rss_2.0European Review Of Applied Sociology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Review Of Applied Sociologyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/ERAShttps://www.sciendo.comEuropean Review Of Applied Sociology 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60da53fdc1c71942a60ce692/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211017T042551Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211017%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=c2c0defa89f3f50abc2216b9c11edf159178e189ada8e46d68851a151027c0f4200300Five Possible impacts of Digitalisation in Romaniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid swift towards digital transformations in a globalized modern economy is transforming the skills needed by Europe’s workers to maintain their jobs and remain actively integrated on the labour market. As the environment diversifies through the emergence of modern technologies, the working population advances the education for upskilling in a digital era. In this context, understanding the impact of digitalization and finding the appropriate responses is critical. Our paper explores several effects of digitalisation, connected to the Romanian socio-economic specificities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Fear of COVID-19, Demographic Factors, and Substance use in a Multinational Sample Amid the COVID-19 Pandemichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The global pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had mental health consequences such as fear. Scholars have argued that when people are fearful, they may use substances to escape from fear, and demographic variables can have implications on how to target interventions to people. To date, little is known about how the fear of COVID-19 and demographic factors may contribute to substance use amid the COVID-19 pandemic. From 3 June to 10 June 2020, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 202 residents (Mean age = 41.77 ± 11.85; age range = 18-70 years) in 14 countries. A standardized questionnaire was utilized for data collection, SPSS (version 22.0) was utilized for data analysis, and p &lt; .05 implied statistical significance. Descriptive statistics revealed that residents in Canada scored the highest mean score in the fear of COVID-19 scale, while residents in Australia scored highest in the substance use scale. Further, fear of COVID-19 had a negative nonsignificant relationship with substance use (r = −.07; df = 200; p &gt; .05). Males (Mean = 18.21) scored significantly higher than females (Mean = 14.06) in substance use [t (200) = 1.9; p &lt; .05]. The younger age group (18-28 years) scored the highest mean score in substance use compared to older age groups (29-39 years, 40-50 years, 51-61 years, and 62-72 years); however, it was not significant [F (4, 197) = 2.04; p &gt; .05]. These data contribute to informing future studies that add more questions regarding how different variables may contribute to substance use during subsequent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The Relationship between Classroom type (Single-Sex or Mixed-Sex) and the Academic Achievements in Mathematics among Students belonging to the National-Religious Society in Israelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many studies have indicated that single-sex classrooms promote female students’ self-confidence and achievement in various professions, including professions where their rate of employment is low, such as mathematics and other exact sciences. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between single-sex classrooms and math achievements among both female and male students. The study population included 608 students learning in the fifth-ninth grades, who attended state-religious schools in the southern region of Israel and came from families who had similar socioeconomic status. The students answered a short demographic questionnaire and their math teacher filled out each student’s score achieved in the regional math summative assessment. The findings showed no relationship between classroom type and boys’ achievement in mathematics, while a significant relationship was found between learning in single-sex classroom and higher math achievements among girls in elementary school. In middle school, however, no significant difference was found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Squatter Settlement: Costs and Contributing Factors in Jimma Town, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Urbanization and urban growth are considered as a modern way of life which manifests economic growth and development in many countries. On the other hand, it yields a number of evils, especially unplanned (squatter) settlement. The study conducted on the area of squatter settlement in Jimma town is aimed to explore the socioeconomic factors contributing for squatter settlement and its effect on social, economic and institutional conditions of settler and development of the town. The study was guided by qualitative research approach and employed cross-sectional and phenomenological design in which primary data required for the analysis was collected through key informant interview, focus group discussion, non-participant observation as well as secondary data from document and analyzed by thematic analysis. The findings of this study revealed that, the root cause identified for squatter settlement is shortage of residential house and its consequential high price of house rent, the need of holding large plot of land and inefficient land administration system. Other findings indicated that squatter settlement incur costs on both the government and the squatter. Squatter settlement creates fear and dearth of confidence on the land they hold illegally, poor infrastructure due to lack of government interventions and low social service delivery, and social distress within the community. The study also found out that squatting displaces the host ex-farmers from their farmland and leads to consequent poverty and livelihood disasters. It is recommended that, political will in accessing residential land and financial commitment of the government is required. Active participation of the public and abiding legal procedures in accessing residential land is vital.