rss_2.0System Safety: Human - Technical Facility - Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for System Safety: Human - Technical Facility - Environmenthttps://sciendo.com/journal/CZOTOhttps://www.sciendo.comSystem Safety: Human - Technical Facility - Environment 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60cfcee7b687ad07426c7d2c/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210924T040319Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210924%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=5129064699f36545f4bfbda7bf5c349d34e400daa26fc325f700dee5330e38b4200300The Influence of a Reinforced Beam on the Safety of Engineering Structureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Reinforcement with carbon tapes is the next step to increase the safety of using elements of engineering structures. The conducted tests illustrate the strength capabilities of aluminum beams reinforced with a CFRP tape. The aim of the conducted tests is to compare the bending strength of aluminum beams before and after the reinforcement. On the basis of the numerical analysis, the displacements and stresses in the modeled beams were also compared. Moreover, the possible applications of the reinforced aluminum beam in engineering structures are presented in this article</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving the Quality of the Friction Welding Process of Steel Componentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to implement an integrally configured method of quality control of frictional welding of piston forgings intended for Diesel Man trucks. The use of the method (consisting of the 5W2H method, the Ishikawa diagram and the ABCD - Suzuki method) would contribute to the detection of the causes of non-compliance and consequently to the elimination of non-compliant products. Steel pistons have become the subject of research due to significant problems with maintaining their expected level of quality after the introduced structural and technological changes. The proposed method has helped to identify the root cause of non-compliance. It was: incorrect design of the combustion chamber in terms of diameter and depth. The study shows that it is advisable to use an integrated approach to finding the causes of quality problems on the example of the friction welding process. This was a new solution for the company, as no in-depth analyses of quality problems using a sequence of quality management techniques have been carried out so far.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Prediction of the Work-Related Injuries Based on Neural Networkshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Artificial neural networks (ANN) are a powerful tool in the decision-making process, especially in solving the complex problems with a large number of input data. The possibility to predict the work-related injuries in the underground coal mines, based on application of the neural networks, is analyzed in this work. the input data for the network were obtained based on a survey of 1300 respondents. After analyzing the input data influence on the network output, 14 most influential inputs were selected, with help of which the network correctly predicted whether the worker would suffer the work-related injury or not, with 80% precision. The two models were developed, based on the multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) networks. The two models’ results were compared to each other. The sensitivity analysis was used to select the most influential parameters, like mine, age of miners, as well as their work experience. The parameters were further analyzed by use of the descriptive statistics. The selected parameters are direct indicators of problems that can cause injuries. The obtained results point to the fact that the work-related injuries can be successfully predicted by application of the artificial neural networks. The proposed models’ importance is reflected in the clear indicators for enforcing the stricter occupational safety and organizational measures in order to reduce the number of work-related injuries in underground mines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Forewordhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0038ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Management of Occupational Risk Analysis of Employees Recovered from COVID-19 Pandemic – An Individual Case Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0037<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In accordance with the applicable law, an employer cares for safe and hygienic working conditions. An occupational risk analysis isone of the elements determining the level of safety. The risks that may significantly contribute to the damage are identified through the activities related to the risk assessment. The role of an employer is to counteract these threats. The COVID-19 pandemic has had many negative consequences for the functioning of enterprises and the health and safety at work. The subject of the paper is to update the occupational risk among selected employees after the COVID-19 pandemic. Depending on the work environment, an employee is exposed to various types of risks that significantly affect not only health and safety, but also comfort, quality and work efficiency. COVID-19 causes various negative consequences, so it is important for the employer to monitor the employee’s return process after the infection for a long time (approximately 2 months). Adjusting working conditions and temporarily reducing work intensity (expectations and work results) relatively increase the possibility of recovery and a faster return to full productivity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Technical Condition of Control and Measurement Equipment on Calibration Resultshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper there are analyzed the procedures used in the process of calibrating concerning control and measurement equipment. There was assumed the mathematical model of the measuring instrument which was then analyzed. The factors that result from the imperfect technical condition of the control and measurement equipment and may have an impact on the measurement results were also analyzed. Models of errors’ models were assumed that may affect the calibration results. The static calibration of control and measurement equipment was analyzed. The results of numerical simulations concerning the static calibration of control and measurement equipment were presented, taking into account the linear and non-linear processing functions of the measurement equipment. The results of computations obtained for various models of processing functions were compared with each other and conclusions were drawn regarding the accuracy of the mapping of the measured quantity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Employment and Labour Market Impact of COVID-19 Crisis - Part 1 – Analysis in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The world is changing really fast. This speed is caused by urbanization, technological development and the increasing demand for energy. Such changes have a direct impact on enterprises which function in the world of VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity) with numerous surprises in the form of “black swans”, i.e. rare and unpredictable events. The modern history has not seen such a lockdown as the one caused by the coronavirus. Hairdressers, cosmeticians, restaurants, transportation and tourism are particularly affected by the negative effects of the pandemic. But while some lose, others profit: growth can be observed in the areas of e-commerce, courier shipping and parcel lockers. The article analyzes the labor market in covid times. The image of enterprises and employees of the future was discussed. The paper is an introduction part of an international research conducted as part of cooperation between Universities from Poland, Pakistan, Iraq and the Philippines.