rss_2.0Contemporary Agriculture FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Contemporary Agriculturehttps://sciendo.com/journal/CONTAGRIhttps://www.sciendo.comContemporary Agriculture 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6199afd41cc40909cec7d8c1/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211128T063844Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211128%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=c680eefd9c57688df5a08dfd9bde2e3659cb79f11607c1cddad8fe1d467ecf24200300The Development of Organic Agriculture in Serbia and Worldwidehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Organic agriculture is a food production system that sustains the health of people, soils and ecosystems with no adverse consequences, combining tradition, innovation and science. The development of such type of agricultural production, from its beginnings to the present day, has encompassed a number of specific stages both in Serbia and worldwide. Accordingly, the purpose of this survey study is to present the developmental course of organic agricultural production in Serbia and worldwide. The paper also summarises the state of organic plant production across different regions of Serbia, arguing that the Serbian organic production has been increasing since the 1990s. Following the political changes in Serbia in 2000, foreign donations, investments and organisations have significantly enhanced the country’s organic production sector as a whole. The largest number of organic producers (1/3) and the largest areas devoted to organic farming are concentrated in Vojvodina.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Partial Substitution of Corn with Whole-Grain Wheat in Fattening Lamb Diets on their Growth Performancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Wheat grain is commonly used for animal feeding in some regions while it is rarely used in others. Its nutrient composition is quite similar to more commonly used corn grain, but there are some concerns regarding its effect on animal performance and health. However, it appears that usage of wheat grain in animal feeding is dominantly affected by economic rather than nutritional reasons. When used with caution, wheat can be a good alternative to corn. In order to test this, 20 Wurttemberg lambs, three months old, were randomly separated in two groups and fed diets containing 600 g of corn grain, or 300 g of corn grain and 300 g of wheat grain, for a period of one month. The used grains were whole, non processed grains. Two diets contained the same commercial protein supplement and alfalfa hay was offered ad libitum. Both groups accepted their experimental diet well and readily consumed the amounts offered. No health problems were observed. Growth rate was higher in male than in female lambs, but was not affected by wheat inclusion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Repellent Activity of Essential Oil Against Four Major Stored Product Pests: https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to assess the repellent activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil (EO), grown in Serbia under greenhouse conditions, against four prevalent stored product pests: Plodia interpunctella (larvae), Sitophilus oryzae, Acanthoscelides obtectus and Tribolium castaneum (adults). The lemongrass EO repellency was tested using filter paper in Petri dishes and a Y-tube olfactometer. According to the repellency index (RI), the lemongrass EO repellency was divided into 5 classes. Prior to biotesting, the chemical characterization of lemongrass EO was performed and the following main compounds were detected: myrcene (31.0%), geranial (30.0%), and neral (23.6%). The C. citratus EO considered was found to exhibit the Class III repellent activity against P. interpunctella larvae only at the highest concentration (namely 0.5%). This is the very first report on the C. citratus EO repellent activity against this pest. The lemongrass EO examined showed strong repellency (Class IV) against S. oryzae (0.2% and 0.5% of EO), A. obtectus (0.1% and 0.2%), and T. castaneum (0.05-0.1%). Moreover, higher lemongrass EO concentrations (0.5%) were found to exhibit extreme repellency (Class V) against A. obtectus and T. castaneum. The results obtained were confirmed in the bioassays performed, indicating the great potential of lemongrass EO as a bio-repellent when applied in higher concentrations to all the insects considered, regardless of the exposure period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Profitability and Impact of Inorganic Fertilizers on the Maize Production in Ekona, Cameroonhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Declining soil fertility and low fertilizer use are the major abiotic factors limiting the maize production in Cameroon. Therefore, the design and introduction of appropriate fertilizer schemes, which would improve maize yields and provide incentives for smallholder farmers, are considered imperative. In 2018, a field experiment was conducted on the farm of the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD) in Ekona, the south-west region of Cameroon, to investigate the profitability and impact of inorganic fertilizers on maize production. