rss_2.0Ethics & Bioethics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Ethics & Bioethics & Bioethics 's Cover main principles and values of professional teaching ethics and their application in education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The author discusses professional teaching ethics and its main principles and values. The theoretical basis of the study is ethics of social consequences and, in its context, primarily the principles and values of humanity and human dignity, including their possible application in the teaching profession and, partially, in the process of teaching foreign languages and Slovak as a foreign language to students from abroad.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Interpretation of affects: Spinozist approach to the issue of human emotionality<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper deals with the possibilities of using the ethical considerations of Baruch Spinoza in a psychotherapeutic context. I begin the interpretation by defining the basic features of Spinoza’s ethics and their connection with the whole of his philosophical system. The core of the study is the interpretation of Spinoza’s theory of affectivity and especially his concept of the transformation of passive affects into active, and what role philosophical knowledge plays in this transformation. The third part of the study then tries to show how selected points of Spinoza’s introduced ideas can be useful for psychotherapeutic work. As much as the connection between philosophical ethics and psychotherapy seems obvious to many non-experts, most professionals on both sides are vehemently opposed to it. I believe that Spinoza’s thinking is an example of how the boundaries of these disciplines can be meaningfully bridged.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Good life and good death in the Socratic literature of the fourth century BCE<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper outlines several forms of ethical attitude to good life and good death in the Socratic literature of the fourth century BCE. A model for the Socratic discussions could be found in Herodotus’ story about the meeting between Croesus and Solon. Within their conversation, Solon shows the king of Lydia that death is a place from which the life of each man can be seen as the completed whole. In his <italic>Phaedo</italic>, Plato depicts Socrates’ last day before his death in a similar spirit, as the completion of his beautiful life. However, there is no consensus regarding opinions on death among the Socratics. The final part of the paper outlines various meanings of death in the writings of the first generation of the Socratic authors, which arise from different attitudes that the individual philosophers hold regarding the soul as well as other topics. This part puts the principal emphasis on Aristippus, who is considered as the most controversial figure of the Socratic movement. Aristippus makes an interesting opposite to Plato concerning death, since he associates the philosopher’s endeavour for a good life solely with that which is here and now.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Disputes over the place of ethics in Polish Marxist philosophy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the article, the author presents attempts by Polish Marxist philosophers to enrich Marxism with ethical issues. The initial absence of ethics in Marxism is associated with the ignorance of tradition related to their own formation. In the author’s opinion, only polemics with the competitive Lviv-Warsaw school forced Polish Marxists to take the issue seriously. That is why Polish Marxist ethics in its mature form was only established in the 1960s, and did not enrich Marxism itself, but rather indirectly contributed to the initiation of socio-political transformations in our country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Philosophical, anthropological and axiological aspects of Constantine’s definition of philosophy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on the philosophical-ethical foundations of Constantine’s definition of philosophy, as well as its anthropological and axiological aspects. The focus is placed on the relationship between definitions of philosophy postulated by Constantine the Philosopher and John of Damascus, the latter of which traces the six classical definitions systematized by Platonic commentators. Byzantine thinkers proposed a method of unifying both the theoretical and practical aspects of ancient philosophy with a Christian way of life by interpreting the classical definitions of philosophy and dividing it into theoretical and practical parts, the latter including ethics. Constantine understood philosophy in the sense of the second (knowledge of things Divine and human) and the fourth (becoming like God) meanings of earlier definitions, with the addition of the Christian sense of acting in accordance with the image of God. In addition to these gnosiological and anthropological aspects, the paper also observes the axiological aspect of Constantine’s definition of philosophy, which appears to be a foundation for exploring human behaviour as in compliance with Christian laws encouraging changes in ethical principles so as to follow a new code of ethics, through which new values were presented to the Slavs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Leibniz’s and Herder’s philosophy of optimism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The author studies Leibniz’s views of vindicating God for the existence of evil in the world, as well as the idea of the best of all possible worlds, including the past and present criticism. Following Leibniz, he opted for the presentation of Herder’s philosophy of history as one of the most significant forms of philosophical optimism that influenced the first half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century, including contemporary debates on and critiques of the topic. He defines Herder’s concept as the <italic>philosophy of historical progress,</italic> which also significantly influenced Slovak philosophy of the given period. The main goal of the article is to present Leibniz’s and Herder’s views as a starting point for the Slovak philosophy of optimism and historical progress of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Freedom in the : Lessons from Shoshana Zuboff<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>The Age of surveillance capitalism</italic> is a profound economical, sociological, political, philosophical, and ethical work by the American author, Harvard University Professor Shoshana Zuboff. In this work, she analyzes the new economic system, which she calls “surveillance capitalism.” This system revolves around the commodification of personal data, which allows human behavior to be predicted and “nudged” towards profitable ends. This system is historically unprecedented and has only become possible in the technological milieu of interconnected devices, which appeared in the 21<sup>st</sup> century. In this article, I look at the issue of freedom in Zuboff’s work. I argue that her understanding of freedom involves three ethical dimensions, namely privacy, autonomy, and authenticity. I take “surveillance capitalism” as a theoretical framework, in which I explore several ethical challenges to freedom in the digital age.