rss_2.0European Countryside FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Countryside Countryside 's Cover Provision of Destination Management in the Most Important and in the Crisis Period the Most Vulnerable Regions of Tourism in Slovakia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the presented paper is to examine the specific situation in the institutional provision of tourism in Slovakia with special regard to the most important and in the crisis period the most vulnerable tourism regions, their identification is a partial goal of the paper. With regard to the current crisis period, the survey is supplemented by identifying factors of employment change, focusing mainly on the region’s competitiveness in tourism. The importance of regions is assessed in the article on the basis of potential for tourism development, further in terms of their importance for tourism in Slovakia based on tourism performance expressed by the number of overnight stays and on the basis of industry concentration of tourism measured by employment in tourism. We consider the most vulnerable regions to be those that reach the level of specialization in tourism (based on the localization coefficient) and it has a growing tendency. The research results show that the importance of regional competitiveness in tourism for employment change (which is a regional component) is very different despite the established destination management, it is even negative, and in the case of positive figures, it is without an obvious advantage over other factors analyzed in the shift-share analysis. Also, it is possible that the current crisis period caused by measures in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic will help to find endogenous solutions to fragmented destination management in the most important and vulnerable tourism regions, or legislative solutions related to the amendment to the Tourism Promotion Act.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Searching for Success Factors of Agritourism: The Case of Kleve County (Germany)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Agritourism is increasing in popularity as more urban residents appreciate the slower paced rural environment and its authenticity. External influences (political crises and pandemics) have recently reduced mobility which makes agritourism an attractive alternative to former more distant holiday destinations. Agritourists are interested in working farms, local production and animal husbandry. Some European regions (e.g., Bavaria and South Tyrol) have successfully developed agritourism whereas the majority of rural regions are left behind. Agritourism diversifies farmers’ business model and increases their income. For our study, we chose Kleve County (Lower Rhine Area, Germany) as an exemplary region for a touristically unknown rural area. Regional opinion leaders, farmers and industry experts were interviewed to share their experiences about factors that could further and contribute to successful development of agritourism. The results of our case study and supplementary market interviews suggest that its success in less known rural regions depends on the geographic location, mutual efforts of local visionary entrepreneurs, regional beneficial networks and on committed political stakeholders to develop a sustainable business model. The results may be useful for other comparable European rural regions to diversify their farming and develop their own business model.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00From Valued Stayers to Working Hands? the Social Consequences of Changing Employment Relations Among Polish Migrants in Farmed Salmon Industry in Rural Norway<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>International migrant workers in European rural regions have supplied rural industries with necessary labour, stimulated the demography of host communities and raised questions about the inclusion of migrants. Using the case of Polish post-accession migrants employed in the farmed salmon industry in rural Norway, we explore the social consequences of changing employment relations in rural industries. By using a temporal perspective, we identify a transition from an inclusive employment regime experienced by the migrants who arrived in the locality within the first years after the EU enlargement in 2004, to an increasingly exploitative, insecure and competitive work environment for recently arrived migrants. We emphasise how employment conditions offered to different ‘waves’ of migrants affect the ways they perceive their status and value in rural hosting communities. Ultimately, we reflect on the potential long-term consequences of international migration to rural areas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-21T00:00:00.000+00:00The Role of Local Products in Tourism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a resurgence of regional and local products in Hungary today. Thanks to the development of local businesses, communities and towns are also able to derive a number of economic, environmental, social and cultural advantage. The products in focus are emerging in tourism more often, frequently acting as foundations of tourist attractions built upon them, providing the receiving end with a unique and authentic force of attraction that follow the present trends. The aim of our study was to explore tourists’ needs for local products and the role of local food in regional tourism services. The region of our empirical research was the area of Baranya and Tolna counties in Southern Hungary where we analyzed local producers’ and their consumers’ attitudes towards local products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Causes and Effects of Spatial Chaos in the Polish Carpathians – A Difficult Way to Sustainable Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mountainous rural areas are vulnerable to inappropriate land management, which is particularly visible in the Polish Carpathians. This paper attempts to diagnose the causes and effects of spatial chaos in this area, using the DPSIR method. The Three Questions method was used to assist in analysing the effects of disorder in the context of violating sustainable development. The analysis demonstrated that the causes of spatial disorder were mainly of legal and historical origins, with the most visible effects of this chaos being those related to the dispersion of buildings. Minimising spatial chaos requires extensive education, as well as amending legislation to limit the scope of decisions on development conditions. A national financial mechanism supporting the development of the Carpathians would also seem to be a desirable improvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Making Landscapes of (Be)Longing. Territorialization in the Context of the Eu Development Program Leader in North Rhine-Westphalia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The