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications and four treatments, using different fertilizer rates per hectare in each treatment (namely unfertilized control (T1), 50 kg urea + 50 kg N-P-K (T2), 100 kg urea + 100 kg N-P-K (T3) and 150 kg urea + 150 kg N-P-K (T4)). The results obtained indicate that all the maize growth parameters (plant height, number of leaves per plant, stem girth and leaf area) and yield components considered (cob length, cob diameter and test weight of 100 grains) were significantly (P &lt; 0.05) higher in T4 than T1. The grain yields recorded ranged from 4.09–5.88 t ha<sup>−1</sup> and were also statistically (P &lt; 0.05) higher in T4 than T1. The incremental income based on the fertilizer use was the highest in T4, followed by T3 and T2. The value cost ratio (VCR) was greater than 2 in all the treatments and was found to be highest in T2 (3.15), followed by T4 (2.52) and T3 (2.49). As T2, T3 and T4 did not differ statistically (P &gt; 0.05), all the fertilizer rates considered were economically viable, but T4 provide the most cost-effective due to its higher grain yields and incremental income.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00A Mini Review of the Effects of NSP and Exogenous Enzymes in Broiler Diets on Digestibility and Some Intestinal Functionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>NSP (non-starch polysaccharides) are a large group of compounds, which vary greatly in their chemical structure and properties. They are linked with the use of some of the alternative proteins or energy feed ingredients in broiler nutrition. Exogenous enzymes which act on NSP are sometimes in broiler production with the purpose of increasing digestibility of nutrients and consequently increasing broiler performance in production. This paper will attempt to review changes occurring in the digestive tract as a result of the use of feed with NSP soluble and insoluble in water, and the effect of NSPase on them, in terms of how an animal organism is burdened or helped to overcome the problems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Biostimulatory Potential of Microorganisms from Rosemary ( L.) Rhizospheric Soilhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of the present paper was to isolate microorganisms (Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. and Azotobacter sp.) from the rhizospheric soil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and investigate their biostimulatory (plant growth-promoting – PGP) and biocontrol potential. The bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of rosemary included 15 bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, 20 of the genus Bacillus, and 11 of the genus Azotobacter. Based on the morphological characteristics of colonies and cells, representative isolates of each genus were chosen (marked as Pseudomonas sp. P42, P43, P44; for Bacillus isolates B83, B84, B85, B92, B93; and for Azotobacter isolates A15 and A16) for different physiological and biochemical examination. The study included in vitro screening of the bacterial isolates for their PGP and biocontrol properties. Pseudomonas isolates showed the ability to live at low temperature (10ºC) and high pH (9), and to use different sources of carbon. All Pseudomonas isolates produced lipase, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and utilized organic and inorganic phosphorus, while only isolate P42 produced amylase, pectinase and cellulase. Only Bacillus isolates could grow at 45 ºC (all Bacillus isolates), pH 5 (isolates B83), and on a medium containing NaCl 5 and 7% (all isolates). Isolates denoted as B83 and B93 produced lipase, amylase, and pectinase. All isolates had the ability to solubilize phosphate, produce siderophores (except B85) and hydrogen cyanide, while only two isolates (B84 and B85) produced IAA. Azotobacter isolates had the optimal growth at 37ºC and minimal growth on a medium with pH 6 and 9. All Azotobacter isolates used all carbohydrates as a source of carbon and produced lipase, amylase, and hydrogen cyanide. The best result in suppressing the growth of pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum was achieved by using isolate B92. Application of isolate B83 led to the greatest growth suppression of Sclerotinium sclerotiorum.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Total Production on the Planting Structure of Significant Vegetable Crops in the Republic of Serbiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine, on the basis of the total production and distribution area parameters analyzed, a potential relationship between the actual production of major vegetable crops in Serbia in the current year and the following year’s distribution of planting areas devoted to the crops considered. The analysis was performed for the period 2005-2019. The results obtained indicate that the current year’s production of certain vegetable crops such as potatoes, cabbage, kale, peppers and beans affect the following year’s distribution of their planting areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Drought Tolerance in a Mapping Population of Durum Wheathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study was conducted to compare and estimate the genetic variability among durum wheat lines in response to drought according to their grain yields and physiological traits. The use of fluorescence parameters as drought selection criteria for durum wheat was investigated in a population of 249 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between two cultivars of durum wheat: ‘Svevo’ and ‘Kofa’. The durum wheat RILs considered were analyzed to determine the relationship between their grain yields and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at the grain filling stage under drought stress (rainfed) and supplemental irrigation (irrigated) conditions during the 2004 and 2005 seasons at the ICARDA center. The results obtained show that the durum wheat line performance was influenced by drought stress, indicating significant differences between the grain yields and fluorescence