rss_2.0Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Scienceshttps://sciendo.com/journal/CIPMShttps://www.sciendo.comCurrent Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6160cac66487f513212fda61/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211026T053809Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604799&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211026%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=7971cd569032fc61144959d607ae93d9e1cbae199e46af158340dfa4de8f381f200300The bone strengthening effects of propolis in ovariectomized female white rats as models for postmenopausehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0025<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by decreased quality and strength of bones so that it becomes porous and fracture. Propolis is known to have many pharmacological activity, including an anti-osteoporosis effect. This study aims to determine the effect of propolis administration and the effects of propolis dosage variation in preventing osteoporosis based on the strength value of femur bone impact in female white rats in the form of an ovariectomy postmenopausal model. The rats were divided into 5 groups: positive control group (subjected to ovariectomy), negative control group (not subjected to ovariectomy, and treatment groups that were subjected to ovariectomy and given propolis at a dose of 180 mg/kg BW, dose 360 mg/kg BW and dose 720 mg/kg BW. Propolis was administered orally for 30 days. Bone impact strength testing was undertaken after 30 days using an impact testing machine. Research data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA and continued with the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. From the test results, we noted that propolis administration had an effect on the value of bone strength, with the dose of 720 mg/kg BW and 360 mg/kg BW having a significant effect, compared with others. With an increase in dose, propolis can provide an increase in the value of bone strength in rat bones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Nano chitosan encapsulation of leaf extract promotes ROS induction leading to apoptosis in human squamous cells (HSC-3)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0026<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>World-wide, Indonesia is ranked 17<sup>th</sup> in oral cancers, with deaths reaching 2.326 cases. Of the oral cancers, 90% are squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-3). Unfortunately, conventional cancer therapy still has many ill side effects. Therefore, pharmacologists have looked for natural ingredients to prevent the growth of oral cancer cells. One source is <italic>Cymbopogon citratus</italic> leaf. Research shows that the active compound of <italic>C. citratus</italic> leaf is a chemopreventive, doing so by increasing the production of re-active oxygen species (ROS) to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The active compound of <italic>C. citratus</italic> leaf has low stability and solubility, so it is necessary to use an encapsulation matrix such as chitosan, and modify it into smaller particles to increase its effectiveness.</p> <p>Purpose is determining the effect of nano chitosan encapsulation of <italic>C. citratus</italic> leaf ethanol extract (NCECC) on the reactive oxygen species of HSC-3 tongue cancer cells. This study is divided into ten groups – without treatment, doxorubicin (positive control), hydrogen peroxide, nano chitosan and C. citratus leaf extract groups, and five groups of NCECC treatment – concentrations of 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 12.5%, respectively. The 100% NCECC group showed the highest ROS concentration (p&lt;0.05), compared to 75%, 50%, 25%, 12.5% NCECC groups, and the 100% NCECC was higher than the positive control group. NCECC is effective in inducing oxidative stress on HSC-3 through increased production of ROS. Moreover, the higher the encapsulation concentration given, the greater the increase in ROS production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative efficacy of empagliflozin versus placebo in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this meta-analysis study was to evaluate the comparative efficacy of empagliflozin (25 mg) with placebo in the treatment and management of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This study is a meta-analysis, so an ethical statement is not required. Different databases and individual journal websites like SCOPUS, Science direct, Cochrane review library etc. were used. The articles were evaluated based on the search and eligibility criteria. A total of five RCTs were incorporated in this meta-analysis. These studies contained a total of 1058 patients, including 526 patients with placebo (or control-treated patients), and 532 patients with empagliflozin (25 mg) treated combination. The mean follow-up time ranged from 7 days to 6 months. Overall, mean reduction in placebo was -0.50% and empa-treated was -0.85%, while the pooled WMD was 3.82 995% CI 1.20 – 5.88, p=0.0001). Regarding urinary glucose excretion, that the pooled WMD was 6.67 (95% CI 4.87-10.14, p=0.001) indicated a significant increase in empa-arm compared to placebo. No heterogeneity was found (I2 – 15.03%). This meta-analysis underlined the therapeutic benefit of empagliflozin as an adjunctive therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal properties of selected mouthwashes: studieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Mouthwashes should include antimicrobial compounds to inhibit microorganism multiplication, thus the formation and development of dental plaque.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal effectiveness of mouthwashes depending on their active ingredients.