rss_2.0The EuroBiotech Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for The EuroBiotech Journal EuroBiotech Journal 's Cover biotechnology congress 2021 presentation presentation speakers the impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on cucumber seed vigour and surface disinfection<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Chemicals used for seed treatments help to increase the agricultural production by preventing pests and pathogens but also cause environmental and health problems. Thus, environmentally-friendly technologies need to be developed for a seed treatment that inactivates surface microflora and improves seed vigor. One such pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment applied to cucumber seeds in the range of 1.07-17.28 Joule (J) significantly enhanced a mean germination rate (MGR) by up to 9%, a normal seedling rate by 25.73%, and a resistance to 100 and 200 mM salt stresses by 96% and 91.67%, respectively, with a stronger and faster growth of roots and seedlings. PEF treatment provided 3.34 and 3.22 log-reductions in the surface microflora of total mold and yeast and total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, respectively. The electrical conductivity (EC) values of the control samples increased over time, from 4 to 24 h. Those of the PEF-treated samples after 4, 12, and 24<sup>th</sup> hours were also more affected by the measurement time not by the PEF treatment.</p> <p>The joint optimization of 18 responses based on the best-fit Gaussian process model pointed to 19.78 s and 17.28 J as the optimal settings. The PEF treatment appeared to improve seed germination ability and stress resistance with the adequate inactivation of surface microflora.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-21T00:00:00.000+00:00SCM-198 Can Regulate Autophagy Through the Bax/Bcl-2/TLR4 Pathway to Alleviate Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is frequently observed in several clinical cases. In this study, we want to investigate that SCM-198 attenuates renal injury in the renal I/R model and find out the possible mechanisms. Wistar albino 40 male rats were classified into four groups (n=10): control, DMSO, I/R, and SCM-198 30 mg/kg. In the group 4, SCM-198 was administered intraperitoneally once at the doses of 30 mg/kg following the reperfusion. Glomerular associated proteins (PCX), tubular damage factors (NGAL, KIM-1), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α), Bax/Bcl-2, TLR4, LC3B, and Beclin-1 were evaluated. SCM-198 played an essential role in mitigating kidney damage. SCM-198 alleviated tubular damage and decreased IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels. SCM-198 reduced the apoptosis marker Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, immune system protein TLR4, and autophagy proteins LC3B and Beclin-1. In brief, our results support the notion that SCM-198 has protective effects on I/R-induced renal injury. SCM-198 therapy may be a new alternative for the prevention and treatment of renal I/R injury.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Large scale propagation and in vitro weaning for the restoration of to support assisted colonisation of a threatened butterfly<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The distribution and abundance of <italic>Boloria selene</italic> (small pearl-bordered fritillary butterfly, SPBF) declined over recent decades in many parts of the UK. Availability of food plants, especially marsh violet (<italic>Viola palustris</italic>), for the caterpillars of the SPBF has been identified as one of the major causes of this decline. To achieve augmentation of existing colonies and develop new populations of SPBF large numbers of marsh violet propagules were required specifically to feed the larvae. The main objectives of the study were to produce thousands of good quality marsh violet propagules to restore selected habitats in the Heart of Durham, Northern England, using in vitro methods. Preliminary trials showed that in vitro multiplication of seedlings from wild collected seeds through conventional agar-based cultures was lengthy, expensive and turned out to be a non-viable route to achieve the objectives. This study explored the potential of bioreactor-based cloning and cost-effective one step rooting and weaning. Robust propagules, ready for transplantation following rapid propagation and one step rooting and weaning in vitro, were raised in a plug system for transplantation and establishment under field conditions. This was achieved by using simple and cost-effective methods to support the large-scale restoration exercise using 14,000 propagules. Application of high throughput micropropagation and low cost one step weaning systems for time-bound conservation and restoration projects are discussed in detail. This research highlights the important role of in vitro methods to support integrated biodiversity conservation of a native larval host plant and threatened butterfly.