parameters recorded under drought rainfed (RF) and irrigation (IR) conditions. Significant differences between the experimental groups of durum wheat RILs (P&lt;0.05) were only recorded under drought conditions, with the exception of leaf water potential (Lwp). Under such conditions, nearly all the parameters examined were significantly increased in the high-yielding group (with the exception of the Que parameter), thus revealing the genetic variability of the durum wheat lines considered in response to drought stress. The potential quantum efficiency of photosystem II (F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub>) was found to be positively associated with the grain yield parameter. The mean values of F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub> in both the high- and low-yielding groups significantly dropped under drought stress (0.71 and 0.68, respectively) compared to the Fv/Fm values recorded under irrigated conditions (0.80 and 0.81). Under drought conditions, slopes were highly significant (P&lt;0.001) nearly for all the fluorescence parameters examined (with the exception of CHLSPAD) compared to those recorded under irrigation conditions. It was concluded that chlorophyll content (SPAD), F<sub>0</sub>, F<sub>m</sub>, F<sub>v</sub>, F<sub>v</sub>/F<sub>m</sub>, Lwp, and Que could be used as additional indicators in screening wheat germplasm for drought tolerance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Allelopathic Properties of Hemphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Allelopathic effects of different plant allelochemicals have become the focus of studies that aim to determine new pesticidal compounds. Plant extracts with different chemical compositions can be obtained using different methods of extraction, whereas studies dealing with allelopathic properties use biotests to obtain fast and precise results. Such studies were undertaken after noticing the allelopathic effects of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) on the surrounding crops. Trials that involve the application of hemp extracts obtained by different methods resulted in determining the hemp allelopathic effects on Stellaria media (L.)Scop., Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris var. vulgaris, Lupinus albus L., corn (Zea mays L.), Cyperus rotundus L., Matricaria recutita L., Lepidium sativum L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereal M. Bieb.), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Chenopodium album L., and Sorghum halepense L..</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Creating Maps in R (Case Study: National Park “Fruška Gora”)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This paper aims to present the possibilities for creating maps in the programming language R. Even though R is primarily developed as a statistical program, its application in the area of mapping and spatial statistics is becoming frequent and highly relevant. Many R packages make the mapping process easier and user-friendly, and this paper presents the most commonly used ones: “leaflet”, “ggplot2” and “ggmap”. The selection of the R package depends on the user’s proficiency in R programming but also depends on the visual quality of the map the user wants to gain. Based on the questionnaire conducted in this research, the paper recommends application of the “leaflet” package for the beginners, the “ggplot2” package for medium proficient users, and the “ggmap” package for the most advanced R users. After creating maps in R it is possible to conduct additional analysis related to processing of the spatial data contained within, and this would be a recommendation for future research. In this paper, the mapping process is demonstrated on the case study of the National Park “Fruška gora” in Serbia, and different types of maps are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Capital of Farmers in the Rural Communities of Vojvodinahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The development of rural areas is a complex social, economic, political and cultural issue of immense importance to the development of society as a whole. The vitality of rural communities, which represent a specific socio-spatial phenomenon, affects the development of global society and is inextricably linked to the development and issues of urban areas of each society. Both in theory and development practice, rural development as a complex and enduring process has long been unjustifiably reduced to the economic-agrarian matrix, often reflected in the modernization of agriculture and the centralized and sectoral management of and influence on rural development. The primary focus of this paper is on the social capital of rural communities, i.e. social relations and connections within local rural communities which, alongside other important development factors, are one of the prerequisites to maintaining their vitality. The paper presents the results of a survey on social capital conducted on 281 farms in the region of Vojvodina (Serbia), indicating the characteristics of the social capital on the farms considered and the farmers’ attitudes towards the development and life of their local communities. The social capital of the surveyed farmers was found to be only relatively good, suggesting that the overall social capital in Serbia is underdeveloped because all the farms considered are located in Vojvodina, i.e. the most developed agricultural area in Serbia characterized by rural settlements with the most favorable infrastructural, demographic and economic conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Community Driven Development: The Case of Fadama