participation of residents in development processes is a keystone in current rural governance arrangements. The European Union’s rural development program LEADER is an example of this, as it requests local residents to take action in the development process. Similarly, participatory forms of natural and cultural heritage preservation have increased significantly with the aim of revitalizing the socioecological fabric of territories. Following the Anthropology of Policy, the study employs an ethnographic approach to analyze the effects of bio-cultural heritage preservation strategies in the context of LEADER. Drawing on ethnographic data gathered during several field observations and semi-structured interviews in a LEADER region in North Rhine-Westphalia, the article investigates how a local LEADER initiative reconstructs a historical cultural landscape in order to valorize and exploit the biocultural heritage resources of their village. Residents articulate four interrelated senses of (be)longing while (re)making the biocultural heritage: 1) Political claim to use a resource; 2) place attachment; 3) politics of in/exclusion; and 4) nostalgic-utopian longing. As new knowledge actors in landscape governance, residents posit their perceptions, interpretations and valuations of the landscape vis-à-vis institutional actors of landscape governance and negotiate large-scale landscape transformations in the region investigated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Work Demands, Independence, Valuation as a Farmer, and Mental Health in Farming. A Study of Mental Health Among Dairy Farmers and Vegetable- And Potato Farmers in Norway<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, the aim was to advance the knowledge about mental health status in the Norwegian farming population. Based on the dimensions in the Job Demand and Control model (Karasek, 1979); work demands and control, and the importance of recognition and dignity (Andrew Sayer, 2011), the aim was to study the effects of work demands, sense of independence and valuation on mental health status among farmers. It included an assessment of how the sectorial level, the sectors of dairy production and vegetable- and potato production, explains farmers` mental health status. A postal survey was conducted in 2012 using a structured questionnaire, and I included farmers from two sectors in the Norwegian agriculture: dairy farming (n = 493) and vegetable and potato farming (n = 122). The analyses were carried out by multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM). This study concludes that low work demands in farming, strong sense of independence as a farmer, and farmers` perception of valuation associate with good mental health. The mental health status in dairy farmers and vegetable and potato farmers and the effects of work demands, sense of independence and valuation on mental health status, were equal across groups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Mindset Patterns of Newcomers to Organic Farming in Hungary<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Counterurbanization, rural in-migrant trend studies rarely focus on the individual decision-making process. This paper studies the mindset patterns and frames the decision to select organic farming as a next career. We aimed to deepen our understanding of the complex reasoning that motivates newcomers to choose organic farming on a personal level. Based on semi-structured interviews, we developed a questionnaire and collected data from the newcomer to organic farming community in Hungary. The responses were analyzed using: (1) factor analysis to assess the dimensionality of the factors and (2) knowledge-based expert system to identify the logical connections between the aspirations. Our conceptual model was developed based on if-then rules between the identified aspirations, which describe the mindset patterns of newcomers to organic farming.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Knowledge Transfer, Knowledge Acquisition and Qualifications in the Context of Rural Development in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to analyse the knowledge acquisition and transfer system in rural Poland, in comparison with nonrural areas. In addition, to determine the importance of market qualifications and the effects that the Integrated Qualification System can have in the rural areas. This study shows that life in the countryside is becoming more diverse and agriculture is no longer the main source of income because the share of income from non-agricultural activities is increasing. This is linked to the fact that rural areas have become more attractive for the development of non-agricultural jobs, which in turn is associated with the need not only to raise, but also to confirm qualifications acquired in everyday activities. The conducted analysis shows that acquisition and transfer of knowledge can come from two different platforms, individual and supralocal. These platforms work in two totally different ways. Our analysis also shows a gap between formal and non-formal or informal education in relation to the rural areas´ needs. This gap can be bridged by using the Integrated Qualification System. Like a bidirectional tool, this system works on the one hand confirming acquired skills and knowledge, and on the other hand incorporating and updating the formal education system with non-formal or informal knowledge. The recognition of informal or non-formal qualifications has an important role in sustainable development and improving quality of life of rural areas. The article refers to the issue of qualifications of rural population, it is difficult to consider this issue in isolation from rural areas. The aim of the authors was to focus on the analysis of the issue of qualifications among people directly related to the countryside. The authors do not refer only to farmers, nevertheless, the reference to this social group finds its justification in the studies that are cited.