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> In the study, the effect of antibacterial and antifungal properties of mouthwashes on reference bacterial and yeast-like fungi strains was examined. The first type of the assessed mouthwashes contained only sodium fluoride or sodium fluoride and amine fluoride as active ingredients, while the second type contained sodium fluoride and cetylpyridinium chloride.</p> <p>In the study, a well diffusion method was used to test microorganisms constituting natural or pathogenic microflora of oral mucosa. The used reference microorganisms came from the ATCC: <italic>L. acidophilus</italic> ATCC 4356, <italic>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</italic> ATCC 53103, <italic>S. mutans</italic> ATCC 25175, and <italic>Candida</italic> yeasts: <italic>C. albicans</italic> ATCC 2091, <italic>C. albicans</italic> ATCC 10231, <italic>Candida parapsilosis</italic> ATCC 22019, <italic>Candida glabrata</italic> ATCC 90030, <italic>Candida krusei</italic> ATCC 14243.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The mouthwashes containing sodium fluoride and cetylpyridinium chloride showed an inhibitory effect against a greater number of reference strains used in the study than did mouthwashes that contained only sodium fluoride (or sodium fluoride and amine fluoride) as active ingredients. Against the four reference strains of <italic>Candida</italic> genus, the mouthwashes with an inorganic and organic fluoride compound showed no or minimum inhibitory effect or were much less effective than the mouthwashes that also contained cetylpyridinium chloride.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> Mouthwashes containing multiple ingredients with different antimicrobial mechanisms show synergistic action against the bacterial and fungal microflora responsible for the accumulation of dental plague.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Casirivimab and imdevimab as investigational monoclonal antibodies for COVID-19 patients – review of the literaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Casirivimab and imdevimab (REGN-COV-2) are investigational monoclonal antibodies approved in November 2020 by the Food and Drug Administration for emergency use in mild and moderate COVID-19. These two noncompeting human IgG1 monoclonal antibodies can target the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARSCoV-2, prevent its entry into human cells, and reduce viral load. The antibodies can be administered intravenously for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients who do not require hospitalization and supplemental oxygen. The purpose of the study is to review the latest available data on COVID-19 treatment using casirivimab and imdevimab. According to recent preclinical studies, the antibody cocktail presents optimal antiviral strength and has the potential to minimize the chances of the virus escaping. It was shown in animal studies that the cocktail reduces the pathological consequences caused by viruses, decreases the number of viruses in the respiratory system, and reduces lung titers and pneumonia symptoms. Casirivimab and imdevimab as a cocktail also prevents the rapid appearance of treatment-resistant mutants. In the clinical trial, REGN-COV-2 decreased viral load, particularly in patients with a non-initiated immune response (serum antibody-negative) and with high viral load at baseline. The adverse effects were comparable in the combined REGN-COV2 dose groups (2.4 g and 8.0 g), as well as in the placebo group. The cocktail caused few and mainly low-grade toxic effects. Casirivimab and imdevimab seem to be effective and safe antiviral therapy for nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19. Further observations and research are extremely necessary to assess the efficacy, security and indications in a wider group of patients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Thyroglossal duct cyst papillary thyroid cancer – the state of the arthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Thyroglossal duct cyst is one of the most common congenital malformations in the neck area. The majority of cysts turn out to be benign tumors, however, 0.7-1.5 % of the remnants develop into carcinoma, with papillary thyroid cancer being the most frequent malignant neoplasm. The origin of the cancer has not been clearly established so far. Typically, thyroglossal duct cyst cancer is an enlarging flexible midline or slightly lateral neck mass, most often without other worrisome symptoms. The proper diagnosis can be difficult due to the rare prevalence of thyroglossal duct cyst papillary thyroid carcinoma, as well as a lack of strongly typical features distinguishing benign and malignant lesions before surgery. Thus, diagnosis is usually made postoperatively just after histopathological examination of a resected cyst. However, there are diagnostic procedures that should be considered before the surgery that may be helpful in making a proper diagnosis. These include fine-needle aspiration biopsy, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Moreover, there are some characteristics revealed through clinical and ultrasound examination that may suggest the presence of such cancer. While the Sistrunk procedure is often considered adequate, currently, there is no clear consensus about concurrent thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy. In the article, we sum up the preoperative suggestive factors of cancer, as well as the proposed indications that can be helpful in deciding on the extent of surgery and further management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Genotoxicity of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and interactions between themhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Chromium and cobalt are essential trace elements that are required only in a small amount, otherwise their excess can cause toxic effects.