II Cooperatives in Alleviating Poverty in a Developing Countryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study investigated the effects of Fadama II cooperatives on poverty status of farming households in Oyo State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study assessed the level of participation in Fadama II cooperatives among the participants; determined the factors influencing the level of participation in Fadama II cooperatives; examined the poverty status of the participants in Fadama II cooperatives; and determined the effects of Fadama II cooperatives on the poverty status of the participants. The study was conducted in Oyo State, south-western Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select respondents for this study. A total number of 150 farmers were selected for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, participation index, multinomial logit regression model, Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) index, and Probit regression model. The result showed that the respondents participated in the designated activities carried out within their respective Fadama II cooperatives, with the maximum participation in payment of counterpart fund (100%), followed by participatory rural appraisal process (86.7%). Participation index revealed that the majority (46.7%) of the respondents had their level of participation above the grand mean. Interestingly, gender, farming experience and income from Fadama II cooperative positively and significantly influenced both partial and full participation in Fadama II cooperatives. The poverty line is observed to be ₦44300 per month ($115.36 per month). The incidence, depth and severity of poverty are estimated to be 0.28, 0.067 and 0.013, respectively. Probit estimates revealed that Fadama II cooperatives had significant and positive effect on alleviating the poverty status of the participants. Following the findings of the study, government and non-governmental organizations are encouraged to ensure that more farmers participate in Fadama II cooperatives. In addition, the approach of Fadama II cooperatives should be adopted for intervention programmes in developing countries that depend on agriculture not only for feeding their population but also as a business venture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Piglet Body Weight Variation and the Influence of Birth Weight on Piglet Growth During Lactation and Weaninghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Piglets are an important category in pig farming which should, alongside sows, be considered essential production heads. Over the past decades, the intensive selection in pig production has given priority to economically important traits resulting in greater feed utilization and obtaining more piglets from fewer sows. However, such selection practices have failed to improve the overall vitality of piglets and their ability to survive immediately after birth or during their stay in the farrowing unit. Body weight is of great importance in pig production, especially the piglet body weight at birth. A number of parameters can be predicted according to the piglet birth weight: mortality and growth rate, the physiological status of the heard, sensitivity to external influences, vitality and etc. The purpose of this paper is to determine the piglet body weight variation from birth to weaning (measured at birth, 3 hours after birth, 24 hours after birth and at weaning) and to examine the relationship between the birth weight of piglets and their body weight during the transition into nursing. A total of 105 piglets were enrolled in this study from the F1 generation sows followed through eight consecutive parities. The paper presents the results obtained using descriptive statistics, as well as variance and correlation analysis. The relationship between the piglet body weight at different stages of their life and overall production parameters was found to emphasize the centrality of housing conditions as the piglet weight at birth exerts a great impact on the body weight of older piglets, especially in the first days of the piglet life. Therefore, the proper care of piglets in farrowing units is of paramount importance to pig production, especially because piglets have lower body weight at birth nowadays than before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00SAGA GIS for Computing Multispectral Vegetation Indices by Landsat TM for Mapping Vegetation Greennesshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study presents a comparative analysis of eight Vegetation Indices (VIs) used to examine vegetation greenness over the northern coasts of Iceland. The geographical extent of the study area is set by the coordinates of the two fjords, Eyjafjörður and Skagafjörður, notable for their agricultural significance. Vegetation in Iceland is fragile due to the harsh climate, climate change, overgrazing and volcanic activity, which increase soil erosion. The study was conducted on a Landsat TM image using SAGA GIS as a technical tool for raster bands calculations. The NDVI dataset shows a range from -0.56 to 0.24, with 0 indicating ‘no vegetation’, and negative values – ‘other surfaces’ (e.g. rocks, open terrain). The DVI, compared to the NDVI, shows statistically non-normalized values ranging from -112 to 0, with extreme negative values while the coastal vegetation areas are badly distinguished from the water areas. The NRVI shows an extent from -0.24 to 0.48 with higher values for vegetation. The NRVI reduces topographic, solar and atmospheric effects and creates a normal data distribution. RVI shows a range in a dataset from 0.2 to 3.2 with