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-21T00:00:00.000+00:00New Technology Tools and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Applied to a Sustainable Livestock Production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agriculture 4.0, a combination of mechanical innovation and information and communication technologies (ICT) using precision farming, omics technologies and advanced waste treatment techniques, can be used to enhance the biological potential of animal and crop productions and reduce livestock gaseous emissions. In addition to animal proteins being excellent nutritional ingredients for the human diet, there is a growing concern regarding the amount of energy spent converting vegetable crops into animal protein and the relevant environmental impacts. Using the value chain analysis derived from the neoclassic production theory extended to industrial processing and the market, the hypothesis to be tested concerns the sustainability and convenience of different protein sources. The methodology implies the use of life cycle analysis (LCA) to evaluate the efficiency of different livestock diet ingredients. The use of feeding products depend upon various factors, including cost reduction, consumer acceptance, incumbent industry response, civil society support, policy consensus, lower depletion of natural resources, improved sustainable agri-food supply chain and LCA. EU policy makers should be aware of these changes in livestock and market chains and act proactively to encourage the use of alternative animal proteins.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Cerebrospinal Fluid on Fibroblasts Concerning Epidural Fibrosis: An In Vitro Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most common treatments for lumbar disc herniation and other lumbar disorders is lumbar laminectomy. There may be some unwanted and serious complications with this procedure such as the “failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)”. Epidural fibrosis (EF), mainly due to fibroblast proliferation, emerges as the main cause of failed back surgery syndrome. According to the current literature and practice techniques, different agents are being used to prevent EF formation. To date there is no single agreed upon treatment method of EF. In this study, dilutional effect of CSF, together with low potassium levels, on primary skin fibroblast cultures was studied as a possible material for EF prevention. CSF at different concentrations (0-100%) were tested to see its effect on Skin fibroblast proliferation. A wound healing assay was also performed to see the effect of CSF on wound healing. The cell proliferation goes up from 24h to 72hr in all CSF percentages from 0-75% but the proliferation was inhibited at 100% CSF. The “wound” is closed successfully in all CSF percentages between 0-75. The 100% CSF fails to completely close the wound. Adverse effects of low concentrations of potassium levels and dilutional effect of CSF may be a promising solution in the prevention of EF. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments are required to characterize its use.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The 3M Concept: Biomedical Translational Imaging from Molecules to Mouse to Man<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Imaging keeps pervading biomedical sciences from the nanoscale to the bedside. Connecting the hierarchical levels of biomedicine with relevant imaging approaches, however, remains a challenge.</p> <p>Here we present a concept, called “3M”, which can deliver a question, formulated at the bedside, across the wide-ranging hierarchical organization of the living organism, from the molecular level, through the small-animal scale, to whole-body human functional imaging. We present an example of nanoparticle development pipeline extending from atomic force microscopy to pre-clinical whole body imaging methods to highlight the essential features of the 3M concept, which integrates multi-scale resolution and quantification into a single logical process.</p> <p>Using the nanoscale to human clinical whole body approach, we present the successful development, characterisation and application of Prussian Blue nanoparticles for a variety of imaging modalities, extending it to isotope payload quantification and shape-biodistribution relationships.</p> <p>The translation of an idea from the bedside to the molecular level and back requires a set of novel combinatorial imaging methodologies interconnected into a logical pipeline. The proposed integrative molecules-to-mouse-to-man (3M) approach offers a promising, clinically oriented toolkit that lends the prospect of obtaining an ever-increasing amount of correlated information from as small a voxel of the human body as possible.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Synthesis, Characterization, and Optimization of Green Silver Nanoparticles Using and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial, Antibiofilm, and Genotoxic Effects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used in a variety of biomedical applications in the last two decades, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer treatments. The present study highlights the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs using Neopestalotiopsis clavispora MH244410.1 and its antibacterial, antibiofilm, and genotoxic properties. Locally isolated <italic>N. clavispora</italic> MH244410.1 was identified by Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Optimization of synthesized AgNPs was performed by using various parameters (pH (2, 4, 7, 9 and 12), temperature (25, 35 and 45 °C), and substrate concentration (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25 mM)). After 72 hours of incubation in dark conditions, the best condition for the biosynthesis of AgNPs was determined as 0.25 mM metal concentration at pH 12 and 35 °C. Fungal synthesized AgNPs were characterized via spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as Fouirer Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The average size of the AgNPs was determined less than 60 nm using the TEM and Zetasizer measurement system (measured in purity water suspension). The characteristic peak of AgNPs was observed at ~414 nm from UV-Vis results. Antibacterial and genotoxic activity of synthesized AgNPs (0.1, 1, and 10 ppm) were also determined by using the agar well diffusion method and in vivo Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. AgNPs exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) except Escherichia coli in a dose-dependent manner. AgNPs did not induce genotoxicity in the Drosophila SMART assay. 79.33, 65.47, and 41.95% inhibition of biofilms formed by <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> were observed at 10, 1, and 0.1 ppm of AgNPs, respectively. The overall results indicate that <italic>N. clavispora</italic> MH244410.1 is a good candidate for novel applications in biomedical research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of storage time on the biodegradability of olive oil mill wastewater from the cold extraction of olive oil system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The olive oil processing industry’s liquid effluents (OMW) have a polluting capacity for the ecosystems. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical quality of OMW of two varieties of separated and combined olives cultivated in Khenchela Eastern Algeria, from the cold extraction of the olive oil extraction system. These was to determine their degree of pollution and biodegradability during one year of storage at ambient temperature to recommend the correct treatment for each storage time. Results of the measured parameters pH, EC,TSS percent, H<sub>2</sub>O percent, lipids, DM, OM, MM, VM, COT percent, NTK percent, C/N, BOD<sub>5</sub>, COD, BI, TOM, BOD<sup>5</sup>/COD show that wastewater from olive oil mills has an acid pH, and they are very loaded with organic matter evaluated in terms of COD and BOD<sub>5</sub>, quite filled with minerals. The storage of olive mill waste can reduce progressively the pollution caused by this waste. Whereas during one year, the reduction rate of COD, BOD<sub>5</sub>, TOM, BI, is respectively 29.4%, 54.8%, 39.16%, 54.2%, but C/N, BOD<sub>5</sub>/COD continue to increase as well as pH that continues to decrease during the storage. Accordingly, storing olive mill waste during a year reduces its pollution rate, so it is slowly biodegradable. When disposing of it, an adequate treatment procedure must be required to protect the environment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of Polyacrylic Acid Toxicity in Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) and Mouse Fibroblast (L-929) Cell Lines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, biopolymers have been widely used in various fields of medicine. Before using any polymer, its biocompatibility should be examined. Polyacrylic acid (PAA), a polyelectrolyte, is known to be used as an adjuvant effect in immunology, anti-thrombogenic effect in medical experiments, and as a carrier in drug delivery systems. Although there are studies on various conjugates and nanoparticles of PAA, studies on its toxicity alone are limited. Determination of toxicity in biopolymer studies is extremely important. Cultures of various cells are used for toxicity analyses. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity of PAA in human breast cancer (MCF-7) and mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines by various methods. Cell culture, 3-(4,5-dimethyltriazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), trypan blue and 4,6-diamidino 2 phenylindole (DAPI) methods were used in the study. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC<sub>50</sub>) value of PAA was 6.6 mg/ml in MCF 7 cells and 1.8 mg/ ml in L-929 cells. Apoptosis was observed in cells on the increasing PAA concentration with DAPI. With these results, the cytotoxic properties of PAA were determined in vitro. Accordingly, the biocompatibility of polymers to be used in modeling should be supported by in vitro and in vivo studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The situation of Covid-19 outbreak in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, during the time of pandemic fatigue<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has caused a massive impact on the entire world. Healthcare systems, economies, and social lives have already been overwhelmed. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), having been COVID-free for around two and a half months in the middle of the pandemic, is now facing a second wave of the infection after easing its preventive measures. Early implementation of precautions may dramatically reduce COVID-19 infections, but the virus is not eliminated. Additionally, the phenomenon "pandemic fatigue" introduced by the WHO is contributing to a significant decline in compliance with mitigation behaviors globally. With vaccines now rolling out, there is a reason to hope that there is an end in sight; however, it will most likely take a half year for widespread vaccinations to be in place. Decision-makers should analyze the effects of each intervention and pandemic fatigue to get ready for the further waves of infection.