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Gen Z Perceptions and Expectations upon Entering the Workforcehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article focuses on examining Gen Z-ers’ opinions and expectations regarding their present or future jobs, as well as their views on their future careers. The exploratory study performed on members of this cohort revealed, among others, that Gen Z-ers appreciate a secure job, financial stability, and prefer working for big companies. They choose jobs which reflect their passions and look for informal and relaxed environments, where they can have their own well defined office space. This cohort wishes to be mentored at work and is brutally aware that success must come with career-long learning. Despite being said to be digital natives, they feel the need to bond with colleagues and to freely speak their mind.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Female Sport Participation In South African Rural Schools: Analysis Of Socio-Cultural Constraintshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2015-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Family Benefits In Member States Of The European Union: A Comparative Perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2015-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article intends to be a screening of family benefits in the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU) and to contribute to the research of shared trends with respect to family approach in these countries. Four types of family benefits including eight distinctive categories are analysed: child-benefit, child care allowances, child-raising allowances, and other benefits (birth and adoption grants, allowance for single parents, special allowances for children with disabilities, advance payments for maintenance and other allowances). The paper is based on primary and secondary analysis of 28 sets of national data provided through the European Union's Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC). Three categories of member states are considered: founder member states of the EU, other “old” member states, and the new Central and Eastern ones. Chronological development of national regulations with impact on family benefits is analysed in connection with the moment of becoming a member state. Various forms of family benefits legislation and their main subjects of interest are further researched. The last part of the article looks at the coverage of family benefits. Seven member states operate in this respect based on regulations adopted before EU accession. Belgium, Finland, and Lithuania have the “most preserved” family regulations per category of member states. The first three topics of family regulations are: child, family, and allowance / benefit. The most frequently provided family benefits are: birth and adoption grants, and special allowance for children with disabilities. All eight family benefits are provided in France, Finland, Hungary, and Slovenia. Only two types of family benefits are available in Ireland, Spain, and Cyprus.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact Of Modernization On Religious Institution: A Case Study Of Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistanhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2015-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Religion is a unified system of sacred norms, values, beliefs and objects. In any society religion plays an important role in the shaping of the people’s lives, behaviour and interactions. In every aspect of life people consult with their religion and act according to the teachings of religion. At present modernization, globalization and social change are creating very drastic changes in every sphere of life. These changes have both negative and positive impacts on the society. Modernisation is also creating very serious changes in the social institution of religion. In Pakistan, modernization have very severe impact on religion and many sub-sects have been created under the religion of Islam. Each and every sect is claiming that their teachings are true. This phenomenon is crating sectarian violence in Pakistani society. Present study was conducted in the province of “Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan”. Pakhtun people follow religion strictly in every segment of life. They sacrifices their lives on the name of Islam. But at present due to modernization, this phenomenon has been changed. Main objective of this study was to analyze the major impacts of modernisation on the religion of Islam in “Pakhtun” culture and society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Inter-Institutional Social Partnerships Between The State And The Church In Romania (With Reference To The Child Protection)https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2015-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Compared to the European countries, the sociologic research related to religiousness and religious affiliation ranks Romania among the most religious countries, this aspect being proved also by the active positioning of the Church in society, especially in the public space. The verification of the phenomenon may be done also through our research theme, which has a content focused on social work, whose result