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The Regional Development of the Rural Areas in Bulgaria and the Support of the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This exhibition is dedicated to the regional problems of rural areas in Bulgaria. The European dimensions of the territorial development of rural areas and their role for the socio-economic development of the population are successively considered. Gradually, the focus shifts to Bulgaria, addressing the main challenges facing rural areas. The territorial problems in front of the settlements, the emerging demographic problems accompanied by internal migrations, are presented. An analysis was made about the problems with employment, the deteriorated social infrastructure, and other problems, which show the real picture of the rural areas in Bulgaria. The overall analysis reveals the needs of rural areas and the state of the population in it. Recommendations are proposed for the implementation of targeted policies for regional rural development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00New Entrants in Agriculture – The Case of Young Immigrant Farmers in Sweden<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The opportunities available to start up a successful farm business structure the future of European farming. As fewer farm daughters and sons are projected to take over the family farm, there is increasing policy and academic interest in new entrants and the challenges they meet when they start their farm. This study focuses on new entrants that immigrate to Sweden. This group can be considered an extreme case of new entrants, as key resources (land, local networks, family labour support and farm specific knowledge are usually lacking for these farmers). Based on interviews with immigrant farmers in the Mälardalen region, we present the different ways they get access to economic, cultural and social capital. These insights are valuable for policy aimed at helping immigrant farmers starting up.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Quality of Life and Living Space in the Balaton Destination (Hungary) Based on the Perceptions of the Local Residents and the Owners of Second Homes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aims to reveal the evaluation of quality of life (QOL) factors of the local residents and the owners of the second homes from a regional perspective. As a case study we analyse the second most important tourism destination of Hungary, Lake Balaton in terms of evaluation of quality of life and living space within the scope of three target groups, two groups of local residents (who live there and work there, and who live there but work elsewhere) and the owners of second homes. The authors believe that the understanding of the decisive factors of quality of life and living space is becoming increasingly important in the successful management of local governments and in the field of sustainable tourism development and tourism management as well. The authors also intend to detect and understand the differences between the target groups. One of the most important results of the article is the creation of an aggregated settlement quality of life (QOL) indicator. The research observes both objective and subjective factors based on a primary questionnaire survey conducted in 2018 resulting from a sample of 844 respondents. The results are interpreted with crosstab, correlation and variance analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The Current Challenges and Future Alternatives of Supplying Remote Areas with Basic Goods: The Case Study of Idrijsko-Cerkljansko Region, Slovenia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The accessibility of services of general interest (shops, post offices, banks etc.) in rural hinterlands is decreasing and villages that once supplied areas with services are losing their functions in the central settlements’ network. According to the current analytical framework the key challenges of supply are people’s dependence on car transportation, lack of village shops and other basic services, and e-services replacing location-based services. This paper examines the current dynamics of the supply of basic goods in the Idrijsko-Cerkljansko region of Slovenia. Using mixed methods approach, the paper covers a historical overview of service provision by a field survey and historical analysis, as well as an analysis of demand and supply, done via an online questionnaire. The aim of the paper is to combine the findings into a proposal for an optimized alternative supply network integrating good practices such as linking providers, promoting local products and reopening of village shops.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Prospects for Sustainable Agriculture in Russia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Industrial agriculture contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and is degrading agricultural land. To reduce the impact of agriculture on the environment, a transition to sustainable agriculture is necessary. The article assesses the prospects for sustainable agriculture in Russia. It examines three models for their applicability to Russia: food sovereignty, community supported agriculture, and business as usual.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Transformative Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Insights from a Rural Development Initiative in the Portuguese Region of Baixo Alentejo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The role of social innovation initiatives in contributing to sustainable rural development has been discussed both in academia and practice. Some scholars argue that, rather than delivering solely on unmet needs and services, social innovation should have a broader transformative impact. By applying Castro-Arce and Vanclay’s analytical framework for transformative social innovation (2020), the paper seeks to analyse the experience of a rural development initiative based in Portugal. The results of this exploratory study indicate that, in triggering bottom-linked governance, the initiative has taken on the bridging roles of knowledge broker, resource broker, shared vision champion, transparency and conflict resolution agent, and network enabler. Alongside taking on these bridging roles, the initiative under study, while promoting cooperation and knowledge exchange, has encountered some challenges further discussed in the paper. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how the proposed framework could be enriched.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes in the Management of the Irish Uplands: A Case-Study from the Iveragh Peninsula<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Changes in the Management of the Irish Uplands: A Case-Study from the Iveragh Peninsula</title><p>European upland landscapes are of high natural and cultural value. In this paper we present a case study, set in the Irish uplands. We highlight the complex links between ecology, farming systems, the policy environment and the local socioeconomic and cultural context. Given the current low economic returns from hill sheep farming, pluriactivity and multifunctionalism are increasingly necessary farm household coping strategies. We argue that the part-time farming model has land use management and ecological implications for the uplands. Overall we find that within the social-ecological system studied, farming households are adjusting to changing circumstances rather than exiting the sector en mass. We conclude that effective policies for the conservation and management of the uplands, requires a cross-sectoral approach that can take account not only of environmental criteria, but also land managers socio-economic objectives.