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Decision Analysis of the COVID-19 Vaccines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The entire globe is struggling with the COVID-19 pandemic since March 11, 2020. There is still a large number of infected patients and death, and there is no proven treatment for the infection yet. This has led to the race in vaccine development to protect people from COVID-19 infection. As of February 3, 2021, there were 289 experimental COVID -19 vaccines in development, 66 of which were in clinical trials with different phases, and 20 of them were in phase 3.</p> <p>This study aims to evaluate 15 important vaccines based on criteria such as the dose number, dosing schedule, storage advantages, efficacy, and side effect. In this evaluation, we use the fuzzy PROMETHEE approach, which is an important Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique. The importance level of the criteria is determined based on expert opinion. The result shows that the EpiVacCorona vaccine is the most effective vaccine to prevent COVID-19 infections based on the selected criteria and the importance level of each criterion.</p> <p>The result obtained may change based on individual or expert’s priorities. Due to the use of different criteria for the ranking and different weightings of the criteria, the ranking result may differ. This study also shows the strengths and weaknesses of the selected vaccines and the applicability of the MCDM technique for the evaluation of COVID -19 vaccines.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00 analysis of selected components of grapefruit seed extract against SARS-CoV-2 main protease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At the end of December 2019, first identified cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started emerging. Ever since the emergence of the first case of infection with SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, it became the hottest research topic of numerous studies, in which scientists are trying to understand the path of infection, transmission, replication and viral action, all in order of finding a potential cure or vaccine applying various fundamental principles and methodologies. Using <italic>in silico</italic> method via AutoDock Vina 1.1.2., we analysed the binding affinity of six selected compounds from grapefruit seed extract (GSE) (narirutin, naringin, naringenin, limonin, ascorbic acid and citric acid) to SARS-CoV-2 main protease M<sup>pro</sup> (PDB ID: 6Y84), using acetoside, remdesivir and gallic acid as a positive controls of binding affinity. Results showed highest affinity (rmsd l.b. 0.000; rmsd u.b. 0.000) for narirutin (-10.5), then for naringin (-10.1), acetoside (-10.0), limonin (-9.9), remdesivir (-9.6), naringenin (-8.2), ascorbic acid (-6.7), citric acid (-6.4) and gallic acid (-6.4), all expressed in kcal/mol. Our findings suggest that selected compounds from grapefruit seed extract represent potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>pro</sup>, but further research is needed as well as preclinical and clinical trials for final confirmation of inhibitory functionality of these compounds.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00IgA and IgG antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated health workers by a homemade ELISA diagnostic test<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has accelerated vaccine development and testing, an important step in its eradication. Health workers were included among the first subjects to be vaccinated, therefore it was necessary to check their immunological status after the first and second dose of vaccine.</p> <p>Serum samples belonging to 24 health workers undergoing vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) were analysed: for 2 of them it was also possible to obtain a serum sample prior to the first dose of vaccine (zero time); antibody dosing was performed in 18 out of 24 after the first and second vaccination dose; in the remaining 6 healthcare workers a serum sample was obtained only after the second dose. In each serum sample, IgA and IgG antibodies to "Spike Receptor Binding Domain" (RBD) and "Nucleocapsid" (N) proteins were searched by ELISA test. Except for the two subjects for whom it was possible to have a serum sample before vaccination, the others were collected on day 18 from the first dose of vaccine and on day 8 from the second dose.</p> <p>Serum samples collected after the first dose of vaccine showed reactivity to anti-RBD IgG in 11 out of 18 healthcare workers and to IgA in 2 subjects. After the second dose all 24 samples showed the presence of anti-S IgG, while 5 revealed a reactivity for anti-S IgA. Three samples showed reactivity towards anti-N IgG.</p> <p>The ELISA test has shown all its effectiveness in controlling post vaccine immunity and in discriminating natural immunity from vaccine induced immunity.