may be used accordingly. There are publications in the field of social work also containing chapters about the Church as an institution, describing the specific activities with social character (either of philanthropy, or of empirical assistance, or even professionalised social work). Nevertheless, most papers mention the Church only in the description of some historical aspects of social work in Romania. Our topic is new because a research similar to ours has not been conducted in Romania yet, in our opinion, as in all bibliographic sources used in the writing of our paper he have found no research approaching such topics. The entire scientific endeavour starts from the formal systematic and non-systematic collaboration already existing between Churches and DGASPCs, but in order to scientifically validate this hypothesis we chose to conduct also a quantitative analysis of the data collected through a questionnaire with closed questions. The main purpose of our paper is the highlighting of the specificity of the interaction between the Church and the social work practice in Romania, through the existing partnership links between the State and the Church.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Organisational Communication In The Field Of Child Protection. Passing From Fatalism To Organisational Democracy In The Romanian Public Spacehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2015-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Considered a fundamental element of human existence, communication has been used since ancient times for the purpose of “transmitting something to the others also”. Although the term of “communication” has Latin origin, the first practical preoccupations for this issue are found in the Ancient Greeks’ works and were related to oratory which, in its turn, was promoted as “art of the word”. Even if in the literature the notion of “communication” was defined in a complex manner, being assigned numerous valences. Theoreticians found that, on the level of human communication, two common elements clearly appear for each of the meanings of this term. Thus, on the one hand, communication is perceived as a true process of information transmission, and on the other hand no human action, irrespective of the level of its realisation, can be conceived outside this process. Beyond the completion of the main theoretical models for the phenomena of organisational communication, the present article attempts to forward the author's personal diagnosis of a child protection institution, more precisely the General Division for Social Work/Assistance and Child Protection Caraş-Severin (DGASPC), valuing a wide-range methodology (analysis of social documents, interview, and structured observation). Thus, by combining the quantitative endeavour with the qualitative one, we highlighted the existence of a formal ascendant vertical communication, opposed or complementary to the descendant vertical one characterising most of Romanian organisational practices. The special institutional specificity of DGASPC turns this organisational territory into a possible model of interpersonal relationing, different from the general specificity existing in Romanian public institutions where the boss dictates.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Workplace Deviant Behaviour Among Public Sector Employees: The Roles of Perceived Religiosity and Job Statushttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2018-0010<p>Workplace deviant behavior has been linked to a number of organizational losses such as decreased employee morale, increased turnover and loss of legitimacy among important external stakeholders. Therefore, this paper investigated the relationships between religiosity, job status and workplace deviant behavior. Participants consisted of 351 (F=178; Mean age=39.2) employees of the Local Government Service Commission in Nigeria. Data which were sourced through the <italic>Workplace Deviant Behavior Scale</italic> and <italic>Centrality of Religiosity Scale</italic> were analyzed using multiple regression. Results revealed that religiosity negatively related to workplace deviant behavior, but no significant difference was found between junior and senior staff in their display of workplace deviant behavior. In addition, both religiosity and job status jointly influenced respondents’ workplace deviant behavior. The findings imply that high religiosity among employees might reduce the risks of deviance and in turn create a better work environment.</p>ARTICLE2019-01-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Transformation of Gender Role in the Area of Sebangau National Parkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2018-0008<p>This study aims to describe the role of reproductive, productive and community working of the society of KerengBangkirai and to know the requirement of woman practice and strategic needs in KerengBangkirai. It used qualitative approach with humans as study object. The object of study is the KerengBangkirai society. The result showed that the role of reproductive role became women’s responsibility, either wife/mother or daughter. The role of gender within the community showed the lack of access and women’s control in making important decision. In fact, women are usually missed from village officers’ attention. The women’s practical needs include skills of using fishing gear, child care provider, child room building and others. Then, women’s strategic needs include authority alteration in term of decision-making involvement, equalling job division in domestic sector, women’s involvement in paid toilets as their productive workspace, violence awareness of gender-based and achieving fair access and control.