vegetation in the river valleys clearly visible and depicted, while the water areas have values 0.8 to 1.0. The CTVI shows corrected TVI, in a data range -0.10 to 1.10, as the dataset of NDVI were negative. The TVI dataset ranges from 0.44 to 0.80 with the ice-covered areas and glaciers distinguishable and water values within a range from 0.60 to 0.64 and the vegetation from 0.60 to 0.44. The TTVI dataset ranges from 0.40 to 0.80 performing similarly to the TVI, but more refined with vegetation values 0.64 to 0.68. SAVI dataset ranges from -0.80 to 0.30 with minimized effects of soil on the vegetation through a constant soil adjustment factor added into the NDVI formula. The paper presents a comparison of eight VIs for Arctic vegetation monitoring. The overall behavior of SAGA GIS in calculation and mapping of the VIs is effective in terms of their use for vegetation mapping of the region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of Proline in Mitigating the Deleterious Effects of Heat Stress in Chillieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Chilli is a spicy crop which belongs to family Solanaceae. As a vegetable crop, it is considered as one of the major cultivated crops in the world seriously affected by the climatic changes, including elevation in temperature. Therefore, in this research various morpho-physiological characteristics of chilli were studied for heat tolerance under the influence of exogenous application of proline. This research was carried out in a growth room of the Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Four chilli genotypes were evaluated under the applied conditions. Seeds were grown in plastic pots. Heat stress (40/32 ºC day and night temperature) was applied 30 days after the emergence. Foliar spray of proline (0, 5 and 10 mM) was applied during heat stress, and after 7 days of stress the plants were harvested. The results revealed that the inhibition of chilli growth by heat stress was successfully mediated by proline application. Morphological attributes such as the number of leaves per plant, root and shoot length, plant fresh and dry weight were reduced in response to heat stress, and physiological attributes such as photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and chlorophyll contents were also reduced in response to heat stress, except transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, which increased under heat stress and showed recovery by proline application. Exogenous application of proline promoted tolerance against heat stress in chilli genotypes and enhanced growth. All the observed traits exhibited recovery in response to proline stimulus, indicating the role of proline in mitigating the consequences of heat stress. Recovery also depends on genetic capability of various cultivars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Occurrence of Heavy Metals (Cadmium and Lead) in the Liver of Hogs in the Region of Vojvodinahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate the occurrence of two heavy metals (namely cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb)) in the liver of hogs bred in different locations in Vojvodina. A total of 30 liver samples were collected from ten pig farms in Vojvodina for experimental purposes in the period from December 2017 to January 2018. The samples collected were analysed for the presence of lead and cadmium. The average concentration of lead in all the samples was 0.39 mg/kg wet weight, whereas the samples from only one farm of the ten considered were found to contain a slightly higher average lead concentration than permitted by the Serbian standard. A lead concentration of 0.86 mg/kg wet weight was detected in one liver sample from this farm. The maximum permitted lead concentration was exceeded in the liver samples obtained from three farms. However, all the liver samples analysed were found to contain the permitted levels of cadmium, with an average cadmium concentration of 0.12 mg/kg wet weight and a maximum cadmium concentration of 0.48 mg/kg wet weight. The occurrence of heavy metals and their origin in the pig’s offals should be examined in greater detail in future research, especially because pig’s offals are used in the meat processing industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Attitude of Vegetable Farmers in Galle District in Sri Lanka Towards Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Vegetable farmers are facing a number of challenges including price fluctuations, production and marketing problems, low level of income etc. One strategy to overcome these problems is adoption of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) in vegetable production. However, there is limited information regarding farmers’ awareness of GAP and its applications under the circumstances of farming in the country. Therefore, assessing farmers’ attitude is a timely requirement for directing farmers towards good agricultural practices. Thus, the objectives of the research were to assess the level of awareness of GAP program, relationship between socio-economic factors and awareness of GAP, farmers’ attitudes towards GAP program, factors affecting the willingness to adopt GAP program and the potentials and constraints in implementing GAP program in Galle District. A sample of 100 vegetable farmers in the district was selected through a multi-stage simple random sampling technique. Data were collected from March to July 2018, through a self-administered questionnaire survey and analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. The results revealed that the majority of vegetable farmers in the district were middle-aged males who had studied up