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The Professional Situation Od Disabled People on the Bieszczady Poviathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0025<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to present the functionality of unemployed disabled people at the shows of the Bieszczady poviat based on the data presented in individual documents. The article is important for people with disabilities in relation the problems that plague them in carrying out everyday places. For many patients, work is an opportunity to break away from everyday problems and function on the basis of meeting subsequent goals related to professional work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Knowledge and Information Managementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper describes selected issues related to knowledge management in a manufacturing company with a detailed analysis of the impact of optimal management using the MES system on financial and production results. The study presents an analysis of the company’s results before and after the implementation of the knowledge and information management system in a manufacturing company. Moreover, the paper presents an analysis of the company’s operations and defines a strategy for further activities aimed at increasing the financial and operational efficiency of the analysed production company.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Socially Responsible Real Estate Brokerage in the Pandemic Erahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0034<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Social responsibility in the real estate brokerage, which is essentially “people’s business” may be particularly important while facing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and coming down with COVID-19, which is largely the result of interpersonal contact. Thus, the sector seems to be an important link in preventing the spread of infections. The objective of the study is to analyze the adjustment of the real estate sector to new challenges in terms of CSR, related to the coronavirus pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Stability and Availability of Goods on the Market in Times of Crisis 2020 (COVID-19 Crisis) - Security of Supply in Everyday Lifehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The sudden introduction of restrictions related to the pandemic situation caused by the new SARS-COV-2 of virus causing COVID-19 had a significant impact on people’s lives. Limited access to products and services has caused chaos in the market. The goal of this paper is to find out the opinion on the resulting limitations in access to everyday products - during the period of partial lockdown. Based on the research, it was found that during the lockdown caused by the epidemic situation (COVID-19), people feel limited access to some products of everyday life, which in turn has an impact on their sense of anxiety and security. People noted the greatest limited availability of food products and in particular fresh fruit and vegetables, also reported limited access to pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, people confirmed that as the main reasons for anxiety and insecurity are the limited access to food products and to pharmaceuticals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the COVID-19 Pandemic Affect Food Safety Training of Food Sector Employees? Case Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food health safety has always been an important element for consumers. Enterprises in the food sector want to meet customer expectations and the requirements set out in national and international legislation and implement a variety of tools, methods, or techniques in their organizations. Increasing health safety and even improving the quality of produced food is possible through properly planned training of employees. This training should be tailored to the capabilities and needs of both employees and the enterprise. Nowadays, with the era of the COVID -19 pandemic, training in food safety becomes of particular importance, as the production of safe food is a basic objective to be taken into account by all employees. Under these circumstances, it seems appropriate to carry out additional training in the prevention of the spread of COVID-19 in the context of the health safety of the produced food. The aim of the present paper is to examine the subjective assessment of food employees regarding the amount and quality of food safety training in the COVID-19 pandemic. The research is a pilot study conducted at the turn of December 2020.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Noise Level Measurement and Analysis in a Manufacturing Enterprisehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Noise is one of the most common physical factors causing nuisance and harmful to worker health in the long term. The focus of the research was the measurement and analysis of the noise level at the screw injection moulding machine operation station intended for plastic elements’ manufacturing. The occupational risk evaluation was conducted based on the observed data. The results of the study allowed for the development of precautionary and preventive measures. Furthermore, the paper features identification of the work environment factors occurring in the studied manufacturing enterprise with division to dangerous, harmful, and bothersome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Management of Packaging Labeling Technology in the Context of Improving the Final Product Quality and Work Safetyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>High demands on the aesthetics of the final product as well as sophisticated packaging shapes make the labeling process an operation that requires more and more precision and quality of workmanship. The quality of the labeling process is influenced mainly by the technology used, i.e. machinery and equipment, the knowledge, skills, and experience of operators, organization and working methods used, and by aspects related to proper maintenance. This article is a case study on the analysis and evaluation of the technology used in the process of labeling glass packaging and its impact on quality and work safety. The article aims to answer the question: does the labeling machine used by the surveyed company, due to the current portfolio of modernity of its parts and subassemblies, guarantee the realization of the labeling process at a high quality level and work safety. The article discusses in depth the factors influencing the quality of the process of labeling glass packaging in the studied company, paying attention to the issues related to the applied technology. ABC technology method was used to assess technology level and also indirectly safety level and Ishikawa diagram, L shape matrix diagram and affinity diagram to analyze and improve quality level. The article ends with a list of specific improvement actions to be taken to achieve the ultimate goal of managing the technology of glass packaging labeling - high quality of the final product resulting from the labeling process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Awareness and Responsibility in Context of Polish Service Companieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0028<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Companies operating on the market have to cope with a variety of crisis situations which may adversely affect their development and jeopardise the achievement of their objectives. A crisis situation may, on the one hand, have a negative impact on the development of the company, but, on the other hand, it may provide a stimulus and have a constructive effect on its functioning. One of the factors influencing the ability to function of a business, including crisis situations, is its organisational culture. Therefore, a company responding to the situation should assess the conditions both in its environment and inside it and verify the artefacts, the system of values and the main principles that are the basis for building an organisational culture. Many companies that are dealing with a crisis situation decide to undertake a conscious process of cultural transformation. However, it requires the management to take appropriate actions and the time of a crisis situation is a test for many companies – whether in such a difficult moment something can still be done with the organisational culture, or whether the entrepreneurs can only wait for its inevitable impact on the functioning of the company. The subject of this article is the impact of a crisis situation on changes occurring within the organisational culture. The study attempts to evaluate the role of organizational culture in crisis situations based on the current state of knowledge and crisis events related to COVID-19.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00An Improving the Occupational Risk Assessment in Industrial Enterpriseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0027<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An occupational risk assessment is one of the main processes to assure a safe and healthy workplace. It was shown, that this process is particularly important in the cause of industrial enterprises, in which the number of accidents is the largest. In these enterprises, one of the most often practiced methods is the PN-N-18002 method. However, it was concluded this method has some limitations. They concern the way of assessing the risks in the traditional number scale, which is less precise than the fuzzy triangular number (using in FAHP). Therefore, the aim is to improve the process of assessment in industrial enterprises by integrated the PN-N-18002 method with the FAHP method (Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process). The test of the proposed method was made for three machine operator positions used to aggregate extraction in one of the Podkarpacie enterprises. These positions were: loader operator (Ł-34), digger operator (CAT 323), dredge operator (300/250 KREBS 10/8). The concept of the method was to identify in a precise way what is the greatest extent danger to the operators of these workplaces. It was shown, that it is the work at height. It was concluded, that this method can be practice to risk assessment of other workplaces, among others from industrial enterprises. The originality is the integrated risk assessment method (PN-N-18002) with the fuzzy multicriteria decision method (FAHP) as part of achieving the precise results of risk assessment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecological Analysis of Selected Stages of the Food Packaging Production Processhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Eco-efficiency is a new concept of environmental analysis seeking to improve products, processes and manufacturing materials. The eco-efficiency analysis gives the opportunity to find the most effective solution with the lowest environmental burden in the bottle forming process. For this purpose, the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) technique of environmental management was used to evaluate selected stages of the bottle forming process. The analysis was carried out using the Eco Indicator 99 method using the SimaPro software.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Improving the Manufacturing Process of Aluminium Rimshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to indicate the reasons for non-compliance of aluminium rim castings and, using quality management instruments (Pareto-Lorenzo diagram and 5WHy method?), elimination or reduction of non-compliant products. The object of the research was an aluminium rim, while the diagnostic process of the object of the research was based on the quality control of the chemical composition of the casting, the control of mechanical properties and the control of the continuity of the material structure by radiographic and microscopic methods. On the basis of the research carried out, it was found that a sensitive casting area is the front edge of the rim rim - a significant number of porosity clusters were identified in this area. The reason for their occurrence was also specified - too rapid flooding of moulds, which resulted in gassing of the alloy. The identified cause had its origins in human resources mismanagement, namely the lack of training of the newly recruited employee. So far, the company has not carried out analyses of quality problems with the use of a sequential quality management methodology, so the implemented corrective actions have not always led to the full achievement of quality objectives. The presented sequential method, which is a combination of diagnostic and control tests and quality management instruments, is a universal way to monitor the level of quality of products and to quickly correct nonconformities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Dissipation of Energy in Sandwich-Structured Equestrian Helmet – Numerical Analysis Under Overload Conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Protection of the head structures is a requirement in many sports where a person is exposed to injuries that threaten life or health. In horse riding accidents occur often, resulting in serious head injuries. The analysis of the available literature shows that the helmets used now protect human head structures in a small percentage. The aim of the research was to analyze the degree of protection of the human head using available helmet structure and a new solution for the Energy absorbing layer in helmet that absorbs Energy from impacts. The research was divided into two stages. During the first one, a simulation was performer under dynamic conditions simulating the rider’s fall and the contact of the head with ground (impact from the side). In the second stage, three structures of the absorbing layers were developed, i.e. honeycomb, auxetic, mixed with three three wall thicknesses (1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm respectively) and two materials were used: the currently used EPS and the aluminium alloy used in the motorcycle helmet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Information Security in Information Systems Among Employees of Industrial Enterprises as Societies 5.0https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/czoto-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of research on employee awareness of information security. The essence and methodology of society 5.0 was discussed. The study was an introduction to the study and was carried out in two groups of enterprises, the so-called ordinary and tycg constituting employees of the society 5.0. The strength of the relationship between individual security elements and those supporting society was also presented. 5.0.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1