</p>ARTICLE2019-01-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The Life is “Solitary, Poor, Nasty, Brutish”, But Not Short: The Deserted Old in the Extreme Realityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2018-0007<p>Aging is an inevitable reality of human lives, and hundreds of thousands of studies address the questions of what makes people old. However, the underlying fact behind the question of what makes us old is the apprehension to face the grim reality of the life in the old age. Like other social sciences, a range of debates rises over the years that make the question more complex by bringing it to the theoretical realm where empirical examples often given less focus, and sometimes completely ignored. The paper presents some well-known cases, published in the daily newspaper (the Daily Star, Dhaka, Bangladesh) about the people in the old age, mostly living in the old home, and intends to interpret them with a purpose to outline the factors that change the plot of lives. The study concludes that people in the old become disengaged from the society primarily after three events, first, the death of the spouse, second, the marriage of the children, and third children left the home country and staying abroad. In addition, there is also the case that simply tells us disengagements do not imply the end of life, contrarily people can re-engage to a different form of lives after disengaging from the life they know.</p>ARTICLE2019-01-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Why Are We Afraid of Artificial Intelligence (Ai)?https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2018-0006<p>The study presents the results regarding the attitudes of students from humanities and technical specializations in Timișoara towards the emergence and development of artificial intelligence (AI). The emphasis was on the most likely consequences of the development of artificial intelligence in the future, especially the negative consequences that its development would entail. The method used for data collection was the sociological survey and the information gathering tool was the questionnaire. It was applied to a total of 929 people, ensuring a sample representativity margin of ± 3%. The analysis reveals that the participants in the study predict that due to the emergence and development of AI, in the future, interpersonal relationships will be negatively affected, there will be fewer jobs, economic crises will emerge, it will be used to make intelligent weapons, to increase military conflicts, to take control of humanity and, last but not least, to destroy mankind. The results revealed differences in responses depending on the type of specialization (humanities or technical) and the gender of the respondents.</p>ARTICLE2019-01-25T00:00:00.000+00:00The Emergent Adult: Transition from School to Workhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2019-0009<p>This article approaches the topic of the emerging adulthood with young people in Romania, as well as the beginning of the first work experience. The main aim is to identify the factors of a successful transition from school to independent life. The article examines the social status and the issues the young people in Romania face with regard to the transition from education to employment. The data type longitudinal panel study refers to the cohort of young people born in 1994-1995, the generation which graduated from the 12<sup>th</sup> or 13<sup>th</sup> class in 2012. We answer the question „Which are the factors that determine the first work experience for Romanian young people and what does this look like?” Half of the young people have work experience - 50.1%, with 25.2% working at the time they filled in the questionnaires, two years after graduation. <italic>Employment</italic> is explained to an extent of 1% by gender and area of residence, 4% by factors of social exclusion and 1% by factors related to negative life events. All these factors explain the variance of 6% in the employment of young people. Linear regression analysis (hierarchical) showed that <italic>social inclusion</italic> factors have the greatest effect on <italic>employment</italic>, with 4% of employment variance explained by <italic>social exclusion factors,</italic> while the influence of the demographic variables, factors of social exclusion and factors related to negative life events explain 6% of the youth employment variance.</p>ARTICLE2019-12-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental Sustainability Practices of Immigrant-Owned Small and Medium Enterprises in South Africahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2018-0009<p>Environmental sustainability of immigrant-owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is important to a country’s long-term sustainable development. The study investigated the environmental sustainability practices (ESP) of immigrant-owned SMEs. In addition, the study examined the effect of demographic factors (age, gender and level of education) on ESP. The study also investigated the relationship between ESP and financial performance of SMEs. Data was collected from one hundred and eighty two immigrant small business owners. The survey method (self-administered questionnaire) was used for data collection. The participants in the study were conveniently sampled. Descriptive statistics, T-test, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used for data analysis. The results indicated that immigrant-owned SMEs are engaged in recycling, energy efficiency and reduction of waste and pollution. Their involvement in environmentally friendly products and environmental management policy is limited. Females exhibit higher levels of recycling, waste reduction energy efficiency and reduction of pollution. Age and level of education positively affect environmental sustainability practices. Waste reduction, energy efficiency and reduction of pollution have significant positive relationships with financial performance. Recommendations to improve EPS are suggested.