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and their combinations on genotoxicity in human fibroblasts cells (BJ).</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> In this work, comet and micronucleus assays were used. The BJ cells were exposed to chromium chloride and cobalt chloride at concentration ranges from 100 to 1400 µM. Mixtures of these elements were prepared so as to examine interactions between them.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The present study shows the genotoxic effects of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and their mixtures on BJ cells. In the comet assay, no comets were observed at the lowest concentrations; in the higher, a significant increase in their percentage was observed. In the other assay (formation of micronuclei), a statistically significant increase in the number of cells with micronuclei was observed in the BJ cells spiked with cobalt chloride and chromium chloride. In the case of simultaneous incubation of chromium chloride at 200 µM and cobalt chloride at 1000 µM in the BJ line, antagonism was observed. However, the interaction of chromium chloride at the 1000 µM and cobalt chloride at 200 µM leads to synergism between the studied elements.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> Cobalt (II) and chromium (III) show genotoxic properties, they induce breaks in double and single-stranded DNA and they cause formation of AP-sites that do not have purine or pyrimidine bases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Urinary iodine as an important indicator for preeclampsia: a Polish perspectivehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of perinatal and maternal morbidity. Although subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy is one of the established risk factors for PE, the link between iodine deficiency and PE is not fully understood. The aim of our study was to assess urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and free thyroxine (fT4) levels in Polish women with PE (PE group, n=78) compared with healthy non-pregnant women (CNP group, n=30), and healthy pregnant women (CP group, n=46). The UIC was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Both the mean UIC of 144.6±36.4 μg/L in the CP group and the mean of 125.8±33.6 μg/L in the PE group, respectively, were lower compared to non-pregnant women (149.8±28.8 μg/L), and the difference between the PE and CNP groups was statistically significant. TSH values were the highest in the PE group, while the lowest average level was for the CNP group. The fT3 and fT4 values in the PE group were significantly lower compared to the CNP and CP groups. Despite iodine supplementation during pregnancy, the UIC was lower compared to non-pregnant women, while in women with PE it was at a significantly lower level. To reduce the incidence of possible health complications, proper iodine supplementation and monitoring of the UIC is recommended for pregnant women suffering from PE or at risk of developing PE.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Clinical and laboratory findings in elderly with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Babol, northern Iran – 2017-2019https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0027<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Morbidity and mortality are higher in older adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) than in other age groups. Also, CAP in older adults has various clinical manifestations with other. A higher mortality rate in the elderly with CAP may contribute to a delay in management. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory manifestations of CAP in the elderly. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 221 elderly patients with CAP who were admitted to Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital, in Babol, northern of Iran, in 2017-2019. Patient outcomes included 170 cases that recovered from CAP, and 51 cases that died of complications. Patients were evaluated in terms of their clinical and laboratory manifestations. The most common symptoms of pneumonia were cough (79.6%), sputum (73.8%), weakness (72.9%), fever (56%), dyspnea (46.2%). The most frequent underlying disease was ischemic heart disease (43.9%). In our study, clinical and laboratory characteristics in older patients with CAP were evaluated and compared with other studies confirming past findings, but there were differences in some cases, such as vital signs, gastrointestinal symptoms, and disturbance of the level of consciousness. Therefore, it recommends carefully taking the patients’ initial histories and accurately recording their clinical and laboratory symptoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Reverse drug distribution in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0028<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The trade and distribution of drugs or medicines (the two terms are used interchangeably in the paper) has been evolving throughout the history of European pharmacy. In order to ensure that EU citizens are safe, certain legislative measures had to be taken to prevent the illegal trade in drugs. The problem that affects the Polish pharmaceutical market is the illegal export of medicines. The article attempts to analyse the so-called reverse drug distribution, doing so by employing the dogmatic legal method. The paper ends with <italic>de lege ferenda</italic> suggestions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of