to GCE ordinary level and they received a monthly income of 24000 LKR. Their age, gender, educational level and experience were significantly associated with the level of awareness of GAP program. However, despite their positive attitude towards GAP, most farmers were unwilling to take a risk to adopt GAP due to many issues such as lack of required inputs, capital, required field conditions, information and technical know-how. There are several potentials and also many constraints for implementing GAP in the district. Therefore, providing firstly better theoretical knowledge and then providing the main requirements will motivate more farmers to adopt GAP in their vegetable production procedures. Research studies related to application of GAP by Sri Lankan farmers are still at a lower level. This research thus will be useful for different stakeholders related to adoption of GAP in Sri Lanka.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Quercetin Improves the Endocrine Function of Rat Testicular Tissue Under Conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Compounds of natural origin are often used for their beneficial effects on the male endocrine system and the synthesis of steroid biomolecules in testicular tissue. One of such compounds is quercetin (QUE), which belongs to the flavonoid family and is found in a wide range of vegetables, fruits and plant products. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of QUE on the endocrine function of rat testicular fragments under in vitro conditions. Testicular fragments from adult Wistar rats (n=9), cultured in the D-MEM medium with different concentrations of QUE (namely 1, 10 and 100 µmol/L) for 24 h at 37°C (5% CO<sub>2</sub>), were used in the experiment conducted. Following culture, the medium was separated and the levels of cholesterol (CHOL) and male hormones were measured. CHOL values were quantified spectrophotometrically, whereas the concentrations of androstenedione (ANDRO), dehydropeiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (TEST) were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kit. The results obtained indicate that 10 µmol/L QUE significantly increased (P&lt;0.001; P&lt;0.05) the concentrations of all the steroid biomolecules considered (CHOL, ANDRO, DHEA and TEST) when compared to the control samples. Accordingly, our findings confirm the positive impact of QUE on the endocrine function and steroidogenesis of rat testicular tissue under in vitro conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Capacity of Soil Microalgae to Improve Germination and Initial Growth of White Radish and Kohlrabihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Biofertilizers and biostimulators have become alternative sources of plant nutrients. Biofertilizers derived from microalgae represent a new approach in plant production. The aim of the study was to examine the capacity of the microalgal cell suspension to improve germination and initial growth (root and shoot length) of white Icicle Radish (Raphanus sativus) and Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes). By applying soil microalgal biofertilizer, initial growth was improved. Compared to the control, the root length of white radish was increased by 64.24% and 41.32%, using Chlorella sp. and Dictyosphaerium sp. cell suspension, respectively. Kohlrabi root growth was stimulated by application of Chlorella sp. and Dictyosphaerium sp. suspension by 60.97% and 55.02%, respectively. A significant difference in the shoot length was recorded, as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Work Performance of the Ethics Committee for the Welfare of Animals Used in Animal Testing of the University of Novi Sad from 2016 to 2018https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/contagri-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>An animal experiment can be defined as any procedure in which a live animal is used with the aim of testing a scientific assumption, gathering information, obtaining or testing substances or observing the effect of a particular measure on the animal, as well as using an animal in behavioral experiments. The Ethics Committee (EC) determines how animal testing shall be conducted and, in accordance with the Law on Animal Welfare, provides expert supervision of animal testing, organizes training courses for persons conducting testing, provides expert opinions to the minister regarding ethical and scientific justification of animal testing, and submits annual reports to the minister. The data used in this paper were derived in the course of work of the EC in the period between 2016 and 2018. The meetings of the EC were held on a regular basis and in accordance with the Rules of Procedure. Positive Opinions were issued for most of the submitted Applications (87.5%), while a smaller number was returned (6.25%) or directed to the Council for further consideration (6.25%). In several cases, the EC also issued Opinions that certain experiments are beyond its scope of authority and thus beyond its formal legal capacity. Based on the Application of a candidate, the EC also approved changes in previously issued Opinion to ensure consistency in the documentation. The Committee regularly submitted reports and there were no objections to its work. In accordance with the abovementioned, the performance of the EC can be considered efficient and successful, but it can be further significantly improved by more active effort of the individual members of the EC within their home institutions to educate candidates and raise awareness of the importance of the work performed by the EC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1