</p>ARTICLE2019-01-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Sexual Risk Behaviour: The Roles of Impulsivity, Family Type and Peer Pressure Among Undergraduate Students in Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2020-0002<p>The study examined the influence of impulsivity on undergraduates’ sexual risk behaviour and also scrutinized the mediating roles of family type and peer pressure on undergraduates’ sexual risk behaviour in Southwestern Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey that employed a multi-stage sampling procedure in which respondents were selected at different levels and stages. A total of 1080 respondents selected from six Universities participated in the study. Their age ranges from 15-19 years with a mean of 15.9±1.2 years. Data gathered through Impulsive Behaviour Scale and the Sexual Behaviour Inventory was analysed by t-test and ANCOVA. The result showed that impulsivity (t = 6.04, df =1078, p &lt;0.05) had significant influence on the sexual risk behaviour of undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria. The result further showed that age: F (2, 1077) = 18.20, p &lt; 0.05; family type F (2, 1077) = 25.41, p &lt;0. 05 and peer pressure F (2, 1077) = 53.13, p&lt; 0.05 have an intervening impact on the influence of impulsivity F (2, 1073) = 1.37, p &lt; 0.05) on sexual risk behaviour of the undergraduates. The study concluded that impulsivity enhances sexual risk behaviour of undergraduates in Southwestern Nigeria.</p>ARTICLE2020-06-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Mindfulness and Complex Identities in Equity Training: A Pilot Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2017-0002<p>Equity (diversity, anti-oppression) training refers to teaching self-awareness of social location, privilege/disadvantage that mainstream culture perpetuates, and working self-reflectively for equity in everyday interactions amid diversity. This paper investigates the efficacy of equity training on the basis of mindfulness, compassion, and an intersectional/complex identity. Mindfulness refers to a vivid awareness of the present moment, of one’s own embodiment, thoughts, and emotions, fostering self-awareness and compassion. A complex conception of identity in an intersectional approach recognizes that people hold multiple statuses and I propose that this helps them self-identify with both privilege and disadvantage beyond dichotomic notions, finger pointing, and angry reactions. I first discuss the relevant theory of intersectionality and compassion, and consider the significance of this kind of approach to equity training. I then report the outcome of my pilot study that compares the impressions of two small groups of trainees in different equity workshops who were interviewed: The target group attended a workshop based on mindfulness exercises within an intersectional framework, and the comparison group attended a workshop not based on mindfulness, but that included information about privilege, disadvantage, and compassion. The findings point to an enhanced and emotionally involved self-awareness in respondents that participated in the target group workshop, based on mindfulness and empathy enhancing exercises.</p>ARTICLE2017-10-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The Career Model of 21st Century Adopted By Higher Education Graduateshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2020-0008<p>The present paper has identified two career models, the Protean Career and the Boundaryless Career, that can be considered to accommodate higher education graduates’ personal and professional needs, as well as the flexibility and adaptability requirements of the current labor market. The research used the data from a tracer study applied online to the graduates of the West University of Timisoara, with a response rate of 25% (which falls within the response rate for similar studies at the European level).</p>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Age, Gender, Socio-Economic Status, Attitudes Towards Drug Abuse as Determinants of Deviant Behavior Among Undergraduate Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/eras-2020-0009<p>Evidence from literature shows that deviant behavior is on high side among undergraduates in Nigeria whereas some certain psychosocial factors causing this phenomenon have not been fully explored. This study examined whether age, gender, socio-economic status and attitude towards drug abuse determine deviant behavior among the undergraduate students. It adopted ex-post facto design. Simple random sampling technique was used to sample 269 participants. The Prescription Drug Attitudes Questionnaire (PDAQ) and Deviant Behavior Variety Scale (DBVS) were used to gather data from the participants. T-test analysis and multiple regression were used to test the formulated hypotheses. The results revealed that age, monthly allowance and attitude towards drug abuse have significant joint prediction of deviant behavior (R=.358 R2 =.128, F=10.594, p&lt;.05) while only attitude towards drug abuse independently predicted deviant behavior (R=.236, R2 =.056 F = 17.112; p&lt;.01). Also, there was a significant gender difference on deviant behavior [t (293) = 4.196, p&lt;.01], where male respondents scored high significantly (M=4.09, SD=3.44) compared to female respondents (M=2.53, SD=2.31) on deviant behavior. It is therefore recommended that policy makers in educational sector and the governing council of tertiary institutions need to create awareness on the debilitating effects of drugs on students’ behavior, especially among males.</p>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1