chromium (III), cobalt (II) and their mixtures on cell metabolic activityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chromium (III) and cobalt (II) are necessary elements required for the proper functioning of the organism, but their excess can cause toxic effects. They are the basic components of implants and are also commonly used in medicine as components of dietary supplements, vitamin and mineral products and energy drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cobalt (II) and chromium (III) and their combination on BJ cells. In the study, BJ cells were exposed to CoCl<sub>2</sub> or CrCl<sub>3</sub> at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1400 µM, and the cytotoxicity of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and their mixtures was assessed by MTT reduction, LDH release and NRU assays. The outcome of this work reveals the cytotoxic effects of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and their mixtures on BJ cells. In the cytotoxicity assays, at low concentrations of CoCl<sub>2</sub> and CrCl<sub>3</sub>, stimulation of cell proliferation was observed. In higher concentrations, the cell viability decreased for the tested line in all the assays. During the simultaneous incubation of fibroblasts with 200 µM of CrCl<sub>3</sub> and 1000 µM of CoCl<sub>2</sub>, antagonism was observed: chromium (III) at the concentration of 200 µM induced protection from cobalt (II) toxicity; in the case of interaction of chromium chloride at 1000 µm and cobalt chloride at 200 µM, the protective effect of CrCl<sub>3</sub> on CoCl<sub>2</sub> was not observed. In the latter case, synergism between these elements was noted. Our work indicates that cobalt (II) and chromium (III) show cytotoxic properties. These metals have a destructive effect on the cell membrane, lysosomes and mitochondria, which leads to disorders of cell metabolism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Studies on perchlorate levels in powdered infant formulas available on the Polish markethttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Perchlorate has been acknowledged as a health threat due to its ability to interfere with iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Infants and developing newborns have been considered as the most vulnerable groups to the perchlorate toxicity. A crucial source of perchlorate ingestion are powdered infant formulas. This study was designed to measure perchlorate content in thirty-one powdered infant formulas available on the Polish market. A rapid and sensitive ion chromatography method – conductivity cell detection – was applied to determine <inline-formula> <alternatives> <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_cm-2021-0024_ineq_001.png"/> <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>ClO</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mn>4</mml:mn><mml:mo>−</mml:mo></mml:msubsup></mml:mrow></mml:math> <tex-math>{\rm{ClO}}_4^ - </tex-math> </alternatives> </inline-formula> content. Limit of detection (0.150 µg/L) and limit of quantification (0.450 µg/L) were assessed. Collected samples were classified by the age of consumers: first stage, until the baby is six months old and follow-on formula for older children. Geometric mean of perchlorate concentration of 1.041 µg/L and 0.857 µg/L in the groups of the first stage and follow-on formulas were calculated, respectively. A health risk assessment revealed that the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for perchlorate (0.3 µg/kg body weight/day) was exceeded only in a few milk samples. The findings suggest that perchlorate contamination of powdered infant formulas may not to be an immediate health issue, yet testing for <inline-formula> <alternatives> <inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_cm-2021-0024_ineq_001.png"/> <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" display="inline"><mml:mrow><mml:msubsup><mml:mrow><mml:mtext>ClO</mml:mtext></mml:mrow><mml:mn>4</mml:mn><mml:mo>−</mml:mo></mml:msubsup></mml:mrow></mml:math> <tex-math>{\rm{ClO}}_4^ - </tex-math> </alternatives> </inline-formula> should continuously be conducted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning perchlorate content in infant formulas in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods of isolation and bioactivity of alkaloids obtained from selected species belonging to the Amaryllidaceae and Lycopodiaceae familieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alkaloids obtained from plants belonging to the Amaryllidaceae and Lycopodiaceae families are of great interest due to their numerous properties. They play a very important role mainly due to their strong antioxidant, anxiolytic and anticholinesterase activities. The bioactive compounds obtained from these two families, especially galanthamine and huperzine A, have found application in the treatment of the common and incurable dementia-like Alzheimer’s disease. Thanks to this discovery, there has been a breakthrough in its treatment by significantly improving the patient’s quality of life and slowing down disease symptoms – albeit with no chance of a complete cure. Therefore, a continuous search for new compounds with potent anti-AChE activity is needed in modern medicine. In obtaining new therapeutic bioactive phytochemicals from plant material, the isolation process and its efficiency are crucial. Many techniques are known for isolating bioactive compounds and determining their amounts in complex samples. The most commonly utilized methods are extraction using different variants of organic solvents allied with chromatographic and spectrometric techniques. Optimization of these methods and modification of their procedures potentially allows