rss_2.0Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences 's Cover Kernel administration to mothers during pregnancy and lactation improve learning of their pups. Changes in number of neurons and gene expression of NMDA receptor and BDNF in hippocampus in 80 days rat pups<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Walnut (<italic>Juglans regia</italic>) from the Juglandaceae family contains high levels of omega 3 fatty acid, vitamin E and melatonin, hence its consumption is beneficial to would be mothers and their offspring. The current study was designed to determine the possible mechanism of walnut consumption by mothers during pregnancy and lactation and the positive effects on learning and memory processes in their offspring. Wistar adult female rats were placed into three groups: control (fed with pellet, 20 g daily during pregnancy and lactation), CASE 1 [fed with Walnut Kernel (WK) 6% of food intake during pregnancy and lactation] and CASE 2 (fed with WK, 9% of food intake during gestation and lactation). In order to evaluate offspring learning and memory, the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test was performed for their adult offspring at 80 days of age. Histological and molecular studies were utilized in order to discover the protective mechanism and efficacy of WK consumption. The results revealed that learning was significantly improved in the females of CASE 2, in comparison to controls, while there was no difference in memory among the different groups. In addition, the number of neurons significantly increased in the CASE 2 group compared to the control group. However, the molecular study demonstrated that there was no significant difference among the study groups. The results herein show that feeding mothers with WK may improve the learning competence of their pups and increase the number of neurons in both sexes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of safety and effectiveness of oral morphine on patients attending pain and palliative care: a study on Indian population<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Opioid analgesics remain the corner stone of effective management of moderate to severe pain. Morphine in its oral and parenteral form is one of the most affordable options left to treat severe cancer pain in most Palliative centres in India. The main objective of our study was to assess the safety and effectiveness, as well as the prescribing pattern of immediate release oral morphine on the Indian population attending Pain and Palliative Care in a multi-speciality hospital. Within the sample population, 74.8% of all patients achieved a pain score reduction of less than or equal to 3 within the 72<sup>nd</sup> hour. Although the mean baseline pain score was similar in the cancer (8.23±0.75) and the non-cancer (8.26±0.98) group, the mean pain score at the 24th and 72<sup>nd</sup> hours were significantly different (5.6±1.29 in cancer and 5.09±1.26 in the non-cancer group within the 24<sup>th</sup> hour, followed by 3.66±1.479 and 3.12±0.88 after the 72<sup>nd</sup> hour, respectively). The majority of the patients (58.3%) were prescribed at a frequency of 5 mg every 4<sup>th</sup> hourly, with double dose at bedtime. A similar prescribing trend was seen in both the cancer and non-cancer groups. Moreover, 14 patients underwent dose escalation – with 12 belonging to the cancer group, while 11 patients falling under the cancer group required a switch to different therapy. The major adverse drug reactions (ADR) observed in both study groups were constipation (89.2%), fatigue (37.4%), dry mouth (36%) and nausea/vomiting (23%). The severity of nausea/vomiting and sleepiness was higher in the cancer group whereas itching was more predominant among the non-cancer group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in virus-related cancers: a mini review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The modulation of the host innate immune system is a well-established carcinogenesis feature of several tumors, including human Epstein-Barr (EBV) and Papillomavirus-(HPV) related cancers. These viruses are able to interrupt the initial events of the immune response, including the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokines, and inflammation. The aim of the study is to review current data and summarize knowledge on the TLRs and their role in the development of cancer, especially viral-related cancers (EBV and HPV). Research work shows a correlation between the TLRs polymorphism and the development of oropharyngeal and gastric cancer (GC), especially related to viral infections. Many studies suggest the important role for TLRs in inflammatory, autoimmune disease and human cancers. However, further efforts are necessary to draw a precise conclusion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of ketotifen and conventional antiepileptic drugs on the exploratory and spontaneous locomotor activity in mice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drug interactions are major problems in polytherapy, especially in epilepsy, and inappropriate drug selection may result in increased frequency of seizures.</p> <p>In this study, the influence of histamine type 1 (H<sub>1</sub>) receptor antagonist ketotifen and four chosen antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on mice activity was examined. We evaluated three parameters of locomotor activity in mice: horizontal total activity with total distance and vertical activity, as well as animal spontaneous activity. Experiments were divided into two 15-minutes studies. During the first 15 minutes, we examined exploratory activity in mice; in the second period, spontaneous activity was tested. In the experiment, Ketotifen or vehicle were administered once or for 7 days daily, whereas AEDs were given only once before test performance.