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2009-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00One Rural, two Visions — Environmental Issues and Images on Rural Areas in Portugal<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>One Rural, two Visions — Environmental Issues and Images on Rural Areas in Portugal</title><p>In recent years rural areas, specially the most peripheral and <italic>remote</italic> ones, have become increasingly perceived and identified as spaces of outstanding environmental quality. This relatively new function of the rural, while widely recognized both socially and institutionally, is to some extent strange to local residents to whom the natural resources and the environmental aspects are mainly perceived from an <italic>utilitarian</italic> perspective. The <italic>exteriority</italic> of the measures and policies to preserve rural environment tends to place <italic>remote</italic> rural areas in a new subaltern position. Correspondingly, the social and institutional construction of rural areas as environmental reserves tends to create a new rural-urban dichotomy which may have important repercussions in terms of the future directions of rural development processes. We aim to discuss the abovementioned aspects, based on empirical evidence from two Portuguese rural areas. We conclude that there are two different visions about the rural — the rural <italic>to visit</italic> and the rural to <italic>live</italic> - conveyed respectively by the urban residents and the State and by the local inhabitants.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2009-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Demographic Situation of Rural Population in Ukraine in the Period of Intensive Socio-Economic Transformation<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Demographic Situation of Rural Population in Ukraine in the Period of Intensive Socio-Economic Transformation</title><p>The paper attempts to deal with the problem of the demographic situation of rural population in Ukraine during intensive socio-economic transformations (1990-2007). In the time-spatial depiction there were analysed the following elements of the demographic and socio-economic situation of rural population: changes in population number, birth rate, mortality rate and structure, infant mortality rate, fertility rate, population's age and gender structure, natural increase and migration rate, employment level and structure, unemployment rate, level and structure of income and basic household expenditure, poverty rate, level of satisfaction with one's own material situation. It was found that Ukraine has seen a deep demographic crisis resulting from historical and socio-economic factors. It is also a consequence of the steady impediment and falsification of agricultural reforms.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2009-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00European Countryside - Editorial<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>European Countryside - Editorial</title><p>EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE is defined as an international on-line scientific journal in the branch of rural development. It publishes first of all theoretical and methodological articles, dealing with multi-functional development of countryside, articles related to regional aspects of rural development and with problems of individual branches connected with the countryside. EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE is a journal supporting European processes of integration, collaboration of experts from European countries and the idea of Europe of Regions. EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE deals with problems of European countryside - although general and/or theoretical problems of rural research from other continents are welcome. Widening of the European Community and common agricultural policy put a joint future ahead of the rural development in whole Europe. Our journal welcomes articles from different disciplines dealing with the countryside having in mine conceptions of sustainability and locality: ecology of rural landscape, rural sociology, demographic development of rural regions, human resources, gender, multifunctional development of countryside, role of agriculture and other branches, rural and agro-tourism, geography of rural micro-regions, problems of rural borderland, rural settlement, small towns as rural centres, rural planning and architecture and other aspects of rural development. The publishing in EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE is open for all experts from universities, scientific institutions and other workplaces of investigation. The authors will pay symbolic amount for the publication of their papers. We go out from the presupposition that a majority of results arise within different grants projects where publication costs are an integral part of the budget. Other expenses connected with publishing of EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE are covered by the MUAF Faculty of Agronomy. On the other side, the papers published in EUROPEAN COUNTRYSIDE will be free accessible to all potential readers through the net. By such a way we hope in better quotation of individual papers and increasing value of the papers and their authors. Additionally, professional way of publishing helps to complete this aim.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2009-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Regional Differentiation of the Use of Production Factors in the Polish Agriculture<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Regional Differentiation of the Use of Production Factors in the Polish Agriculture</title><p>The competitive ability of agricultural farms depends on the efficiency of the utilization of production factors. The elaboration presents the differentiation of the production factors use in agricultural farms located in four regions within the framework of the FADN system. The period of farm investigation covers the years 2004-2006. The research deals with the accepted agricultural types of farms: field crops, milk and granivores. A relatively large differentiation of agricultural farms was observed between regions in respect of cropland area, economic size and current financial liquidity. The share of the debts in farms was not significant and remained at a relatively similar level in the regions analysed. The greatest differentiation between the regions concerned the yield of equity. Farms of "granivores" agricultural type, especially those situated in the Pomorze and Mazury regions, were characterized by the highest efficiency of the use of production factors and also by the economic power. The lowest efficiency of these factors appeared in arable farms.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2009-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1