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Kantian ethical perspective seen from the existential philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard’s Victor Eremita<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article compares two groundings of ethics: the ethical postulates of Immanuel Kant with the existential thinking of S. Kierkegaard. To achieve this goal, first, it proposes highlighting the fundamental ideas of Kantian ethics; then, secondly, highlighting Kierkegaard’s ethical stance; and finally, contrasting both approaches to identify differences and similarities. Conclusively, we can say that the pure Kantian ethical formality of duty for duty’s sake necessarily dispenses with existential and concrete content; it is an ethics that is grounded in itself, that refers to itself, to the rational nature of the human being and its universality. In contrast, Kierkegaardian ethics is a Christian ethics, it is the ethics of love for one’s neighbour and, above all, for God; it is a relational and existential ethics of the single individual.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Stoic pragmatist ethics in the time of pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper is a response, of sorts, to the challenges of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID) and lockdown that we all must face. We have an idea of what doctors, nurses, teachers, among many of the other professions, do for the general public, but one may ask whether there is something substantial that philosophers and ethicists can offer in these circumstances. The thesis of this paper is that the stoic attitude towards times of trouble and the pragmatist way of finding out what is possible to elevate the quality of living against all odds, if skilfully interwoven, could be an important tool in keeping mental health in good shape and, additionally, could contribute to the cultural scene at large. If this is the case, stoic pragmatists can indeed offer an interesting example of practical philosophy for many audiences, especially during the pandemic lockdown and, perhaps, for other serious difficulties or problems. To be effective in delivering their message, stoic pragmatists, as most with philosophers today, should enrich their textual and oral modes of traditional transmission of knowledge and become digital-culture public intellectuals that can recognize and reach more general audiences by, among other things, visual modes of digital communication.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Defining human-animal chimeras and hybrids: A comparison of legal systems and natural sciences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to present issues arising out of differences in the way that the terms chimera and hybrid are defined in legal systems and by natural sciences in the context of mixing human and animal DNA. The author analyses the different approaches to defining these terms used in various legal systems, dividing them into groups in light of conclusions reached from examining definitions used in natural sciences. The distinction is used to answer the question of which approach to definitions applied by legislators is the best way to handle the subject of human-animal organisms, given the need to balance their impact on medicine and the ethical concerns that arise.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-04T00:00:00.000+00:00What is critical in the Anthropocene? A discussion of four conceptual problems from the environmental-political philosophy perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Anthropocene confronts environmental philosophy with one of the most urgent questions of the 21<sup>st</sup> century: How to maintain the earth’s condition in a way that allows current and future human generations to thrive? By asking such a question, ethical thought ceases to be solely a matter of individuality or morality. Instead, it raises a political issue: How can or should environmental philosophy relate to society in the Anthropocene? This article argues for a <italic>critical</italic> perspective that draws on contemporary historic materialist scholars and politicises societal power relations. It exemplifies this approach by discussing key-terms of the Anthropocene discourse, like planetary boundaries, tipping points, and space-ship earth. The article concludes that the idea that “we have to act fast now” would be dangerously too easy because it ignores the ambivalent character of human-nature relations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultivated character: Voltaire and Karel Čapek on the good gardener<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper unpacks the nuanced ethical potential in the metaphor of gardening that is depicted in Karel Čapek’s <italic>The Gardener’s Year,</italic> and the relevance of Čapek’s metaphor for understanding Voltaire’s famously ambiguous ending to <italic>Candide</italic>. Against more pessimistic or passive accounts of what Candide could have meant, the paper agrees with scholars who consider Candide’s maxim as meaning to engage in active, and communal practise of character development. By using Čapek’s much fuller account of the gardener in the practice of cultivation to fill in the gaps in Voltaire’s account, the paper shows that gardening is a rich metaphor of the virtuous person engaged in lifelong character cultivation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Ethical aspects of the non-romantic thinking of Jonáš Záborský and Štefan Launer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on the thinking of Jonáš Záborský (1812–1876) and Štěpán Launer (1821–1851), which were marginalized in Slovak national-forming thinking. Emphasis is placed on the comparison between non-romantic nationalism and Štúr’s ethnic enthusiasm. Attention is paid to the value of their thinking, which can be analyzed in the context of reflections in the role of cultural identity in Štúr’s conception of culture and its place in relation to European cultural and civilizational affiliation. At the same time, the critique of romantic thinking draws attention to the issue of the responsibility of nation-forming elites for the concept of civic development, which holistically approaches social change. Launer’s and, partly Záborský’s thinking draws attention to the dangers associated with the romantic search for ethnocultural specifics, which may result in the questioning the importance of civil liberties and Western cultural and civilizational affiliation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Ethics of responsibility in Ján Palárik’s civic liberalism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of the individual attributes of ethics of responsibility in conjunction with the principles of civic liberalism in Slovak political thought is associated with the thinking of Ján Palárik. His political ideas