</p> <p>Our results show that ketotifen given alone once or for 7 days significantly increased exploratory locomotor activity in mice without affecting their spontaneous activity. However, in combination with AEDs, ketotifen given once or for 7 days differently affected spontaneous and locomotor activity in mice. Our study indicates that the combination of ketotifen with AEDs needs special attention in pharmacotherapy of epilepsy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Different molecular targets, one purpose – treatment of depression<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although vast scientific progress has been made, the current pharmacotherapy of depression is still not fully effective. In adults, depressive disorders are among the most common diseases in industrialized countries, impact upon all aspects of family and working life and significantly disturb social functioning. Moreover, increasingly, they affect children and teenagers.</p> <p>Depressive disorders have a complex etiology. This includes a number of mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. Therefore, the current review concentrates on bringing to the foreground the many molecular areas involved in occurrence of this disease. The work highlights the notion that depression has a complex pharmacology and inevitably requires the adoption of individual pharmacotherapy. This manuscript concentrates on currently used drugs drawn from diverse therapeutic groups and presents new promising targets for the treatment of depression. This is a particularly important issue due to the continuous lack of effective therapy and the constant search for new drugs and molecular targets for its treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Reversal effect of against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We earlier reported the protective effect of <italic>Solanum dasyphyllum</italic> against cyanide neurotoxicity. In furtherance to this, we investigated the protective effect of <italic>S. dasyphyllum</italic> against rotenone, a chemical toxin that causes brain-related diseases. Mitochondria fraction obtained from the brain of male Wistar rats was incubated with various solvents (hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, and methanol) extracts of <italic>S. dasyphyllum</italic> before rotenone exposure. Mitochondria respiratory enzymes (MRE) were evaluated along with markers of oxidative stress. The inhibition of MRE by rotenone was reversed by treatment with various fractions of <italic>S. dasyphyllum</italic>. The oxidative stress induced by rotenone was also reversed by fractions of <italic>S. dasyphyllum</italic>. In addition, the ethylacetate fraction of <italic>S. dasyphyllum</italic> was most potent against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. In conclusion, <italic>S. dasyphyllum</italic> is rich in active phytochemicals that can prevent some neurotoxic effects of rotenone exposure. Further study can be done in an in vivo model to substantiate our results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial efficacy of Colgate Plax Cool Mint mouthwash – studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hygienic procedures in oral cavity, both teeth brushing and using mouthwashes, have an influence on the composition and quantity of oral microflora. The aim of the work was to evaluate the impact of regular use of selected mouthwash on the titer of <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> and <italic>Streptococcus</italic> bacteria and <italic>Candida</italic> yeast-like fungi in the saliva.</p> <p>The evaluation of the influence of Colgate Plax Cool Mint<sup>®</sup> mouthwash on the number of <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> and <italic>Streptococcus</italic> bacteria and <italic>Candida</italic> yeast-like fungi in the saliva was done. The research included 39 persons at the age of 17±3 months, out of whom 30 people constituted a study group using mouthwash and 9 people – a control group not using mouthwash. The persons from the study group used the mouthwash twice a day for 2–3 minutes for the period of 5 months. The material for the microbiological tests constituted 2 ml of saliva collected three times from the participants: at the beginning of the research – before the use of a mouthwash and respectively, after 2.5 and 5 months from the first test.</p> <p>Colgate Plax Cool Mint<sup>®</sup>, the most frequently used by the youth in their daily oral hygiene and used in the present study mouthwash, showed effectiveness in reduction of <italic>Lactobacillus</italic> spp. and <italic>S. mutans</italic> bacteria, as well as <italic>C. albicans</italic> yeasts in the saliva of the studied persons, what is undoubtedly connected with inhibition of formation and prevention of oral plaque development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of functional food on the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Globally, diseases of the lung are one of the main causes of death, and conventional therapies are often ineffective in dealing with this serious medical and sociological problem. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used in the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. Such plants show antitussive, muscle relaxing, bronchi dilation or cillary movement effects. Their usefulness has been confirmed by modern and current research. A medicinal plant that is also a functional food can open new areas in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract diseases. In this review, information about the influence of functional food on preventing and treating asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and high-altitude sickness are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical constituents of Algerian mandarin () essential oil by GC-MS and FT-IR analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Medicinal plants are potential sources of natural compounds with biological activities and therefore attract the attention of researchers worldwide. Citrus oils are a complex mixture of more than a hundred components of differing chemical natures. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GCMS) of the <italic>Citrus reticulata</italic> essential oil collected from El Hadaïk, Skikda City (Algeria), identified 28 compounds representing a total of 99.41%. The essential oil is constituted mainly of: D-Limonene (85.10%), Sabinene (2.49%), Linalyl acetate (2.00%), Copaene (1.80%) et α-Pinene (1.75%) totaling approximately 93.14%. The essential oil was also analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis (FTIR). FTIR spectroscopy allowed us to identify 10 volatile compounds and indicated that the functional groups of the essential oils are C-H (Alkene), C-H (aromatic) and C=C. The obtained results have shown that the essential oil can be fully utilized for pharmacy, cosmetology and industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of Ketogenic diet on vitamin D3 and testosterone hormone in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A keto diet is well-known for being a low carb diet in which the body produces ketones in the liver to be used as energy. When something high in carbs is eaten, the body will produce glucose and insulin. Glucose is the easiest molecule for the body to convert and use as energy, so it will be chosen over any other energy source. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of a ketogenic diet on type 2 diabetic patients and the effect it has on testosterone, vitamin D3, HDL, LDL levels, in comparison to non-ketogenic diet subjects. In the study, Type 2 diabetic patients undergoing a keto diet were selected and serum D3 levels and testosterone levels were examined and compared with control subjects. The result show a significant increase in testosterone hormone in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 following a Ketogenic diet (mean± Std. Error 427.4±2.52) as compared with the control group (mean ± Std. Error 422.2±0.24) and as compared with patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 who are not following a Ketogenic diet (mean± Std. Error 151.4±1.41). The results show no significant level in LDL level in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 following a Ketogenic diet (mean ± Std. Error 78.53±0.17), as compared to a control group (mean ± Std. Error 75.0.3±0.14) and no significant level in HDL level in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 following a Ketogenic diet (mean± Std. Error 46.3±1.55), as compared with a control group (mean ± Std. Error 46.2±2.43), and with patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 who are not following a Ketogenic diet (mean ± Std. Error 45.1±1.55). The results show a significant increase in vitamin D3 level in patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 who are following a Ketogenic diet (mean ± Std. Error 53.5±0.32), as compared with a control group (mean± Std. Error 57±0.24), and with patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 who are not following a Ketogenic diet (mean ± Std. Error 25.1±1.55). Herein, normal vitamin D3 levels in patients corresponds to normal testosterone hormone levels. In conclusion, this study shows that in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, following a ketogenic diet has a positive effect on the patients’ health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of metronidazole and levofloxacin composites with silver nanoparticle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the work is to to ascertain their antibacterial activity, as well as the toxic effects toward human cells of composites of silver nanoparticles immobilized by electron-beam technology onto crystals of antimicrobial agents metronidazole and levofloxacin</p> <p>The assessment of antibacterial activity and cytotoxic action of silver naonparticled metronidazole and levofloxacin composites was carried out using the MTT-test. Objects of study of antibacterial activity were three strains of microorganisms: <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> ATCC25923, <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> dH5α, <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> ATCC9027. For the investigation of cytotoxic action, cells of HEK 293 line obtained from human kidney embryos were used. Nanocomposites of metronidazole and levofloxacin were tested at concentrations known as the minimum toxic dose of antibiotics and at concentrations reduced/increased in 2 times.