number of trees decreases with the increasing level of stand canopy. Moreover, mean heights, diameters and crown projection areas of selected woody plants were compared. Under the given conditions, the growth of these woody plants can be positively evaluated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Naturbanization and Urban – Rural Dynamics in Spain: Case Study of New Rural Landscapes in Andalusia and Catalonia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The early 20th century saw the beginning of a process of urbanizing rural space (Berry, 1976a; 1976b), described as counter-urbanization (Champion, 1989). The creation of Protected Natural Areas (PNAs) has defined some rural spaces, relatively far from large urban metropolitan areas, where the ecological and scenic value is a magnet for urbanization (Prados, 2005). Thus, PNAs make rural areas more attractive to new economic and leisure activities and can promote a more positive type of development that has been called naturbanization (Prados, 2009). We address this topic in six sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conceptual framework of naturbanization; (3) Methodology to analyse the process of naturbanization; (4) Processes of naturbanization in Andalusia and in Catalonia; (5) Comparative analysis of two case studies, and (6) Conclusions and Recommendations</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Collaboration Perspectives Developing Sustainable Agriculture: The Case of Lithuanian Farmers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainable agriculture and active collaboration between farmers are important concepts that have a significant impact on the development of sustainable agriculture, in striving for social and economic development, as well as supporting the reduction of impact to environment. Based on a systematic and comparative analysis, this study highlights the role of collaboration towards developing sustainable agriculture. The overall results imply that more active farmers collaboration requires more active sharing of experience, knowledge and information through meetings or seminars by creating an information portal or platform. These measures could lead to more qualitative communication, more open information sharing, mutual trust and risk reduction, which would ensure the development of sustainable agriculture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Community Acceptance of Wind Energy: Lessons from a Case Study on a Local Participatory Project in Pays Des Mauges (West France)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article focuses on the community acceptance of wind parks in a rural territory in western France, in a country where they are not much developed yet. We hypothetise that their set-up stems from a specific pattern, embedded in the territorial rural context of the case study. Semi-structured interviews with 30 actors aimed to analyse this citizen-led project, in line with their representations of this territory and its sustainable development. Results show that citizen-led investment is not a prerequisite for community acceptance in this case. The sense of a rural place that is fit for technologies kept up to date by the green industry, and the fairness of the process, are the strongest drivers for acceptance of wind energy, <italic>in general,</italic> in this case. Subsequently, the confidence obtained from previous fundraising actions can foster new participatory wind projects. An early communication with inhabitants, and a construction fit for a rural development that makes sense to the locals can bring an essential sense of trust for energy projects within the community. However, given the different definitions, it seems also critical to assess their true community dimension in order not to jeopardise the sense of fairness if the outcomes are not largely shared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Rural Experiments with the Management of Basic Resources. Key Characteristics of European Ecovillages Aiming at Partial Self-Sufficiency in Water, Food and Energy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis of European ecovillages considered as rural grassroots experiments with the sustainable management of the Water-Energy-Food Nexus. The article presents empirical data on the management of basic resources in 60 European ecovillages collected with an online survey in 2020. The results show that a vast majority of ecovillages pursue some self-sufficiency in food, water or energy, and that 50% of them seek some self-sufficiency in all three of these resources. However, ecovillages do not try to be completely self-sufficient but rather aim at achieving feasible levels of self-sufficiency complemented with local and regional cooperation. While the role of ecovillages in driving conventional rural growth is limited, they can help in guiding sustainability transitions by illustrating opportunities and difficulties of reducing resource consumption of settlement units without reducing personal and communal well-being.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Barriers to Start and Develop Transformative Ecotourism Business<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to fill the cognitive gap by providing evidence for different barriers hampering the innovative activity in ecotourism which concerns the promotion of the so-called transformative tourism concept. The research is devoted to identifying what are the most important barriers in the two areas: i) policy and regulation; ii) regional economic development. The observed absence of appropriate representative data for defining the state of the art in the field of transformative ecotourism as a new phenomenon is evident; therefore, it is suggested to use an expert survey for barriers identification in the field. The expert survey was done in the four post-socialist Baltic Sea countries/regions: Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and the St. Petersburg region (Russia) in autumn 2020. Research results disclose the existing similarities among barriers in researched regions and highlight the key areas for improvement in policy and regulation and economy-related fields, aiming to create a more favorable environment for promoting transformative ecotourism as prosperous innovation of future tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Visitors’ Happiness and Loyalty in the Moravian Wine Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, tourists’ loyalty is more pronounced than ever. It is therefore inevitable to know what factors can contribute to the higher levels of loyalty among potential visitors. Since none of the previously researched factors are reflecting visitors’ feelings and emotions, and because wine tourism can build long-lasting emotional ties with tourists, this study focuses on Moravian wine region visitors’ happiness within the context of loyalty. Overall, seven loyalty factors influence the happiness indicators: quality of wine, relaxation, information about wine, natural attractions, friendly acceptance by the locals, wine culture and traditions, as well as vineyard excursions. Furthermore, this study also confirms the dependence the happiness perception has on visitors’ characteristics, such as gender, income, or with whom they visited the destination. The results of the study can be used to restart and support the development of sustainable tourism in the regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Successful Management of Settlements to Boost Rural Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper summarizes and provides and overview on the economic and social processes influencing and supporting the successful management of settlements, focusing on Hungary. The role of leadership and settlement management is inevitable in the everyday operation as well as in the definition and realization of development concepts and strategies. The basis of stable operation and development is the financial independency and stability, thus we need to call the attention on the importance of economic development functions of settlements as well as on the important role of mayors and leaders in the economic and spatial development. The approaches, the ideas as well as the way how the leaders think are all determining factors in development. Nowadays, settlement development and regional economic development raise such key issues that are also the main research questions in our paper, like „What does a good municipality/a good settlement look like? How can ‘good’ be described?” What are the main characteristics of a suitable leader in the case of settlements? It is known that there are no targeted trainings, courses for mayors/heads of municipalities to prepare them to be good leaders, there are no nationally or internationally acknowledged skills, competences that could be applied to select the most suitable leaders for the positions. Therefore, we believe that we must call the attention to this shortage and motivate the experts in public administration, the researchers and scientists, as well as trainers and coaches to cooperate and work on the solution. In this paper, through the dimension of leadership/management, we intend to discover the characteristics of successful community leaders and to focus on the importance of the activities of ‘local heroes’, who prove to have strong commitment to the development of settlements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Analysis of Factors Affecting Farmers to Take Out Agricultural Insurance: A Case Study of Altinekin District, Konya Province of Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agricultural insurance is one of the management risk tools. This research aimed to analyze the factors affecting food crop farmers’ agricultural insurance in the Altınekin District of Konya Province. To obtain data using a questionnaire by interviewing 66 food crop farms entreprises who did agricultural insurance in the previous year. The population sampling was calculated with a single-stage non-clustered probability sampling. Factors affecting farmers’ agricultural insurance were analyzed by Binary Logistic Regression. The results of the analysis of factors affecting farmers’ willingness to take out agricultural insurance were farmers age, education, land size, sources from which they receive information on agricultural insurance, and the amount of support paid by the state, the amount of debt, pure product and agricultural income. The sources from which they received information on agricultural insurance had negative effect. The other factors have a positive effect. Providing education and advertising about agricultural insurance to farmers can increase the willingness of farmers to take out agricultural insurance. Support in the form of assistance on agricultural insurance of the government is also needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Residential Aspirations and Perception of Rural Youth of the Opportunities Offered By their Environment: the Case of a Spanish Inland Rural Area<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study explores aspects which influence whether young people decide to remain in a rural area or move away. Based on a qualitative analysis of 41 open-ended interviews with young people from a rural area of inland Spain, it especially examines the perception they hold of the opportunities provided by their rural environment for labour market integration. The results show that: 1) agriculture, the economic base of the area, is not perceived as a means of social and labour market integration; 2) a high degree of mobility between the village and the city is a necessary condition for young people to remain in a rural area; 3) promoting the natural and cultural resources of an area strengthens the feeling of belonging and identity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Food Self-Provisioning in the Czech Republic – A Comparison of Suburban and Peripheral Regions of Rural South Moravia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Czech Republic ranks among the countries with a strong tradition of home food self-provisioning. In this article, we focused our attention specifically to the traditional and frequently neglected phenomenon of rural self-provisioning while newly introducing a data-based analysis of the phenomenon in two areas, i.e., suburbs and peripheries of the South Moravian region. Unlike the research carried out in the CR or EU to date, our survey aims exclusively at the analysis of households with access to land, which allow a more detailed scrutiny of growing a wide range of commodities, the attitudes to it and its perspectives. The results of the field study carried out in 178 rural households in two types of South Moravian regions (suburban and peripheral) from 2017 show the regional differences in food self-provisioning. They also contribute to a better understanding of a phenomenon whose variability within a rural territory is quite known a little. Even though the suburban and peripheral regions have very comparable natural conditions and opportunities of growing crops (a similar type of estate, nearly the same size of the gardens surveyed), we can observe rather remarkable differences, especially in the extent of the areas being farmed and in the scale of breeding domesticated animals (work demanding activities). Compared to that, only negligible differences were found in growing commodities demanding less work (fruit and tomato growing). The identified differences in attitudes to self-provisioning in the observed regions (depending on the varied types of population in the regions) allow for analysing the perspectives of particular self-provisioning activities both in South Moravia and the CR on the whole.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Nostalgia, Sensations and Local Products in Rural Tourism Experiences in a Portuguese Schist Village<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rural tourism has attracted increasing attention in recent decades. It responds to new market demands, some of which driven by a nostalgic quest for a ‘rural idyll’, as well as the need of many European rural territories to find new sources of income and development. Local products represent a relevant asset for appealing to rural tourist experiences, enhancing local identity and regional economies. Based on a study of the rural tourist experience as lived by visitors of a Portuguese schist village, the present paper analyses the role of nostalgia and sensory experiences in leading to tourists’ purchase of local products, using a conditional process analysis. Results confirm this link and also show that tourists seem to be more affected by these dynamics than excursionists. Implications of results for management and development of rural territories involving tourism and sales of local products are further discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Rural Territories and Food Tourism – Exploring the Virtuous Bonds Through a Systematic Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although studies on food and tourism have gained terrain within tourism research, especially in the last decade, the connections of food tourism with rural territories have remained underexplored. This is particularly significant in the context of an increasing recognition that food should be understood as a distinguishing feature of rural tourism destinations, at the same time as displaying specific heritage and traditions as and contributing to the development of rural territories. The intention of this article is to shed light on the connection between food tourism and rural territories by exploring its potential through a systematic literature review on this untapped topic. Based on 73 articles focusing on those connections, the paper reviews and further explores what is already known on the topic, examining the different research methodologies and approaches used, as well as the dimensions analysed and results obtained. Research on the links between food tourism and rural territories seems to be geographically marked and particularly relevant in Southern European countries (such as Spain and Italy), as well as in North America (mainly the USA). Impacts on local development, together with production and commercialization strategies, are the main dimensions analysed by the articles, revealing indeed some of the potential virtuous bonds deriving from the connection between tourism, food and rural territories.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of the Social Capital in Rural Development. Case Study Analysis of Village Research Camps in Romania and Hungary<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Social capital represents an increasingly used term in social sciences, but its application in rural development is not widespread. In this study, we assess the social capital of villages where we have organized village research camps over the past decade. The research utilizes a specific methodology, synthesizes the research carried out in the village research camps. Methods included statistical data analysis, questionnaire survey, interviewing, and participant observation. Among the results, we found that the social capital of the studied villages and the condition of their local communities are different. These also affected the effectiveness of development activities. The study examined the role of social capital and how the development of social capital can contribute to the development of villages. In summary, our assumption is that there is a link between social capital and rural development, but this relationship is not always evident or one-way.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Prospects and Constraints of Low-Intensity Farming in Marginal Peri-Urban Areas: The Case of Lesvos, Greece<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper critically examines the characteristics of low-intensity, small-scale family farming and related aspects of farming sustainability, in a marginally productive peri-urban landscape, that of the capital town of Lesvos Island, Mytilini, Greece. These aspects and characteristics are explored on the basis of farmers’-landowners’ perceptions and visions of local landscape/land use change, through a questionnaire survey. Our findings indicate that production is basically aimed for self-consumption; such practices yield low incomes but bear high cultural values, mostly run by hobby and part-time farmers-landowners, lacking agricultural education. Olive crops are the dominant, but decreasing, form of production, while some other less-water-reliant cultivations are increasing. Peri-urban small family farming remains significant, but in need of new policies/strategies further promoting its value and role.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Upward Transition of Indian Entrepreneurs: from Simple Working to Ethnic Entrepreneurship. A Case Study in an Italian Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores the role of entrepreneurial orientation in addressing upward mechanisms of Indian immigrant workers in rural areas. To achieve this purpose, an empirical analysis was carried out to investigate how entrepreneurial orientation may affect mechanisms of professional transition. Precisely, we managed direct interviews among Indian workers (through the support of cultural mediators), local actors (like public and private advisors) and Italian entrepreneurs. Our funding suggests the presence of three Indian workers in Italy (simple workers, intrapreneurs, entrepreneurs), characterised by different entrepreneurial profile acting as engine or barrier to what we have labelled as “upward transition”. Immigrant entrepreneurs play a relevant role in Italy and in our point of view, it is of paramount importance to allow them to access to rural development policies, knowledge, training and education upgrading.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Music in the Tourism Offering of Rural Regions (The Case of Eastern Croatia)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Music is an important element of a destination’s integrated tourism product, especially in rural regions. This fact raises a variety of issues, in particular with regard to the tourism management of rural destinations. Answers are sought to questions on how music can be valorised to help create a distinctive tourism product, making it necessary to analyse the current state of the music offering before objectives can be set and concrete solutions, devised, to accomplish them. This paper explores the music offering of the rural regions of eastern Croatia and presents the results of a survey of the attitudes of destination managers (managers of tourist boards) in rural regions of eastern Croatia, with special emphasis on traditional music that is increasingly present and contributes to creating distinctive rural destinations (the valorisation of sound and music in the offering should also enhance the inclusion of music in promotion). The studied rural destinations of eastern Croatia are not developed in terms of tourism and their tourist accommodation capacities are very small. Music offering management, together with the valorisation and preservation of traditional values, could help them enhance their distinctiveness in the tourism market.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Transparency in Rural Areas in Norway: Promoting or Restraining the Desire to Stay?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>“Everyone knows everyone” is a recurring characteristic in descriptions of rural communities, one that has been interpreted as both a benefit and a drawback in research on such localities. In response to that discrepancy, this paper investigates the overall statistical effect of social transparency on residents’ desire to continue living in their rural communities. As revealed by analyses of survey data representing a national sample of Norway’s rural population in 2016, social transparency did significantly increase respondents’ desire to maintain residency in their rural communities. In providing and explaining such results, the paper contributes to current understandings of social conditions that influence rural (non-)migration and rural resilience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1