rss_2.0Environmental & Socio-economic Studies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Environmental & Socio-economic Studies & Socio-economic Studies 's Cover 2016 Vietnam marine life incident: measures of subjective resilience and livelihood implications for affected small-fishery communities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In April 2016, four provinces of Vietnam were struck by one of the largest manmade environmental incidents in Vietnam. Through a discharge of toxic chemicals by Formosa Ha Tinh Steel Corporation, oceanic waters along Vietnam’s central coast were severely polluted. Consequently, the livelihoods of over 510,000 people living in coastal communities were severely affected by the Formosa Ha Tinh Steel Corporation incident (FHS incident). This study focusses on <italic>ex-ante</italic> and <italic>ex-post</italic> differences in livelihoods, and the subjective resilience of small-fishery households affected by the FHS incident in Hải Dương commune, a small coastal community, in central Vietnam. This was done through a qualitative analysis of livelihood strategies and resilience capacities of the affected households. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30), expert interviews (n = 3) and secondary data analysis were conducted from March to May 2018 employing a case study approach. Results show that the level of subjective resilience was strongly affected by a combination of social, financial, and human capitals. The presence, or lack, of these capitals combined with contextual factors influenced the livelihood strategies a household could pursue. Households that were able to pursue a combination of intensifying and diversifying livelihood strategies were most successful in recovering from and adjusting to the environmental incident. Households with restrained access to livelihood capitals were limited to intensifying livelihood strategies, having no real other option than persistence and increased dependence on government subsidies. Lastly, migration as a livelihood strategy and subsequent transformative resilience capacities remained generally low.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The scars of war: A programme for the identification of the environmental effects of Word War II bombings for the purposes of spatial management in the Koźle Basin, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Poland’s Koźle Basin contains numerous craters created from the explosions of World War II aerial bombs as well as craters left by unexploded ordnance. The state of the local environment has been severely affected. This situation presents an obstacle to spatial management of the land to this day. This research programme studied the distribution of postmilitary anthropogenic geohazards in the area. It was intended to help to indicate the appropriate courses of action, including in the field of spatial planning, in the areas affected by former bombing. Desk studies focused on photo-interpretive analysis of archival aerial photographs and took advantage of the potential of high-resolution shaded relief rasters created from digital terrain models derived from LiDAR scanning. Field studies used classic geomorphological methods. Studies conducted so far in the bombed areas indicate the necessity of carrying out systematic, anticipatory, accurate surveys of the land and soil surface with the use of geophysical methods. Currently, the traces identified in the field suggest that the amount of unexploded ordnance remaining in the ground is very large.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of urban morphology on transportation: a case study of the city of Al-Kut, Iraq<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to cognize the current effects of land use decisions on traffic in the city centre and predict the future effects of these decisions. The researchers studied and analyzed the effect of changing land uses in the eastern part of Al-Kut city centre on traffic in the city centre. The study adopted the descriptive analytical approach based on the study area data and information. A field survey of the land uses that are most attractive to movement and another field survey of the traffic volume in the study area’s main streets. The study found that the transportation problems in the city centre will be exacerbated in the future due to the inappropriate position of many activities in the past two decades. All these changes attracted many transport trips and thus increased the volume of movement in the area. Kut city’s specificity exacerbated the problem as all the crossings between the two river banks are located in the city centre. This problem will be exacerbated in the future when Wasit University colleges are completed, and the number of transport trips to them increases and at completing the mall construction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00University campuses as agents for urban change<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Thanks to the leading role of universities in cities as knowledge and innovation hubs, many cities rely on their universities to face their economic and social challenges. On the other hand, universities need their cities to fulfil the capacity needed to satisfy student and staff needs for services and facilities. Therefore, the university-city relationship is considered to be intercorrelated and overlapping. However, due to the need for expansion, universities