</p> <p>Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on the surface of metronidazole and levofloxacin by electron-beam technology gives a different effect on their antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Nanocomposites of metronidazole exhibit a weaker antibacterial effect on E. coli than metronidazole alone, while levofloxacin nanocomposites have higher antibacterial activity compared to levofloxacin alone. Nanocomposites of the levofloxacin, compared to free levofloxacin, are characterized by a higher antibacterial effect towards gram-negative bacteria (<italic>E</italic>. <italic>coli</italic>), but practically do not differ in activity toward <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> and <italic>S. aureus</italic>. Immobilization of silver nanoparticles on metronidazole crystals does not affect on its cytotoxicity relative to pseudonormal human cells line HEK 293, while the nanocomposites of levofloxacin with silver are more toxic to these cells than levofloxacin alone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Histopathological comparison of the salivary glands’ acini and striated ducts after experimental prolonged daily administration of oral ubiquinone doses in rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Also called coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), Ubiquinone is a vitamin-like endogenously produced factor essential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) mitochondrial production. Several research studies have reported that the exogenous supplementation of CoQ10 can lead to excessive salivation, especially in patients complaining of dry mouth. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term daily use of CoQ10 on the salivary glands in experimental animals by comparing the diameters of the glandular acini and striated ducts of a CoQ10-treated group and a control group. Twenty-five white albino rats were randomly divided into two groups; the control group consisted of 10 rats, while the CoQ10-treated group comprised 15 rats. The latter received daily oral treatment of 300 mg/kg CoQ10 for six weeks. Samples of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands were then dissected and examined histologically for comparative measurement of the diameters of the glands’ acini and striated ducts. The CoQ10 treated group had mean diameters of the serous acini for the parotid (79.8±11.2 μm) and submandibular (81.07±13.5 μm) glands that were significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) than their diameters in the control group (67.5±8.4 μm and 73.3±13.8 μm), respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant when comparing the diameters of striated ducts of the CoQ10-treated group and the control group. Continuous and prolonged exposure to exogenous ubiquinone may cause hypertrophic dilation of the acini within the salivary glands, namely the parotid and submandibular glands, which might be the underlying mechanism for excessive salivation. This can be considered a reversible adaptive response.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The diagnostic value of immunohistochemical staining of the interstitial vascular C4d complement in membranous nephropathy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is the most common cause of adulthood nephrotic syndrome. Diagnosis of membranous nephritis is based on light electron immunofluorescence microscopy and clinical signs. Immune complex deposition against podocyte antigens such as phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) activates the complement system. Of this, complement Component C4d (C4d) is involved in the classical and lectin pathways. This marker may be used by immunohistochemistry to diagnose MGN when other methods are not available. In this work, C4d expression was monitored by immunohistochemical analysis in the glomerular capillaries of patients with primary MGN (study group, N=33) versus patients with minimal change disease (MCD, control group, N=20) in a cross-sectional evaluation performed based on the diagnosis confirmed by light microscopy and immunofluorescence. There was no significant demographic difference between the two groups except for age (P=0.002). C4d immune-expression was positive in glomerular capillary (2+ to 4+) in most of the MGN patients, while it was negative in the MCD group. The sensitivity and specificity of C4d immunostaining were 95% and 100%, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.74 between C4d (immunohistochemistry) and immunoglobulins (IgG; immunofluorescence) and 0.65 between C4d (immunohistochemistry) and the C3 complement product (immunofluorescence). Immunohistochemical evaluation of C4d is, therefore, a sensitive and specific method that has a high correlation with IgG immunofluorescence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of sensory and rheological properties of green cosmetic creams prepared on different natural, ECOCERT and BDIH certificated self-emulsifying bases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this paper was to evaluate and compare the rheological and sensory properties of six natural cosmetic creams that use ECOCERT certificated emulsifying bases: Beautyderm, Dub Base Expert, Simulgreen™ 18-2, Olivem 1000, Montanov L and Emulgin Succro against two synthetics: Granthix APP and Lanette W.</p> <p>The use of emulsifying bases in formulas helps to stabilize the product and improve its rheological and sensory attributes. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of several prepared cosmetic creams were determined. Apparent viscosity and thixotropy were evaluated by viscosimeter, while spreadability was ascertained by extensometer. Moreover, a group of 10 trained members evaluated the sensory properties of the formulas. The obtained formulas based upon natural emulsifiers are characterized by very good physical and chemical properties, high stabilization and good usage quality. The results were confirmed by sensory analysis. The cosmetic creams made with synthetic emulsifying bases were rated the worst by the study participants, which correlated with the physical tests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The mechanism of action of platelet-rich plasma – composition analysis and safety assessment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Aesthetic medicine is an intensively developing field, more and more focused on stimulating and regenerating the skin, rather than on emergency treatment. There are many methods used by doctors for biostimulating therapies, but the most popular procedure in recent years is the implantation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used to date successfully in ophthalmology, dermatology, surgery, dentistry and even in orthopedics. The procedure uses autologous material, and its essence is a repair action on damaged cells of the patient as well as the activation of healthy cells and their stimulation for more effective work. The aim of the paper is to present current knowledge about platelet-rich plasma therapy in anti-aging treatment, the effectiveness of therapy with its use, and the mechanism and safety of PRP. The composition of the autologous preparation and its use in aesthetic medicine were also analyzed.