published in the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century come out of an effort to characterize and achieve reform of the Habsburg monarchy on the basis of constitutionalism and federalism. These attributes, in Palárik’s opinion, were to bring more effective solutions to the issue of educating people in their mother tongue and the creation of civic culture. A part of Palárik’s approach to the formation of civic skills is also the advocating of free expression, the idea of pluralism and gradualism within the idea of the <italic>unity of the different</italic>. His realistic approach to politics was framed by knowing and respecting the objective limits when implementing the aims of national civic freedom. Palárik linked the development of the state and the process of acculturation of the people with application of the principles of practical reasonableness and ethics of responsibility. He found its essence in understanding the interconnectedness of political goals and ideals, which were to be reflected in close association with the real limitations of the capabilities of individuals and social circumstances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The moral power of the word: Ethical literature in Antiquity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>According to an old legend, during the Messenian Wars in Laconia in the 8<sup>th</sup> and 7<sup>th</sup> centuries BC, the Athenians sent the poet Tyrtaeus to the Spartans who were close to being defeated; he aroused in them the fighting spirit and renewed Spartan virtues. Philosophers in antiquity believed in the psychagogical power of the word, and this belief provided the foundation for ancient ethical literature, whose main purpose was to call for a spiritual transformation and to convert to philosophy. In this paper, I would like to demonstrate what tradition philosophy referred to in these efforts; what concept of man supported that belief; finally, what literary genres were used by ancient philosophers in ethics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Euthanasia as an issue in ethics of social consequences?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of the presented paper is to look for an answer as to whether and how euthanasia reflected is in ethics of social consequences. Ethics of social consequences is a contemporary Slovak ethical theory with an original approach to delimitating moral agency. The paper puts this definition to the test while considering the main focus of the paper – responding to the question of whether euthanasia and end of life can be understood as a moral uncertainty. The intention is to find out whether the definition is clear and adequate to withstand the basic arguments against euthanasia. Since ethics of social consequences is a consequentialist ethical theory, another partial goal is to analyse the fitness of such a position to be used in bioethical inquires.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Virtual reality and imagination - a possible ethical framework based on the thought of Gregory of Nazianzus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present article discusses the thoughts of Gregory of Nazianzus in relation to virtual reality especially man-made virtual reality in all its forms. We argue that the benefits of virtual reality, such as freedom, imagination, creativity can be paradoxically curtailed by virtual reality itself, since it is highly subjective and as its medium shows, can be an <italic>a priori</italic> matrix and prison for the human being. Gregory of Nazianzus, building his theology on a firm basis on substance and contemplation, offers a way out, where one acknowledges everything around us as beneficial and beautiful and therefore free, but this must be based on a firm grounding of truthfulness and guidance offered by an all-encompassing form of Divine love and creativity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The abyss, or the insufficiency of ethical nihilism for Nietzsche’s Übermensch<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, I critique the prevalent notion that only in the abyss can one emerge to be the <italic>Übermensch,</italic> or to use Hollingdale’s term, the <italic>Superman.</italic> To support this, I will first expound on the notion of the abyss as ethical nihilism from the perspective of the death of God to Nietzsche’s critique of morality. I argue that ethical nihilism as an abyss is insufficient in constituting Nietzsche’s Superman. I will then set how the Superman emerges through counter-stages. The paradox is that such tragic an abyss that serves as <italic>conditio sine qua non</italic> for the Superman falls flat when looked at in the perspective of life. There underlies a fundamental difficulty in simply accepting the proposals of acknowledging the abyss or ‘becoming what one is.’ Later, Nietzsche’s anti-romanticism and anti-Darwinism are explored to support such difficulty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Axiological justification of the objective norm by Heinrich Rickert<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to show the main thesis concerning the theory of cognition of the eminent neo-Kantian Heinrich Rickert, as presented in his work “<italic>Der Gegenstand der Erkenntnis</italic>”. On the one hand, Rickert finds out that thinking is fated to “clash with nothingness”, thus creating a temptation to reject all rigours and to yield to complete discretion. On the other hand, he attributes axiological status to nothingness which subjects thinking to a particular kind of “ought”. In his view, the cognizing subject is faced with an axiological choice: either discretion or truth and argues that it is worth opting for truth. His argumentation could be an interesting point of reference for contemporary culture gradually moving away from the type of thinking rooted in objectively existing principles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Freedom in the Society of Control: Ethical challenges<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Society of Control is a philosophical concept developed by Gilles Deleuze in the early 1990s to highlight the transition from Michel Foucault’s Disciplinary Society to a new social constitution of power assisted by digital technologies. The Society of Control is organized around switches, which convert data, and, in this way, exercise power. These switches take data inputs (digitized information about individuals) and transform them into outputs (decisions) based on their pre-programmed instructions. I call these switches “automated decision-making algorithms” (ADMAs) and look at ethical issues that arise from their impact on human freedom. I distinguish between negative and positive aspects of freedom and examine the impact of the ADMAs on both. My main argument is that freedom becomes endangered in this new ecosystem of computerized control, which makes individuals powerless in new and unprecedented ways. Finally, I suggest a few ways to recover freedom, while preserving the economic benefits of the ADMAs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1