tend to move out and build larger campuses causing different trends of studentification and de-studentification in the city. These trends impact a city’s urban growth and transformation over time. This study analyses the impact of four different campuses of Kyushu University from 1993 to 2017 to understand the morphological impact of old and new campuses on their surroundings. A spacematrix and a mixed-use index were used to produce raster maps that helped to visualize temporal trends of urban density and the mixed use of functions in areas surrounding campuses. Results have shown that moved out campuses have the potential to impact the surrounding mixed use of functions. However, new campuses have the potential to impact a city’s urban density, therefore, trends in de-studentification can impact the campus-city functional relationship. Conversely, studentification trends can impact the campus-city physical relationship. Thus, university campuses could be considered as indirect agents that contribute to the urban physical and functional change of the city.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Groundwater quality testing in the area of municipal waste landfill sites in Dąbrowa Górnicza (southern Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Groundwater quality assessment for pollution can be undertaken with the use of indicators that will confirm or deny the negative impact of potential pollution sources. Based on water quality monitoring data from the Lipówka I and Lipówka II municipal landfill sites in Dąbrowa Górnicza from the last five years, the water quality in the area was assessed using the Nemerow Pollution Index (NPI) method. Seven parameters were assessed – pH, electrical conductivity, and the concentrations of chlorides, sulphates, ammonium ions, boron and iron. The limits for class III water quality were used as the reference level. The results of the NPI calculations show that the highest indices were obtained for the piezometers PZ5 and T5 located in the outflow of the water from the Lipówka I landfill site. The highest values of the Nemerow index were obtained for ammonium ions and reached a value of over 36 in the PZ5 piezometer and 17 in the T5 piezometer. The other parameters did not indicate a significant impact of the landfill sites on the quality of groundwater. The highest values of the indicators were observed in 2017. It is worth noting that, apart from the large differences in the content of ammonium ions, the values of the Nemerow indices for the electrical conductivity specifically for the PZ5 piezometer are twice as high as for the other piezometers and four times higher than for boron. The Nemerow index is a useful and easy method of assessing the quality of groundwater. It can even be used for a small number of parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Spontaneous flora of O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For the first time we compiled a full checklist of the spontaneous flora of O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden of Taras Shevchenko National University, Kyiv. Native (281) and alien (243) taxa of the flora were analyzed. Among the alien species there are 115 xenophytes (including 71 archaeophytes and 44 neophytes), 128 ergasiophygophytes (including 3 archaeophytes and 125 neophytes). Four species of alien plants were listed for the first time for the flora of Ukraine: <italic>Arabis procurrens</italic>, <italic>Lactuca sibirica</italic>, <italic>Polanisia dodecandra</italic> subsp. <italic>trachysperma</italic> and <italic>Talinum paniculatum</italic>. It was found that the alien fraction of the flora is dominated by a stable component (54.7%), and among the ergasiophygophytes, most taxa (86.3%) are unstable components. Among the native plants, those species with a polyregional distribution predominate. This ratio is typical for transformed flora that have lost their natural structure. Among the alien species, the majority are sub-Mediterranean (43.6%), American (23.9%) and Asian (18.1%) in origin. In the biomorphological structure of the species of native plants perennial grasses predominate (65.3%), among xenophytes - annual grasses are dominant (74.8%), and among ergasiophygophytes perennial grasses predominate (43.8%). But despite the large number of alien plants in the botanical garden, their invasion can be mostly contained. The most widespread invasive plant is <italic>Parthenocissus vitacea</italic>, in addition, a number of potentially invasive plants need monitoring, in particular <italic>Parietaria officinalis</italic>, <italic>Phytolacca acinosa</italic>, <italic>Thladiantha dubia</italic> and some others. In addition, there is a list of introductions which have high naturalization rates and over time could replenish the composition of the spontaneous flora.