</p> <p>PRP is a procedure that uses the patient’s own cells, and growth factors are of key importance in the process of skin regeneration and biostimulation. The correctly performed procedure, including the appropriate collection and administration of a buffy coat to the patient and compliance with all the rules of sterility, results in positive effects of the therapy. Numerous studies prove the effectiveness and safety of the platelet-rich plasma treatment.</p> <p>Highly concentrated platelets in the deposited preparation stimulate the surrounding cells to angiogenesis, differentiation, proliferation and synthesis of components essential for remodeling of the treated area. The therapy is highly effective and safe to use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Insights into the perspective correlation between vitamin D and regulation of hormones: sex hormones and prolactin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> Vitamin D is currently an exciting research target, besides its obvious role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, enormous work is being directed at examining the effects of this vitamin on various biological functions and pathological conditions.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The review of the literature and the analysis took about six months and was carried out through PubMed. This is a search engine opening mainly the MEDLINE database of trusted references. We called up all studies written in English that were published between the years 2004 to 2021 and that came through using the applied search terms, and analysed all those that met the criteria.</p> <p>R<bold>esults.</bold> The endocrine system with its many glands and hormones and their essential roles in the maintenance of normal body functioning cannot be far from interactions with vitamin D. Male and female sex hormones are no exceptions and many studies have investigated the correlations between these hormones and vitamin D. As such, direct and indirect relationships have been found between vitamin D, its receptors or one of its metabolising enzymes with sex hormones and the development of reproductive organs in males and females.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> This review summarises the research investigating the associations of vitamin D with sex hormones and reproductive organs in males and females, and thus may pave the road for future studies that will investigate the clinical significance of vitamin D in the management of reproductive system disorders. Despite some conflicting results about the relationship between VD and the effectiveness of the reproductive system, many studies confirm the presence of receptors for this vitamin in the reproductive system, and this supports the direct or indirect relationship between VD and prolactin or VD and testosterone through PO<sub>4</sub> and Ca<sup>2+</sup> homeostasis, or production of osteocalcin. Therefore, VD is positively associated with semen quality and androgen status. Furthermore, a direct relationship between VD and the production of progesterone, estrogen and estrone in human ovarian cells has been supported by many studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The COVID-19 – related problems encountered by nursing homes in Poland and the steps undertaken to prevent disease spread in the first phase of the epidemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nursing Homes (NHs) are institutions of social assistance run by local governments or non-government organizations. Their purpose is to provide individuals with basic services. On March 20, 2020, the Regulation of the Minister of Health issued the declaration of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland. The introduction of legal regulations allowed the authorities to take actions to prevent infections at NHs. The aim of the study was to analyze the COVID-19 – related problems encountered by nursing homes in Poland and the steps undertaken to prevent disease spread in the first phase of the epidemic.</p> <p>The survey was conducted with use of an original questionnaire e-mailed to 532 NHs throughout Poland in May 2020. Results were analysed by way of the IBM SPSS Statistics program.</p> <p>A total of 89 completed questionnaires were received from: 40 NHs organized by local government (44.9%), 24 run by churches (27.0%), 13 established by non-governmental organizations (14.6%) and 12 operating privately (13.5%). Among them, 78 NHs had less than 100 employees (87.6%) and 11 had more than 100 employees (12.4%), while 68 had up to 100 inhabitants (76.4%) and 21 had more than 100 inhabitants (23.6%). All NHs had problems with recruiting and retaining enough nursing staff.