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of RT-qPCR results of different gene targets for SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic individuals during COVID-19 pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is regarded as the most sensitive method available and is being used for screening procedure for all incoming passengers to Northern Cyprus for SARS-CoV-2. This study investigated the compatibility of two different RT-qPCR methodologies Diagnovital® and Bio-Speedy® by re-analyzing the previously confirmed positive samples. A total of 43 previously confirmed positive samples were re-analyzed by two different commercially available SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR kits. Only 23.5% of positive samples detected by Diagnovital® RT-qPCR kit were detected by Bio-Speedy® detection kit.</p> <p>In conclusion, adoption of Diagnovital® RT-qPCR kit detecting two regions of SARS-CoV-2 genome in our laboratories enabled the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic cases with higher sensitivity and contributed to the prevention of viral transmission within the country. The timely detection of infection in asymptomatic individuals may be the key to a successful fight against the COVID- 19 pandemic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of three diagnostic methods in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and 60 subtyping of in diarrheic calves in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to compare three diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis and to detect subtypes of<italic>Cryptosporidium parvum</italic> by sequences analyses of <italic>gp60</italic> gene in diarrheic calves in several herds in Konya province located in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. Fecal samples were collected from a total of 194 pre-weaned calves (n=158, ≤15 days old, and n=36, 15 to 40 days old), with diarrhoea. For comparative diagnosis, all samples were examined by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining of fecal smears for the presence of oocyst, nested PCR-RFLP of SSU rRNA and TaqMan qPCR for the detection of <italic>Cryptosporidium</italic> DNA. A total of 92 (47.4%) and 104 (53.6%) out of the examined samples were found positive by microscopic examination and molecular tools, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of microscopic identification were determined as 88.5% and 100.0%, respectively compared to molecular assays. <italic>Cryptosporidium parvum</italic> was the only detected species in all positive samples by species-specific qPCR and nested PCR-RFLP assays. Species identifications were further confirmed by sequence analyses of the SSU rRNA PCR products. There was no statistically significant difference in <italic>C. parvum</italic> prevalence between early pre-weaned calves and calves older than 15 days. The sequence analyses of the <italic>gp60</italic> gene of <italic>C. parvum</italic> isolates revealed a one subtype IIaA13G2R1 belonging to zoonotic family IIa in diarrheic calves</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The Association Between Serum Carnitine Level, Glucose Regulation, Body Fat and Nutrient Intake in Diabetic Individuals<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Carnitine (β-hydroxy-γ-trimethyl amino butyrate) is, a vitamin-like substance carrying long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix. Due to its effect in energy metabolism, carnitine plays an important role in controlling diabetes and its complications. Studies on this topic have often focused on carnitine supplementation. This study was planned to investigate the relationship between serum carnitine level, glucose regulation and body fat in diabetic patients. A total of 64 people between the ages of 30-5, 32 patients with type 2 diabetes and 32 healthy subjects, were included in the study. Individual lipid profiles, glucose, insulin and serum carnitine levels were analyzed, anthropometric measurements were taken and 24-hour recall food consumption was recorded. As a result, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, VLDL-C, HDL-C and HOMA-IR were found to be higher in diabetic individuals than healthy group (p&lt;0,05). Serum carnitine levels were found to be significantly lower in diabetic male (50,6±20,83 nmol/mL) than in healthy male (59,5±17,25 nmol/mL)(p&lt;0,05). This difference was not statistically significant among female (p&gt;0,05). It has been observed that intake of energy and macronutrients of diabetic individuals is generally lower than that of healthy individuals. Serum carnitine level was positively associated with polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acid intake in male in the healthy group showed a negative correlation with fiber intake in female in the healthy group (p&lt;0,05). There were negative correlations between serum carnitine level with body weight, body mass index and body fat mass in female in the healthy group (p&lt;0,05). Individuals with diabetes are predisposed to dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. As a result; food consumption, and body fat affect individuals’ serum carnitine levels in type-2 diabetes. Since there is not enough study evaluating the relationship between anthropometric measurements of individuals and serum carnitine levels, it is thought that this result will guide future studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1