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of drought, farmers’ adaptation strategies and administrative mitigation measure in the Marathwada region, India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The number of serious and extreme drought events is increasing, causing a serious threat to ecosystems, food security, livelihood security, social stability, and sustainable development. The Marathwada region of India is highly vulnerable to the impacts of drought and has been severely affected because of consecutive drought events from 2012 to 2016. This article aims to understand the rural farming household’s perceptions of the impacts of drought, their adaptation and mitigation measures, and also attempts to assess the level of satisfaction of rural households with government mitigation measures. This study is based on primary and secondary sources of data collected from 192 farming households following a structured questionnaire survey. The survey reveals that crop failure, livelihood insecurity, declines in livestock production, livestock loss, water conflicts, and problems in meeting agricultural expenses, increased school dropout rates of children, and both psychological and health problems, were the most immediate socio-economic impacts of drought. The various environmental impacts of drought perceived by farmers included depleted groundwater levels, poor groundwater quality, land degradation, a decrease in seasonal river flows, degradation of pastures and declines in soil fertility. It was found that small and medium sized farmers were highly affected by drought compared with marginal and large scale farmers because of their high dependency on agriculture and poor adaptation strategies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Local community participation in wildlife conservation and management in Rungwa Game Reserve, Tanzania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Local community participation in wildlife conservation and management is known to have existed for many years. However, the socio-economic activities regarding community participation remain questionable. Incorporating the views of the local community in the process of decision-making and providing alternative livelihood solutions are important steps towards sustainable conservation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of community participation in sustainable wildlife management in Rungwa Game Reserve. A survey was conducted of the households in Rungwa and Mwamagembe villages with a sample size of 98 respondents. The study used a cross-sectional research design. Data were collected from different respondents at a single point in time. The main research methods used for data collection included: questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews, field observations, focus group discussions and a review of documents. Descriptive data were summarised and presented in frequency tables and charts. Content analysis was also used to determine relationships between the variables measured. The findings revealed both positive and negative effects of wildlife conservation and management. The results revealed that local communities provided confidential information pertaining to illegal activities. The findings further indicated that there was a failure of the game reserve authorities to allow meaningful local participation and equitable sharing of the benefits, which could be attributed to hatred, resentment, and illegal harvesting of natural resources from the game reserve, resulting in poor wildlife conservation. This study recommends the encouragement and a strengthening of the involvement of local communities in wildlife conservation for the sustainable utilisation of natural resources.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00An assessment of the coastal ecosystem services of Jayapura City, Papua Province, Indonesia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to assess and quantify the economic value of coastal ecosystem services (CES) in the coastal areas of Jayapura City based on the perceptions of Papuan indigenous peoples. Data collection was conducted from March to April 2018 using the direct interview method based on questionnaires to 228 respondents in Enggros, Tobati, and Nafri villages. The CES value in Jayapura City is estimated to be around USD 5,427,212.34/year, which consists of service values of mangrove, coral reef, and seagrass ecosystems that are USD 4,447,802.85/year or USD 19,079.46/ha/year, USD 424,333.06/year or USD 11,303.49/ha/year, and USD 555,076.43/year or 5,008.36/ha/year, respectively. The value of CES as a provider of fishery products is quite high because of the high desire of the community to exploit and utilize natural resources such as fish, crabs, shrimp, and shellfish in coastal ecosystems to as a food resource. Therefore, with the description of the CES value in this study, good coastal ecosystem management and integrated coastal area development policies are needed to maintain the quality of the environment and the sustainability of coastal ecosystems, as well as efforts to increase public awareness of the importance of coastal ecosystems and the important role that they play in improving the welfare of the Papuan indigenous people.