researchers to obtain the expected results. The aim of this paper is to present known techniques for the isolation of alkaloids, especially from three species Narcissus, Lycopodium and Huperzia that are a rich source of AChE inhibitors. In addition, innovative combinations of chromatographic and spectrometric methods and novel TLC-bioautography will be presented to enable researchers to better study the bioactivity of alkaloids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of excipients influence on rheological behaviour of hydrogels with dimethindene maleate and dexpanthenol: conditions of controlled shear ratehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Every year, the number of cases of hypersensitivity to insect bites increases. Thus, particular attention needs to be paid to the treatment of insect allergy in children, as scratching the bites can complicate the healing process and lead to infection. Therefore, a topical issue for modern medicine and pharmacy is the development of a gel of combined anti-allergic, reparative and anti-inflammatory action for the treatment of local manifestations of allergic skin reactions. Rheological studies are one of the stages of pharmaceutical development of soft dosage forms. In this study, we perform rheological studies of hydrogels containing 0.1% dimethindene maleate and 3.0% dexpanthenol made on different carriers of dispersed structures: Carbopol™ Polymers carbomer Ultrez 10 NF, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) of brand Metolose SR-90SH-100000SR, Ziboxan F200 xanthan gum. The rheological studies were undertaken using a rheometer in controlled shear rate mode CSR. Basic structural and mechanical indices of the dispersed systems were determined. These included: yield stress, structural viscosity, viscosity at infinite shear rate, the hysteresis loop area. Moreover, dynamic liquefaction coefficients have been calculated. Based on the rheological studies of hydrogels containing 0.1% dimethindene maleate and 3.0% dexpanthenol prepared with various carriers, the use of 1.8% and 2.0% HPMC hydrogels, 2.0% and 2.5% xanthan gum hydrogels, 0.5% and 0.75% carbomer gels is recommended for further biopharmaceutical studies. The application of one of these formulations as the final composition, provides adhesion and will not complicate the scaling-up of the process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Susceptibility of clinical isolates to the selected azoleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Candida</italic> spp. is the most prevalent cause of fungal infection worldwide, and their increasing resistance to anti-fungal agents, especially to azoles, has become problematic. The aim of this work was to establish the susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole of 50 clinical <italic>C. albicans</italic> isolates from hematooncological patients. This has been evaluated using the following parameters: MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration), MIC<sub>50</sub> (MIC required to inhibit the growth of 50% of organisms), as well as MIC<sub>90</sub> (MIC required to inhibit the growth of 90% of organisms). Susceptibility of the studied clinical isolates to all azoles was high, being 86% for itraconazole, 90% for fluconazole and posaconazole and 92% for voriconazole. The resistance rates ranged from 8% (voriconazole), to 12% (itraconazole). The emergence of azole-resistant yeast strains creates a necessity to determine and monitor the sensitivity of the isolated <italic>Candida</italic> spp., including <italic>C. albicans</italic>, especially in patients predisposed to life-threating fungal invasive disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00An educational review on Probioticshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Probiotics are live microorganisms that appear to provide health benefits when swallowed or introduced to the body. They are present in dairy and other fermented foods, as well as in dietary supplements and cosmetics. While many people still believe bacteria and other microorganisms are harmful “germs”, many are beneficial. Certain bacteria aid in the digestion of food, destroy disease-causing cells and absorb vitamins. Some of the microorganisms found in probiotic products are similar to or identical to those found naturally in our bodies. This article provides sufficient data to support the use of probiotics in a variety of uncommon clinical diseases, including skin disorders, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, liver transplantation, diabetic foot and periodontal care.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Treatment modality, diabetic control and blood homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Basrahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between treatment modality, glycemic control and blood homeostasis as represented by prothrombin time (PT) and activated thromboplastin time (APTT) in T2DM patients. Sixty-four type 2 diabetic patients (40 males and 24 females) on metformin or insulin or both for not less than six months of ages between 20 and 75 years were selected during their visit to Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolism Centers in two General Hospitals in Basra. Socioeconomic characteristics and treatment plans were recorded. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profiles and hematological parameters measured in blood samples were taken. Lower mean HbA1c (p = 0.0383) was found in patients on metformin alone, higher percentage of hemoglobin was found in patients on insulin treatment, and higher levels of LDL (P = 0.0018) and HDL (P = 0.0241) in patients on metformin and insulin. Treatment manner had no effect on mean PT or APTT, however, there was a significant inverse correlation of PT with LDL (P = 0.0042), and a direct correlation of APTT with HbA1c (p = 0.0209) and an inverse correlation of APTT with platelets count (P = 0.0324) in patients on insulin treatment. In addition, there was a significant direct correlation of APTT with triglycerides (TG) (P = 0.0069) in patients on metformin treatment. In conclusion, lower mean of HbA1c was found only in patients receiving metformin drug alone, higher Hb percentage were found in patients treated with insulin alone, higher LDL and higher HDL levels were found in patients treated with both metformin and insulin for at least six months. Treatment manner had no effect on mean PT or APTT and further studies are needed to bring about understanding of diabetic control and blood homeostasis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of perinatal administration of flavonoid-rich extract from to feed-restricted rats, on offspring postnatal growth and reproductive developmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Developmental programming is a process where stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of growth and development might permanently alter tissue anatomy and physiology so as to produce adverse effects in adult life. Most forms of exposure include maternal nutrient deprivation, nutrient excess, exogenous glucocorticoid excess and endogenous glucocorticoid due to maternal stress. <italic>Hibiscus sabdariffa</italic> (<italic>Hs</italic>) are highly rich in phenolic compounds with marked physiological activities, the sweetened aqueous extract of Hs, commonly known as “Zobo’ in Nigeria, is consumed by humans including pregnant and lactating mothers. This study aimed at determining effects of perinatal administration of flavonoid-rich extract from Hs to feed-restricted rats, on offspring postnatal growth and reproductive development. Twenty-five pregnant female rats were used. Rats were randomly placed into five groups of five rats per group (one animal per cage): Group I (Normal control); Group II (feed-restricted control); Group III (5 mg/kg extract + 70% feed-restricted diet); Group IV (10 mg/kg extract + 70% feed-restricted diet); Group V (20 mg/kg extract + 70% feed-restricted diet). Dams were allowed to nurse only 8 pups. Pups were weaned to <italic>ad libitum</italic> feed and water and were observed daily for puberty onset. Weights, lengths and body mass index (BMI) of pups were measured at delivery, weaning and puberty onset. At onset of puberty in each of the rats, blood samples were collected for determination of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and testosterone. Reproductive organs were excised and weighed for histology. The extract caused significant increase in postnatal weight, length and BMI of offspring at birth, weaning and puberty onset and significantly delayed puberty onset in both sexes. There was significant increase in absolute and relative weights of testes and ovaries with alterations in histology. This study has shown that maternal consumption of flavonoid-rich extract of <italic>Hs</italic> during pregnancy and lactation may accelerate offspring postnatal growth with delay in onset of puberty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Neurological manifestation of cancer – paraneoplastic syndromeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes (NPS) belong to a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting the nervous system. NPS occur as a result of immunological reaction to the tumor. As a result, the isolated syndrome is formed and manifests itself in many different ways, for example: limbic encephalitis, ataxia, dominant cerebellar degeneration, psychiatric disturbances, myasthenia gravis or diffuse encephalomyelitis. Detection of NPS is solely based on the presence of specific anti-neural antibodies. Although NPS had been previously considered unresponsive to therapy, some research has shown that there are effective therapies, including cancer- and immunotherapy targeted therapies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Histopathological nephrotoxic features of high oral doses of ubiquinone in ratshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/cipms-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) plays a key role in the cellular respiration for the production of ATP. The toxicity of quinones to the kidney appears to depend on variety of factors, including genetic polymorphisms and the individual’s comorbidites. The aim of the present study was to assess histologically the nephrotoxic effects of 6 weeks daily oral intake of Co-Q10 in experimental animals.</p> <p>Twenty-five Wistar rats weighing between 220-270 g were randomly divided into two groups: experimental “treated” and control “untreated” groups (n=15, n=10, respectively). The animals of the experimental group received 300 mg/kg daily dose of gelatinous capsules of Co-Q10 by oral gavage for six weeks. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed under general anesthesia and samples of the kidneys were excised for microscopic histopathological assessment of renal tissue using stain. The experimental group showed a range of mild to severe dilatation of Bowman’s space, with a mean corpuscular diameter of 294±38 µm that was significantly higher (p &lt;0.05) than that of the untreated control group 208±31 µm. Shrinkage to complete destruction of the glomeruli was observed in the experimental group only. The long-term use of high doses of Co-Q10 had revealed a selective nephrotoxicity towards podocytes. This might be a risk factor leading to renal proximal tubular necrosis in rats and the subsequent renal function deterioration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1