</p> <p>The most commonly used method of COVID-19 spread prevention at NHs in the first phase of the pandemic was establishing an increased sanitary regime, monitoring of temperature of residents and staff members and preparing isolation rooms. The greatest problem was personnel shortages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00-Synephrine and its various pharmacological effects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a number of diseases for which, scientists are constantly looking for a promising new treatments. Isolation of novel substances with biological activity from plants gives hope for its use in treatment. In this review, we focused on the biological activity of <italic>p</italic>-synephrine (4-(2-aminoethyl)phenol) which was previously confirmed during both <italic>in vitro</italic> and <italic>in vivo</italic> tests. The main part of the review is dedicated to the anti-obesity activity of <italic>p</italic>-synephrine, as obesity is a disease of contemporary civilization. However, synephrine also possesses anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant activity and it is confirmed to be a hypotensive agent in portal hypertension. The review also emphasize that, based on current knowledge, the use of <italic>p</italic>-synephrine appears to be exceedingly safe with only limited range of side effects. Therefore, it seems that this substance may be of great importance in the pharmacotherapy of many disease states and further research is necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Pathogen profile of urinary tract infections in Nephrology Unit<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common types of infection in both hospitalized and outpatient settings. The etiology is mostly bacterial, and the typical causative agent is uropathogenic <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. There is a noticeable increase in drug resistance of pathogenic microorganisms.</p> <p><bold>The aim</bold> of the study was retrospective analyses of etiological agents of UTI and their antibiotic resistance patterns in Nephrology Unit patients.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods</bold>. An infection was diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms and positive results of urine culture, carried out over 26 months. The clinical material was tested by using the VITEK system, the drug susceptibility of the emerged pathogens was identified.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The most common etiological agents of UTI were Gram-negative rods: <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> (51.23%), <italic>Klebsiella</italic> spp. (19.3%) and <italic>Proteus</italic> spp. (13.68%). The analysis of drug resistance profiles of these pathogens showed a high percentage of strains resistant to broad-spectrum penicillins and fluoroquinolones. At the same time, it seems that <italic>E. coli</italic> isolates presented the most favorable pattern of drug susceptibility in this comparison.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The alarming tendency of increasing drug resistance among pathogens causing UTIs to antibiotics such as penicillins or fluoroquinolones prompts a careful choice of drugs in empirical therapies. The most appropriate practice in this regard seems to be meticulous control of nosocomial infections and making therapeutic decisions based on the knowledge of local microbiological data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinically significant enterococci isolated in the Provincial Specialist Hospital in Lublin, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increasing significance of enterococci as healthcare-associated pathogens can be linked to their limited susceptibility to antibiotics.</p> <p>In this study, phenotypic and genotypic resistance profiles of 35 [n=18 <italic>E. faecium</italic> (<italic>Efm</italic>); n=17 <italic>E. faecalis (Efs)</italic>] invasive isolates cultured from hospitalized patients were analysed. Phenotypic identification was verified by the multiplex PCR targeting the 16S rDNA and the <italic>ddl</italic> genes encoding for the <italic>Efs</italic> and <italic>Efm –</italic> specific ligases. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using the disc diffusion method and E-tests. The high-level streptomycin resistance (HLSR), high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR) and glycopeptide resistance was verified by amplification of the <italic>ant(6)-Ia, aac(6’)-Ie-aph(2’’)-Ia,</italic> as well as <italic>vanA</italic> and <italic>vanB genes,</italic> respectively.</p> <p>More than 70% of all isolates were cultured from patients in the Intensive Care and Internal Medicine Units. Blood was the predominant (77%) site of isolation. All <italic>Efm</italic> isolates were resistant to ampicillin, imipenem, and norfloxacin; 17 isolates demonstrated high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR), including 27.7% with HLSR, 38.8% with HLGR and 27.7% with both phenotypes. HLAR was also common in <italic>Efs</italic> (HLSR&gt;70%, HLGR&gt;50%), followed by norfloxacin (64.7%) and ampicillin (11.7%) resistance. The <italic>ant(6)-Ia and aac(6’)-Ie-aph(2’’)-Ia</italic> genes were detected in &gt;90% of the HLSR and HLGR isolates, respectively. Glycopeptide resistance was detected in 4 (22.2%) <italic>Efm</italic> isolates and mediated by the <italic>vanA</italic> gene. 19 (54.3%) isolates were multidrug resistant, including 17 (89.5%) <italic>Efm</italic>. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid.</p> <p>The study constitutes a contribution to the analysis of enterococcal antimicrobial resistance in Polish hospitals. The monitoring of enterococcal prevalence and antimicrobial resistance is crucial to control and prevent infections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1