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Populations of (Mill.) Druce on the hills of the right bank of the River Dnieper (in Forest Steepe vegetation of Ukraine)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>As a result of studying the vegetation cover of artificial (possibly spontaneous) tree plantations on the hills of the right bank of the River Dnieper in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine we discovered the formation of natural populations of <italic>Cephalanthera damasonium</italic> (Mill.) Druce. Information on the growth of this species was previously presented (more than 80 years ago) by F. Gryn (samples of which are in The National Herbarium of Ukraine, Kiev), who noted its distribution in these locations. The ecological and coenotic features of the distribution of this species as a part of available populations in the communities of classes <italic>Carpino-Fagetea sylvaticae</italic>, <italic>Quercetea pubescentis</italic>, <italic>Crataego-Prunetea</italic>, <italic>Alno glutinosae-Populetea albae</italic> have been studied. The largest eight new populations of <italic>C. damasonium</italic> have been identified on the eastern border of Ukraine. Habitat conditions, number and structure of all new populations were determined. Micropopulations of the species occupy an area from several to 750 m<sup>2</sup> with a total population of more than 1,200 specimens. The ontogenetic spectrum is right-sided, with a dominance of generative individuals, and their share is 4/5 of the total number of individuals. The peculiarity of this locality is the high number of individuals in most of these populations, which may be due to favourable ecological-coenotic conditions and the absence of intensive anthropogenic influences. The identified habitats of the study species need protection.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Socio-environmental conflicts between the refugee populations and their host communities: The case of Eritrean Refugees in North Western Tigray, Ethiopia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents research on the socio environmental impact of refugees on their host communities. We assessed the challenges of refuge populations to their host community in north western Tigray, Ethiopia, where the Eritrean refugees are settled,. Primary data was produced from semi-structured questionnaires and a random sampling technique deploying a logistic regression model to describe the relationship between the socio-environmental changes of the host community. Results suggested 96% of the sample respondents confirmed changes of tree species and forest coverage on community farms was observed during the study period. Similarly, change in forest coverage and changes in tree species are strongly and positively associated with the existence of refugees in the study communities. The dramatic change observed on forest coverage and tree species has led to a progressive decline in natural resources. The study concluded that unplanned human population influxes, especially refugee inflows, affected host communities negatively and the socio-environmental situation has been significantly changed in the study areas. The study highlights the need for holistic intervention to ameliorate the negative impacts and to maintain the sustainable management of natural resources so as to improve the socio-environmental impact of refugees on host communities.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00An evaluation of vegetation health and the socioeconomic dimension of the vulnerability of Jharkhand state of India in climate change scenarios and their likely impact: a geospatial approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Geospatial evaluation of various datasets is extremely important because it gives a better comprehension of the past, present and future and can therefore be significantly utilized in effective decision making strategies. This study examined the relationships, using geospatial tools, between various diversified datasets such as land use/land cover (LULC), long term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) based changes, long term forest fire points, poverty percentage, tribal percentage, forest fire hotspots, climate change vulnerability, agricultural vulnerability and future (2030) climate change anomalies (RCP-6) of Jharkhand state, India, for a better understanding and knowledge of its vegetation health, LULC, poverty, tribal population and future climate change impact. The long term NDVI (1982-2006) evaluation revealed negative change trends in seven northwest districts of Jharkhand state, these were: Hazaribag, Ramgarh, Palamu, Lohardaga, Chatra, Garhwa and Latehar. The forests as well as the agriculture of these districts have lost their greenness during this period. The forest fire frequency events were found to be more pronounced in the land use/land cover of “tropical lowland forests, broadleaved, evergreen, &lt;1000 m” category, and were roughly twice the intensity of the “tropical mixed deciduous and dry deciduous forests” category. In the nine districts of Jharkhand it was found that 40 % of the population was living below the poverty line which is around twice the national average. The highest poverty districts, in percentage, were: Garwah (53.93), Palamu (49.24), Latehar (47.99) and Chatra (46.2). The southwest and south of Jharkhand state shows a tribal population density of more than 40%. The climate change vulnerability was found to be highest in the district of Saraikela followed by Pashchim Singhbhum, whereas agricultural vulnerability was found to be highest in the district of Pashchim Singhbhum followed by Saraikela, Garhwa, Simdega, Latehar, Palamu and Lohardaga. The temperature anomalies prediction for the year 2030 shows an increasing trend in temperature with values of 0.8°C to 1°C in the state of Jharkhand. The highest increases were observed in the districts of Pashchim Singhbhum, Simdega and Saraikela. Based on these evaluations we can conclude that a few of the districts of Jharkhand, such as Pashchim Singhbhum, Garhwa, Palamu and Latehar need to be prioritized for development on an urgent basis. The outcomes of this study would certainly guide the policymakers to prepare more robust plans when keeping in mind the future climate change impacts for the prioritization of various districts of Jharkhand which suffer from extreme poverty, diminished livelihood and insignificant agricultural productivity for the betterment of the people of Jharkhand based on their adaptive capacity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Geomorphological conditions of the location historical ironworks. A contribution to the research based on DEM analysis from LIDAR data<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study was to present the use of the natural elements of the relief of river valleys such as changes in the width of the valley bottom, landforms occurring in the bottom of the valley, differences in height of the valley terraces as favourable for the location of the dam partitioning the bottom of the valley and creating a water reservoir for the requirements of historic metallurgical centres. The research was carried out based on DEM analysis from LiDAR data. Features were chosen in river basins with a rich metallurgical legacy. Analysis of the location of the former ironworks was carried out using Surfer 12 software. Five centres were selected due to the fact that only these are the only centres suitable for research which have survived to this day. Using the shaded relief models and contour coloured maps absolute differences in height between valley levels and other forms of relief occurring in the valley were analyzed, as well as the distribution of individual terrain forms in the designated part of the valley and changes in the width of the valley bottom were analysed in the context of the location of former metallurgical centres. On the basis of the contours of the former water reservoir visible in the valley relief, and using a surface area measurement tool (Surfer software), the range of the area that the reservoir could cover was measured. On the basis of the results obtained, it can be seen that convenient geomorphological conditions were used for the placement of selected weirs and metallurgical ponds which facilitated the damming of the valley. Natural narrowing of the valley bottom, or dunes and hills directly adjacent to the valley floor, were utilised during the construction of the dam. The rivers on which the furnace ponds were constructed are relatively small watercourses, so the weirs created by the constructors are not impressive. Their height is generally in the range of about 2 to 3 metres and their length is from about 120 to 300 metres. Nevertheless, they were effective in allowing sufficient water retention and the creation of furnace ponds with a measured area of about 4.5 ha to about 25 ha.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-14T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of local institutions in the creation of an enabling environment for water project sustainability in Iringa District, Tanzania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sustainability of water projects is increasingly becoming an area of concern for researchers and development practitioners given the increased scarcity of water resources and the continued failure of many water projects in developing countries. The cited unsustainability of water projects indicates the lack of strong local institutions that would create an enabling environment. The argument put forward by this paper is that, for water resource projects to be sustainable there must be a well embedded local institution to facilitate effective supervision and management. This study was conducted in three villages of Iringa District to establish the role played by local institutions in creating an enabling environment for water project sustainability. The establishment of the roles played by various institutions was done through institutional mapping and focussed on the types and roles of each institution in ensuring sustainability of water projects. The findings show that the present institutional framework for the management of water supply and sanitation services in the study area is complex and has overlapping roles coupled with inadequate coordination and communication mechanisms. The binary regression model reveals that institutional related factors namely, project maintenance per annum and meetings conducted per annum, to be leading factors for sustainability. The study concludes that the coordination of various institutions is an important aspect for the sustainability of water projects. Therefore, local governments, donors and communities should make sure that technical aspects and regular follow-ups, as well as capacity building among members of the community and water user associations become an integral part of any water project for the realisation of sustainability.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO emissions: An analysis for developing, Middle East, OECD and OPEC countries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this study was to determine the relevance of the Environmental Kuznets Curve, which shows that there is an inverted-U shaped relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth. We investigated the relationship between per capita income and the carbon dioxide emissions as indicators of environmental pollution in Developing Countries, OECD, Middle East and OPEC countries for the period of 1970-2016. The contribution of our study is the evaluation and comparison of Developing Countries, OECD, Middle East and OPEC countries together in the context of EKC. We employ the fixed effect and GMM techniques in this study and results obtained from cubic models indicate that the N-shaped relationship for Developing, Middle East countries and OECD countries and inverted N-shaped relationship for OPEC countries exist. Considering these conclusions, we draw some serious policy implications for the policy makers in these countries. Governments should closely follow the industries that generate CO<sub>2</sub> emissions as after some point environmental degradation increases again as income increases. In addition adopting clean energies including wind and solar systems and making these technologies widespread across countries might reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. Another alternative way to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions might be a carbon tax which should be implemented for polluters.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Outline of the development of research on the impact of Neolithic settlements on the transformation on loess landscapes in southern Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>During the last few decades, many case studies have focused on landscape transformations in response to water erosion, human impact, and climate changes. This article presents a review and comparison of the current state of knowledge on conducted research on the impact of the activities of early humans on the relief and forms of loess areas in Poland based on the results of a variety of dating methods (OSL, TL, C<sup>14</sup>, <sup>137</sup>Cs, palynology, dendrochronology etc.). The influence of land-use activity since the first permanent settlements (8,000–5,200 BP) played a major role in the development of certain sand sediment terrain forms: gullies, river terraces, the filling of isolated depressions and alluvial fans in the loess areas. As a result, a simplified scheme of landscape evolution was created along with a map of the most investigated areas by authors. The main problem was to differentiate the influence of anthropogenic factors from natural ones occurring either simultaneously or alternatively. The developed deposits form a geo-archive which has recorded the history of environmental changes. A detailed analysis of the sedimentary structures provides the possibility to reconstruct and understand past functional responses in natural systems. It is important to consider the impact of climate change and human influence over the course of history on a specific geomorphological system. This can help to predict future land changes and likely hazards.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of indicators for the sustainability of the sugar industry<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sustainable development has been highlighted widely in productive sectors such as the sugar industry with new paradigms and trends such restructuring of sugar mills in biorefineries and development of green chemical from byproducts, considering issues such as technology adoption towards sustainability, circular economy, climate change, value chain, sustainability assessment and decision making. Production of cane sugar is one of Mexico’s main agro-industries; it conveys numerous positive socio-economic impacts and presents opportunities for productive diversification and enhanced profitability and competiveness. The sugar industry faces sustainability challenges due to the management of natural resources like soil, water, fossil fuels and agrochemicals, as well as the impacts of its greenhouse gas emissions and socio-economic constraints. However, sustainability of cane and sugar production cannot be assessed due to a lack of methodological frameworks for integrating economic and environmental indicators. We propose an index for Mexico’s sugar agro-industry that facilitates the identification of those system components that impact sustainability. This index is based on a reduced number of indicators aggregated through a multi-criteria evaluation using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). We apply this index to evaluate four sugar production systems in Mexico: producers of raw, refined, muscovado sugar and ethanol. Results show that systems with a high agro-industrial yield present better sustainability performance. This study is relevant because it provides quantitative information for decision makers towards a sustainable sugarcane agro-industry, based on the indicators used to build the sustainability index, to address actions as increase productive diversification by-products based, improve access to credit, irrigation, management practices and raw material quality reducing production costs, eliminate fossil fuel use in factories, make fertilizer application more efficient and reduce the area that is burned for manual harvest.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Invasive alien plant species in Romania of European Union concern<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An assessement of the alien plants of Romania was conducted which considered the requirements of Regulation 1143/2014 of the European Union (EU). Thus, available data about the presence, invasiveness, distribution, pathways of introduction and their known impact in the territory of Romania were analysed. We found that of 36 plant species of EU concern, four are already established in Romania and widespread, at least locally or regionally: <italic>Ailanthus altissima</italic>, <italic>Asclepias syriaca</italic>, <italic>Elodea nuttallii</italic> and <italic>Impatiens glandulifera</italic>. For <italic>Humulus scandens</italic> there are some reports, but its presence and status require confirmation. <italic>Heracleum sosnowskyi</italic> and <italic>Ludwigia peploides</italic> are confirmed for only one location for each species. The presence of <italic>Cabomba caroliniana</italic> and <italic>Myriophyllum aquaticum</italic> in Romania is not confirmed. Most of the records are intentional introductions for ornamental purposes. Regarding their invasiveness, given the geographical origin and history of invasion in warmer climate regions (e.g., tropical, subtropical), many of the species listed as being of EU concern do not currently constitute a real threat to Romania, for the time being, but may do in a climate change scenario for the 2070s. Data about the impact of alien plant species and their management in Romania are scattered or completely missing. Coordinated institutional efforts are needed to increase the efficiency of the management of alien species at national and local level. These efforts should include: enhancing the legislation and the capacity of public institutions to manage invasive species, increasing the research interest in the science of this topic and promoting real measures to mitigate, control and remove alien plants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Alien plant invasion in the ruderal vegetation of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of an analysis of the alien flora of the ruderal vegetation of Ukraine. A total of 325 alien species which belong to 58 families and 198 genera were identified. The total anthropogenization index of the ruderal phytocoenoses is 19.8%. It was established that the highest level of anthropogenization was found in the phytocoenoses of <italic>Polygono-Poetea annuae</italic>, <italic>Stellarietea mediae</italic> and <italic>Plantaginetea majoris</italic>. The leading families of the non-native fraction of the studied plant communities were <italic>Asteraceae</italic>, <italic>Brassicaceae</italic> and <italic>Poaceae</italic>. It has been revealed that in the biomorphological spectrum of alien plants therophytes prevailed. The ecological analysis has shown the predominance of submesophytes, acidophytes, semieutrophytes, acarbonatophytes and heminitrophytes plants. It was established that according to the arrival time the kenophytes predominate and by the degree of naturalization – the epoecophytes. Comparison of the alien species composition of the ruderal plant communities by means of Jaccard’s indices showed the most similarity between the classes <italic>Polygono-Poetea annuae</italic> and <italic>Plantaginetea majoris</italic>, <italic>Robinietea</italic> and <italic>Galio-Urticetea</italic>, <italic>Stellarietea mediae</italic> and <italic>Artemisietea vulgaris</italic>. For the separate classes the indices of archaeophytization, kenophytization, modernization and fluctuation of the flora were calculated. It has been established that there are 23 highly invasive species in the ruderal vegetation of Ukraine and among these <italic>Ambrosia artemisiifolia</italic>, <italic>Anisantha tectorum</italic>, <italic>Grindelia squarrosa</italic>, <italic>Heracleum mantegazzianum</italic>, <italic>H. pubescens</italic> and <italic>Xanthium oreintale ssp. riparium</italic> are transformers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Main directions of the study of plant invasions in Russia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is focused on the analysis of major approaches to plant invasion research used by Russian researchers. They fall within three main groups: 1. Conventional approaches to floristic analysis based on the Russian scientific tradition of floristic research, 2. Approaches focused on the study of the fraction of invasive flora, making blacklists and regional Black books, 3. New comprehensive approaches based on a synthesis of methods used in botany, geo-information technology and population genetics. Multivariate statistical methods allow for the visualization of various data, including those on alien species group structures in various regions. They make it possible to identify boundaries of ecological niches occupied by plants in respect to climate-and-environmental or ecological variables. An assessment of current statistical interdependence between alien plant characteristics and scores of factors limiting their dissemination facilitates the making of predictive models of plant invasion. Examples of multivariate statistical methods used in invasion biology were analyzed, along with different approaches to the study of the variability of alien species. Alien and invasive fractions of the flora of the Trans-Siberian Railway were analyzed not by administrative units but by natural biomes. This approach allowed us to assess the correlation between the number of invasive species with different natural-climatic and floristic characteristics of biomes. The publication of "Black Books" of various administrative subjects of Russia according to a unified methodology allowed us to make an inventory of invasive species over the vast territory of the country. The experience gained by Russian researchers may be further used for developing universal approaches to plant invasion research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1